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Multimedia Communications
 
 

Multimedia Communications, 1st Edition

Directions and Innovations

 
Multimedia Communications, 1st Edition,Jerry Gibson,ISBN9780122821608
 
 
 

J Gibson   

Academic Press

9780122821608

9780080512242

318

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Key Features


@bul:* Latest Internet protocols for wireless communications
* Transcoding of Internet multimedia for universal access
* ATM and ISDN chapters
* Videoconferencing standards
* Speech and audio coding standards
* Multi-casting
* Latest image compression techniques

Description

The rapid advances and industry demands for networked delivery of information and pictures through computer networks and cable television has created a need for new techniques and standards for the packaging and delivery of digital information. Multimedia Communications presents the latest information from industry and academic experts on all standards, methods and protocols. Internet protocols for wireless communications, transcoding of Internet multimedia for universal access, ATM and ISDN chapters, videoconferencing standards, speech and audio coding standards, multi-casting and image compression techniques are included.

Readership

Electrical engineers and computer engineers in multimedia, communications, and signal processing.

Jerry Gibson

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA

View additional works by Jerry D. Gibson

Multimedia Communications, 1st Edition

Preface xv
List of Contributors xvii
Chapter 1:ÊÊMultimedia Communications: Source Representations,
Networks, and Applications 1
Jerry D. Gibson
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Networks and Network Services 3
1.3 Multimedia Sources 6
1.4 Source and Destination Terminals 8
1.5 Applications of Multimedia Communications Networks 9
1.5.1 Video Streaming to Multiple Users 10
1.5.2 Videoconferencing 11
1.6 Conclusions 12
1.7 For Further Reading 12
Chapter 2:ÊÊFuture Telecommunication Networks: Traffic and Technologies 13
Leonid G. Kazovsky, Giok-Djan Khoe, and M. Oskar van Deventer
2.1 Key Technologies 14
2.2 Impact of Competition 16
2.3 Four Traffic Hypotheses 17
2.3.1 Hypothesis 1: Conventional Growth 17
2.3.2 Hypothesis 2: The Internet Age 18
2.3.3 Hypotheses 3 and 4: The Digital Video Age 18
2.3.4 HDTV in the United States 20
2.3.5 Traffic Attributes 20
2.4 Synergy: Future Projections 21
2.5 Summary and Conclusions 22
2.6 Bibliography 22
Chapter 3:ÊÊSpeech Coding Standards 25
Andreas S. Spanias
Abstract 25
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 Speech Analysis-Synthesis and Linear Prediction 27
3.2.1 Long-Term Prediction (LTP) 29
3.3 Linear Prediction and Speech Coding Standards 29
3.3.1 Open-Loop Linear Prediction 29
3.3.2 Standards Based on Analysis-by-Synthesis
Linear Prediction 32
3.4 Standards Based on Subband and Transform Coders 39
3.4.1 The ITU G.722 Subband Coder 39
3.4.2 Sinusoidal Transform Coding 40
3.4.3 The Multiband Excitation Coder and the
Inmarsat-M Standard 40
3.5 Summary and Emerging Standards 41
3.6 References 42
Chapter 4:ÊÊAudio Coding Standards 45
Chi-Min Liu and Wen-Whei Chang
4.1 Introduction 45
4.2 ISO/MPEG Audio Coding Standards 45
4.2.1 MPEG-1 46
4.2.2 MPEG-2 48
4.2.3 MPEG-4 49
4.3 Other Audio Coding Standards 50
4.3.1 Philips PASC 50
4.3.2 Sony ATRAC 51
4.3.3 Dolby AC-3 52
4.4 Architectural Overview 53
4.4.1 Psychoacoustic Modeling 53
4.4.2 Time-Frequency Mapping 54
4.4.3 Quantization 54
4.4.4 Variable-Length Coding 56
4.4.5 Multichannel Correlation and Irrelevancy 57
4.4.6 Long-Term Correlation 57
4.4.7 Pre-echo Control 58
4.4.8 Bit Allocation 59
4.5 Conclusions 59
4.6 Definitions of Key Terms 59
4.7 References 60
4.8 Bibliography 60
Chapter 5:ÊÊStill Image Compression Standards 61
Michael W. Hoffman and Khalid Sayood
5.1 Introduction 61
5.2 Lossy Compression 62
5.2.1 JPEG 62
5.2.2 JPEG2000 68
5.3 Lossless Compression 71
5.3.1 JPEG 71
5.3.2 JPEG-LS 71
5.4 Bilevel Image Compression 73
5.4.1 JBIG 73
5.4.2 JBIG2 78
5.5 Definitions of Key Terms 79
5.6 References 80
5.7 Bibliography 80
Chapter 6:ÊÊMultimedia Conferencing Standards 81
David Lindbergh
6.1 Introduction 81
6.2 H.320 for ISDN Videoconferencing 82
6.2.1 The H.320 Standards Suite 83
6.2.2 Multiplex 84
6.2.3 System Control Protocol 84
6.2.4 Audio Coding 85
6.2.5 Video Coding 86
6.2.6 H.231 and H.243: Multipoint 87
6.2.7 H.233 and H.234: Encryption 89
6.2.8 H.331 Broadcast 89
6.3 H.320 Network Adaptation Standards: H.321 and H.322 89
6.3.1 H.321: Adaptation of H.320 to ATM and B-ISDN 90
6.3.2 H.322: Adaptation of H.320 to IsoEthernet 90
6.4 A New Generation: H.323, H.324, and H.310 90
6.4.1 H.245 Control Protocol 91
6.4.2 Audio and Video Codecs 91
6.4.3 H.323 for Packet Switched Networks 93
6.4.4 H.324 for Lot-Bit-Rate Circuit Switched Networks 96
6.4.5 H.310 for ATM and B-ISDN Networks 98
6.5 T.120 for Data Conferencing and Conference Control 98
6.6 Summary 98
6.7 References 99
Chapter 7:ÊÊMPEG-1 and -2 Compression 101
Tom Lookabaugh
7.1 Introduction 101
7.2 The MPEG Model 101
7.2.1 Key Applications and Problems 102
7.2.2 Strategy for Standardization 102
7.3 MPEG Video 103
7.3.1 The Basic Algorithm 103
7.3.2 Temporal Prediction 106
7.3.3 Frequency Domain Decomposition 110
7.3.4 Quantization 111
7.3.5 Variable-Length Coding 112
7.3.6 Rate Control 113
7.3.7 Constrained Parameters, Levels, and Profiles 114
7.4 Summary 116
Chapter 8:ÊÊMPEG-4 and MPEG-7 117
Jerry D. Gibson
8.1 Introduction 117
8.2 MPEG-4 118
8.2.1 MPEG-4 Systems Model 120
8.2.2 Natural Video Coding 124
8.2.3 Audio and Speech Coding 125
8.3 MPEG-7 127
8.4 Summary 128
8.5 References 128
Chapter 9:ÊÊATM Network Technology 129
Yoichi Maeda and Koichi Asatani
9.1 Introduction 129
9.2 Overview 130
9.2.1 Background 130
9.2.2 Basic ATM Concept 131
9.2.3 ATM Network Protocol Structure 131
9.2.4 International Standardization and
Recommendations 132
9.3 Physical Layer Specifications 133
9.3.1 Basic Characteristics of the TC Sublayer 134
9.3.2 Interface Bit Rates 134
9.4 ATM Layer Specifications 134
9.5 ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)
Specifications 135
9.6 Network Aspects of B-ISDN 135
9.6.1 Traffic Control 135
9.6.2 ATM Layer Performance 137
9.6.3 OAM Functions 138
9.6.4 Signaling Procedure 138
9.6.5 VB5 Interfaces 139
9.7 Other ATM Network Technologies 140
9.7.1 IP Over ATM 140
9.7.2 MPEG2 Over ATM 141
9.8 Concluding Remarks 141
9.9 Definitions of Key Terms 141
9.10 Bibliography 142
9.11 For Further Information 142
Chapter 10:ÊÊISDN 143
Koichi Asatani and Toshinori Tsuboi
10.1 Introduction 143
10.1.1 General Features of ISDN 143
10.1.2 Service Aspects of ISDN 144
10.1.3 Access Features 146
10.2 ISDN User-Network Interfaces 146
10.2.1 ISDN UNI Structure 146
10.2.2 Reference Configurations and
Reference Points 147
10.2.3 Interface Features 148
10.3 Layers 1, 2, and 3 Specifications of UNI 151
10.3.1 Layered Structure 151
10.3.2 Basic Interface Layer 1 151
10.3.3 Primary Rate Interface Layer 1 158
10.3.4 Layer 2 Specification 162
10.3.5 Layer 3 Specification 168
10.4 Access Transmission Line Systems 171
10.4.1 Outline of Transmission Line System 171
10.4.2 Metallic Transmission Line System
for Basic Access 172
10.4.3 Primary Rate Transmission System 176
10.5 References 177
Chapter 11:ÊÊVideo-on-Demand Broadcasting Protocols 179
Steven W. Carter, Darrell D. E. Long, and Jehan-Fran ois P ris
11.1 Introduction 179
11.2 Common Terms and Concepts 180
11.3 Staggered Broadcasting Protocols 180
11.4 Pyramid Broadcasting Protocols 181
11.5 Harmonic Broadcasting Protocols 184
11.6 Summary 186
11.7 Definitions of Key Terms 187
11.8 References 188
11.9 For Further Information 189
Chapter 12:ÊÊInternet Telephony Technology and Standards Overview 191
Bernard S. Ku
12.1 Introduction 191
12.2 Internet Telephony Architecture Overview 192
12.3 Related Internet Telephony Standards 194
12.3.1 IETF 195
12.3.2 ETSI Telecommunications and Internet Protocol
Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON) 195
12.3.3 ITU-T 196
12.3.4 T1S1 198
12.4 Current and Developing Internet Telephony Protocols 198
12.4.1 H.323 198
12.4.2 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) 200
12.4.3 Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) 202
12.4.4 MEGACO/H.248 (H.GCP) 203
12.5 How Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Works 205
12.5.1 PSTN Gateways 205
12.5.2 VoIP Gatways 206
12.5.3 IPTel Gateways 207
12.6 Open Issues in Internet Telephony 209
12.7 IN/IP Integration 210
12.7.1 New Elements/Functions Required 211
12.7.2 Special Extensions Required 212
12.7.3 New IN/IP Interworking Interfaces 213
12.7.4 Information Flow for Click-to-Dial (CTD) Service 214
12.8 SS7/IP Integration 215
12.8.1 Transport of SS7 Over IP-Related Protocols 216
12.8.2 Interworking of SS7 with IP-Related Protocols 216
12.8.3 Future of IP/SS7 217
12.9 Concluding Remarks 217
12.10 Glossary 217
12.11 Definitions of Key Terms 218
12.12 Acknowledgments 219
12.13 Bibliography 219
Chapter 13:ÊÊWideband Wireless Packet Data Access 221
Justin Chuang, Leonard J. Cimini, Jr., and Nelson Sollenberger
13.1 Introduction 221
13.1.1 The Wireless Data Opportunity 221
13.1.2 Current Wireless Data Systems 222
13.1.3 Emerging and Future Wireless Data Options 223
13.1.4 Summary and Outline of the Chapter 225
13.2 Packet Data Access Using WCDMA 225
13.2.1 Variable-Rate Packet Data 225
13.3 Packet Data Access Using EDGE 228
13.3.1 Link Adaptation and Incremental Redundancy 229
13.4 Packet Data Access Using Wideband OFDM 232
13.4.1 Physical-Layer Techniques 232
13.4.2 Physical-Layer Solutions 232
13.4.3 Frequency Reuse and Spectral Efficiency 234
13.4.4 Dynamic Packet Assignment Protocol 235
13.4.5 Dynamic Packet Assignment Performance 235
13.4.6 Radio Link Resource Organization 236
13.4.7 Frame Structure for Dynamic Packet Assignment 239
13.4.8 Simulation Model 240
13.4.9 Simulation Peformance Results 241
13.5 Conclusions 244
13.6 References 244
Chapter 14:ÊÊInternet Protocols Over Wireless Networks 247
George C. Polyzos and George Xylomenos
Abstract 247
14.1 Introduction 247
14.2 Internet Protocols and Wireless Links 248
14.2.1 Internet Transport Layer Protocols 248
14.2.2 Protocol Performance Over a Single
Wireless Link 249
14.2.3 Protocol Performance Over Multiple Links 251
14.3 Performance Enhancements for Internet Protocols 253
14.3.1 Approaches at the Transport Layer 253
14.3.2 Approaches Below the Transport Layer 254
14.4 The Future: Challenges and Opportunities 256
14.4.1 Wireless System Evolution 256
14.4.2 Goals for Protocol Evolution 257
14.5 Summary 258
14.6 References 258
Chapter 15:ÊÊTranscoding of the InternetÕs Multimedia Content for
Universal Access 261
Richard Han and John R. Smith
15.1 Introduction 261
15.1.1 Adapting to Bandwidth Heterogeneity 262
15.1.2 Adapting to Client Heterogeneity 265
15.2 End-to-End vs. Proxy-Based Transcoding Designs 266
15.3 Architecture of a Transcoding Proxy 271
15.4 To Transcode or Not to Transcode 274
15.4.1 A Store-and-Forward Image Transcoding Proxy 274
15.4.2 A Streamed Image Transcoding Proxy 277
15.5 Transcoding Policies for Selecting Content 280
15.5.1 Optimal Policies for Offline Pretranscoding 281
15.5.2 Policies for Real-Time Transcoding 284
15.6 A Sample Set of Transcoding Policies 289
15.7 Related Issues 291
15.8 Acknowledgments 293
15.9 References 293
Chapter 16:ÊÊMulticasting: Issues and Networking Support 297
Upkar Varshney
16.1 Introduction 297
16.2 Multicasting Support 298
16.3 Multicasting in IP-Based Networks 299
16.3.1 Routing Protocols for IP Multicast 301
16.3.2 Multimedia Support and IP Multicasting 301
16.3.3 Multimedia Multicasting Applications on
the MBone 302
16.4 Multicasting in ATM Networks 302
16.4.1 Multicasting Schemes for ATM Networks 303
16.5 IP Multicasting Over ATM 305
16.5.1 Problems in RSVP Over ATM 305
16.5.2 IP Multicast Over ATM in VBNS 306
16.6 Reliable Multicast Transport Protocols 306
16.7 Multicasting in Wireless Networks 307
16.7.1 Issues in IP Multicasting Over Wireless 308
16.7.2 Multicast Support in Wireless ATM 308
16.8 Summary and the Future of Multicasting 308
16.9 Definitions of Key Terms 309
16.10 References 309
16.11 For Further Reading 310
Index 311

Quotes and reviews

Experts from industry and academia overview current practices and future directions in the delivery of multiple media content over communications networks to users. Applications that incorporate multiple media types are specifically addressed, such as two-way, multipoint video conferencing and one-way streaming of video and audio. Chapters are descriptive in nature, focused on the presentation of results, insights, and key concepts, with a minimum of mathematical analyses and abstraction. Each chapter is intended to stand alone. Gibson is affiliated with the department of electrical engineering at Southern Methodist University.Book News, Inc.®, Portland, OR
 
 

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