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Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences
 
 

Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, 2nd Edition

 
Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, 2nd Edition,Robert Daroff,Michael J. Aminoff,ISBN9780123851574
 
 
 

Daroff  &   Aminoff   

Academic Press

9780123851574

9780123851581

4740

The 2nd Edition of the Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences maintains its reputation by presenting the most current information available in this fast-moving subject, written by an international panel of expert contributors.

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Key Features

  • Provides comprehensive coverage of the field of neurological science in over 1,000 entries in 4 volumes
  • "Encyclopedic-dictionary" format provides for concise, readable entries and easy searching
  • Presents complete, up-to-date information on 32 separate areas of neurology
  • Entries are supplemented with extensive cross-referencing, useful references to primary research articles, and an extensive index

Description

The Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, Second Edition develops from the first edition, covering all areas of neurological sciences through over 1000 entries focused on a wide variety of topics in neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and other related areas of neuroscience. The contributing authors represent all aspects of neurology from many viewpoints and disciplines to provide a complete overview of the field. Entries are designed to be understandable without detailed background knowledge in the subject matter, and cross-referencing and suggested further reading lead the reader from a basic knowledge of the subject to more advanced understanding.

The easy-to-use 'encyclopedic-dictionary' format of the Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, Second Edition features alphabetic entries, extensive cross-referencing, and a thorough index for quick reference. The wealth of information provided by these four volumes makes this reference work a trusted source of valuable information for a wide range of researchers, from undergraduate students to academic researchers.

Readership

Students of all levels and reserchers in neurological sciences as well as individuals from other disciplines who wish to gain an understanding of subjects in the neurological sciences and their impacts.

Robert Daroff

MD

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, and Chair Emeritus; Department of Neurology; Case Western Reserve School of Medicine; University Hospitals Case Medical Center; Cleveland, OH, USA

View additional works by Robert B. Daroff

Michael J. Aminoff

Dr. Michael Aminoff was born and educated in England, graduating from University College London in 1962 and as a physician from University College Hospital Medical School in 1965. He subsequently trained in neurology and neurophysiology at The National Hospital (Queen Square) in London, and in 1974 moved to UCSF where he has been Professor of Neurology since 1982. He was Director of the Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratories at UCSF until 2004, when he became Executive Vice Chair of the department of neurology, and also directs the Parkinson’s Disease Clinic and Research Center, a National Parkinson Foundation Center of Excellence. He is the author of more than 230 published medical or scientific articles, as well as the author or editor of some 29 books. His published scientific contributions led to the award of a Doctorate in Science, an advanced doctorate in the Faculty of Science, by the University of London in 2000. He is the one of the two editors-in-chief of the four-volume Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences (2nd Edition, Academic Press, 2014), and one of the series editors of the multi-volume Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Elsevier). He was Editor-in Chief of the journal Muscle & Nerve from 1998 to 2007 and serves on numerous other editorial boards. He was a director of the American Board of Psychiatry & Neurology for 8 years, and chair of the board in 2011. Dr. Aminoff has received numerous prizes including the Lifetime Achievement Award of the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine in 2006 and the A.B. Baker Award of the American Academy of Neurology for life-time achievements and contributions to medical education in 2007. In 2010, he was awarded the title of “Distinguished Professor” at the University of California, San Francisco. He is married and has three children, one a pediatric rheumatologist, another a federal defense attorney, and the third an assistant district attorney.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA

View additional works by Michael J. Aminoff

Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, 2nd Edition

  • Editors-in-chief
  • Associate Editors
  • Preface
  • Permission Acknowledgments
  • Article Titles
    • A
      • Abducens Nerve (Cranial Nerve VI)
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy
        • Abducens Nerve Palsy
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Specific Syndromes and Clinical Associations
        • Pathophysiology
        • Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL, Bassen–Kornzweig Disease)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Abnormal Illness Behaviors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Somatoform Disorders
        • Etiology
        • Somatization Disorder
        • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
        • Conversion Disorder
        • Hypochondriasis
        • Pain Disorder
        • Factitious Disorder
        • Malingering
        • Guidelines for Management
        • DSM-V Update
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Abscess, Brain and Spine
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Abulia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Accessory Nerve (Cranial Nerve XI)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Fuctional Components
        • Anatomy
        • Physical Examination
        • Lesions Affecting the Accessory Nerve
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Acetylcholine
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Metabolism
        • Current and Future Issues
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Acoustic Neuroma – Contemporary Management of Sporadic Vestibular Schwannomas
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Observation
        • Gamma Knife Radiosurgery
        • Surgery
        • Patient Selection
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Acoustic Neuroma, Treatment of
        • Abstract
        • Tumor Genetics
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Acrylamide and Related α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Derivatives
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Human and Experimental Acrylamide Neurotoxicity
        • Molecular Mechanism of Acrylamide Neurotoxicity
        • The Type-2 Alkene Family of Chemical Toxicants
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Acrylonitrile
        • Abstract
        • Description
        • Production
        • Routes of Exposure
        • Metabolism and Elimination of Acrylonitrile
        • Neurological Effects
        • Mechanisms
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Actigraphy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Technical Considerations
        • Surrogate Measure of Sleep–Wake
        • Direct Measure for Body Movements
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Action Potential, Generation of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sodium Channel Gating Properties
        • Course of Events During an Action Potential
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Action Potential, Regeneration of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Factors Affecting the Rate of Action Potential Regeneration
        • Mechanisms for Action Potential Regeneration
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Activities of Daily Living
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Assessment
        • Functional Assessment Instruments
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Acute Motor and Motor–Sensory Neuropathy (Axonal Subtypes of Guillain–Barré Syndrome), Immunology of
        • Abstract
        • Historical Aspect
        • Clinical Features
        • Neurophysiological Features
        • Immunopathogenesis of Axonal Guillain–Barré Syndrome
        • Management and Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Adams, Raymond
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Addison's Disease
        • Abstract
        • History and Definition
        • Etiologies and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Adenoviruses
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Virus Structure and Genome Organization
        • Virus Infection and Disease Pathogenesis
        • Adenovirus Central Nervous System Infections
        • Adenoviruses and Central Nervous System Tumors
        • Adenoviruses as a Vector for Gene Therapy of Central Nervous System Diseases
        • Role of Host Immune System
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Adrenal Gland
        • Abstract
        • Embryology and Anatomy
        • Zonation and Physiology
        • Steroid and Catecholamine Biosynthesis
        • Pathophysiological Principles of Adrenal Diseases
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Adrenoleukodystrophy
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Characteristics
        • Pathology
        • Biochemistry and Genetics
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Adrian, Edgar Douglas
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Ageusia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Why is Ageusia a Problem?
        • Epidemiology
        • Causes
        • Diagnosis and Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aging and Sleep
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Age-Related Changes in Sleep
        • Circadian Rhythm Disturbances
        • Primary Sleep Disorders
        • Insomnia
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aging, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Methodological Issues in Studying Brain and Cognitive Aging
        • Central Nervous System Substrates of Age-Related Cognitive Change
        • Normal Aging and Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Agnosia
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Agnosia: Clinical Classification and Research Models
        • Visual Agnosia
        • Auditory Agnosia
        • Somatosensory (Tactile) Agnosia
        • Etiologies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Agrammatism
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Associated Neurological Disorders
        • Clinical Assessment of Agrammatism
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Agraphia
        • Abstract
        • Assessment
        • Agraphia Associated with Language Disturbances
        • Agraphia not Associated with Language Disturbances
        • Other Varieties
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Agrypnia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • AIDS/HIV and Neurological Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
        • Recent Developments in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment
        • Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Neurological Disease
        • Central Nervous System
        • Peripheral Nervous System
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Airy, George and Hubert
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Akathisia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Akinesia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Akinetic Mutism
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alertness (Crude Consciousness)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy and Physiology
        • Disorders of Wakefulness with Brain Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alexander's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Pathology
        • Genetic Observations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alexia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Assessment
        • Alexia Associated with Language Disturbances
        • Alexia not Associated with Language Disturbances
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alien Limb
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alpers' Disease (Progressive Infantile Poliodystrophy)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diagnostic Studies
        • Pathology
        • Etiology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aluminum
        • Abstract
        • Properties and Natural Occurrence
        • Uses and Human Exposure
        • Measuring Aluminum
        • Bioavailability and Biotransformation
        • Biokinetics of Aluminum in Blood, across the Blood–Brain Barrier, and into the Brain
        • Aluminum Tissue Deposition and Body Retention
        • Aluminum Excretion
        • Aluminum Toxicity
        • Further Reading
      • Alzheimer, Alois
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alzheimer's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Pathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Genetics
        • Biomarkers
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alzheimer's Disease; Epidemiology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diagnosis and Diagnostic Criteria
        • Frequency of Alzheimer's Disease
        • Analytic Epidemiology
        • Factors Associated with Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Aspects of American Trypanosomiasis
        • Involvement of the Nervous System in the Course of American Trypanosomiasis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Amino Acid Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Properties of Amino Acids
        • Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ammonia
        • Abstract
        • General Characteristics of Ammonia Metabolism in Mammals
        • Hyperammonemic Encephalopathies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Amphetamines
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Amygdala
        • Abstract
        • General Anatomy
        • Cell Types and Neurotransmitters
        • Functional Anatomy of the Amygdala
        • Functional and Clinical Significance of the Human Amygdala
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Amygdalohippocampectomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Amyloidosis
        • Abstract
        • Amyloidosis and Amyloid Proteins
        • Cerebral Amyloidosis
        • Extracerebral Amyloidosis with Neurological Relevance
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Clinical Picture
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Analgesics, Other
        • Abstract
        • Other Analgesics
        • Muscle Relaxants
        • Topical Agents for Analgesia
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Anencephaly
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Anesthetics
        • Abstract
        • Inhalational Anesthetics
        • Intravenous Anesthetics
        • Developmental Brain Toxicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aneurysms, Intracranial
        • Abstract
        • Saccular Aneurysms
        • Other Aneurysm Types
        • Natural History
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnostic Imaging
        • Lumbar Puncture
        • Classification Scales for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Pathogenesis of Aneurysms
        • Clinical Presentation of Aneurysm Rupture
        • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aneurysms, Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Presentation
        • Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms
        • Symptomatic Aneurysms
        • Imaging
        • Surgical Treatment of Aneurysms
        • Surgery for Aneurysms
        • Unruptured Aneurysms
        • Ruptured Aneurysms
        • Anesthesia
        • Surgical Techniques
        • Confirmation of Aneurysm Exclusion
        • Aneurysm Rebleeding
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Angiography (Arteriography)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Physical Principles
        • Technique
        • Risks
        • Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Angular Gyrus Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Components of the Angular Gyrus Syndrome
        • Gerstmann's Syndrome
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Anomia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anomia in Aphasia
        • Naming
        • Word Fluency
        • Anomic Aphasia
        • Anomia in Dementia
        • Anatomy of the Mental Lexicon
        • A Single Lexicon or Multiple Mental Representations of Names?
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Anosognosia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Perspective
        • Anosognosia Deficits and Associated Pathologies
        • Theories and Models of Anosognosia Etiology
        • Measurement/Assessment of Anosognosia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Anterior Spinal Artery Occlusion
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Antianxiety Pharmacology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
        • Selective Serotonin–Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors
        • Tricyclic Antidepressants
        • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
        • Other Pharmacological Agents
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Antibiotics, β-Lactam
        • Abstract
        • Description
        • Pharmacokinetics
        • Antibacterial Mechanism of Action
        • Glutamate Uptake Activator
        • Potential Utility as a Central Nervous System-Active Therapeutic
        • Glutamate-based Mechanism of Action
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Anticancer Agents
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Anticoagulant Treatment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Parenterally Administered Anticoagulants
        • Anticoagulation for Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke
        • Long-Term Anticoagulation to Prevent Ischemic Stroke
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Antidepressants, Pharmacology of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Therapeutic Overview of Antidepressants
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Specific Classes of Antidepressants
        • Choosing an Antidepressant
        • Special Populations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Antiepileptic Drug Therapy
        • Abstract
        • History of Antiepileptic Drug Treatment
        • Comparative Efficacy of Antiepileptic Drugs
        • Recognized Antiepileptic Drugs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Antiphospholipid Antibodies
        • Abstract
        • Antiphospholipid Syndrome
        • Pathogenesis
        • aPL and Nonstroke Associations
        • Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Antiplatelet Therapy
        • Abstract
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Anxiety
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
        • Panic Disorder
        • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aphasia: Overview
        • Abstract
        • Aphasia Syndromes
        • Localization of Aphasic Signs and Syndromes
        • Primary Progressive Aphasia
        • Aphasia Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Apraxia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Apraxia, Limb
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition and Major Features of Limb Apraxia
        • Assessment of Limb Apraxia
        • Types of Limb Apraxia
        • Neural Correlates of Limb Apraxia
        • Relationship of Limb Apraxia to Everyday Functioning
        • Current State and Future of Apraxia Research
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aqueduct of Sylvius
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Arachnoid Cysts
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Arachnoiditis
        • Abstract
        • Incidence
        • Etiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Radiographic Characteristics
        • Management
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Arbovirus Encephalitis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Togaviruses
        • Bunyaviruses
        • Reoviridae
        • Flaviviruses
        • Differential Diagnosis of Arboviral Encephalitis
        • Treatment of Arboviral Encephalitis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Argyll Robertson, Douglas
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Arsenic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Regulation of Arsenic Exposure
        • Routes of Exposure
        • Metabolism and Elimination of Arsenic
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Neurological Effects
        • Other Health Effects
        • Diagnosis and Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Art and the Brain
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Brain Injury Effects on Art
        • Right Hemisphere Contributions to Art
        • Left Hemisphere Contribution to Art
        • Degenerative Disease and Creativity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Arteriovenous Fistulas
        • Abstract
        • Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas
        • Vein of Galen Malformations
        • Pial Arteriovenous Fistulas
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM), Surgical Treatment of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathogenesis (Lesion Formation)
        • Natural History
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Decision Making
        • Treatment Options
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Asterixis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Astrocytes
        • Abstract
        • Astroglial Histology
        • Astroglial Development
        • Astroglial Physiology
        • Astrogliosis
        • Astrocytoma and Glioblastoma
        • Genetic Diseases of Astroglia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Astrocytes
        • Abstract
        • Definition of Astrocytes and Astroglia
        • Morphology of Astrocytes
        • Functions of Astroglia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ataxia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ataxia Telangiectasia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Athetosis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Attention
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Anatomy and Physiology
        • Models of Operation
        • Deficits Involving Attentional Mechanisms
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Attention
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Varieties of Attention
        • Early Cognitive Approaches
        • Elements of Attention
        • Neural Substrates of Attention
        • Clinical Disorders of Attention
        • Clinical Assessment of Attention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Attentional Mechanisms
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Methods of Study
        • Attentional Networks
        • Brain States
        • Rehabilitation
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Subtypes, Impairment, and Comorbidities
        • Assessment and Diagnosis
        • Prevalence and Developmental Course
        • Risk and Etiological Factors
        • Neurobiological Underpinnings
        • Prevention and Intervention
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Auditory System, Central
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy and Physiology of the Central Auditory System
        • Ascending Limb: Lemniscal and Extralemniscal Pathways
        • Commissures and Chiasms
        • Descending Limb
        • Reflex Functions of the Central Auditory System
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Auditory System, Peripheral
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Functional Physiology: Audiological Testing and Site of Lesion in the Peripheral Auditory System
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Autism Spectrum Disorder
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Prevalence
        • Etiologies
        • Diagnostic Considerations
        • Common Comorbid Conditions
        • Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Autism Spectrum Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diagnostic Assessment and Classification
        • Psychiatric Workup and Comorbidity
        • Common Medical Comorbid Conditions
        • Psychoeducational and Behavioral Treatments
        • Psychopharmacology Update
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • Further reading
      • Autoimmune Encephalitis Affecting Synaptic Proteins
        • Abstract
        • N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis
        • α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor Encephalitis
        • γ-Aminobutyric Acid-B Receptor Encephalitis
        • Leucine Rich, Glioma-Inactivated 1 Encephalitis
        • Syndromes Associated with Antibodies to Contactin-Associated Protein-Like 2
        • Syndromes Associated with Antibodies to Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors
        • Anti-Glycine Receptor Encephalomyelitis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Autonomic Dysreflexia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Precipitating Factors
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Autonomic Nervous System and the Heart
        • Abstract
        • Autonomic Intervention of the Heart
        • Vasovagal Syncope
        • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome
        • Autonomic Failure
        • Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia
        • Atrial and Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias and the Autonomic Nervous System
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Autonomic Nervous System, Heart Rate and
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Autonomic Nervous System; Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Autophagy
        • Abstract
        • Types of Autophagy
        • Autophagy Dysregulation in Neuronal Injury and Disease
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Awareness
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Axelrod, Julius
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Axons
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • B
      • Babinski, Joseph Francois Felix
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Babinski Sign
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Pathophysiology
        • Practicalities
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bacterial Abscess, Cerebral
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Baker, Abraham (Abe) B
        • Abstract
        • Distinguished Career
        • Organizational Leadership
        • Catalyst for Growth of Neurology in the US
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Balance
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Balint's Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Brain–Behavior Relationships in Balint's Syndrome
        • Spatial Deficits and Simultanagnosia
        • Spatial Deficits and Visual Integration
        • Spatial Deficits and Visuo-Motor Integration (Optic Ataxia)
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ballism
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bárány, Robert
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • A Prisoner of War Wins the Nobel Prize
        • Controversy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bartholow, Roberts
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bartonella Infections
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Basal Ganglia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Nuclear Components of the Basal Ganglia
        • Parallel and Segregated Cortico-Basal Ganglia Loops
        • Cellular Organization of the Basal Ganglia
        • Neuronal Connections of the Basal Ganglia
        • Models of Basal Ganglia Function and Dysfunction
        • Motor and Nonmotor Functions of the Basal Ganglia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Basal Ganglia, Diseases of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Parkinsonism
        • Chorea
        • Dystonia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Basilar Artery Thrombosis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathology
        • Clinical Symptoms and Signs
        • Outcome and Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bastian, Henry Charlton
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Beard, George Miller
        • Abstract
        • Neurasthenia
        • Suggestion, Expectation, and Mental Therapeutics
        • Exaggerated Startle and Jumping Frenchmen
        • Protection of the Insane
        • Electrotherapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Békésy, Georg von
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Cochlear Mechanics and the Place Theory of Hearing
        • Lateral Inhibition
        • Honors and Awards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bell, Charles
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • The Bell–Magendie Law
        • Differentiation of the Functions of the Trigeminal and Facial Nerves
        • Bell's Palsy
        • Bell's Phenomenon
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Berger, Hans
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Beri-Beri
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bernard, Claude
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Betz Cells
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neurochemistry of Betz Cells
        • Betz Cells in Motor Neuron Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bipolar Disorder
        • Abstract
        • Introduction – What is Bipolar?
        • Classification
        • Epidemiology
        • Differential Diagnosis and Comorbidity
        • Precipitants and Disease Course
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bladder Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Bladder Dysfunction in Neurological Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Blepharospasm
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Benign Essential Blepharospasm
        • Hemifacial Spasm
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Blood–Brain Barrier
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structural and Molecular Properties of Brain Endothelium
        • Endothelial Transport Mechanisms
        • Blood–Brain Barrier Dysfunction in Brain Diseases
        • Modulators of Endothelial Permeability
        • Blood–Brain Barrier Dysfunction in Chronic Diseases
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Boll, Franz
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Rhodopsin
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bonnet, Charles
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Borna Disease Virus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and Classification
        • Natural Pathways for Transmission of Borna Disease Virus
        • Studies of Borna Disease Virus and Human Disease
        • Borna Disease Virus Tropism
        • Effects of Borna Disease Virus on Neurochemical and Central Nervous System Signaling Pathways
        • Borna Disease Virus Infection of Neonatal Rats
        • Borna Disease Virus Effects on Signaling Pathways
        • Prevention and Treatment of Borna Disease Virus
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Botulism
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Botulinum Neurotoxin
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Diagnostic Testing
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Signs
        • Pathology
        • Diagnosis
        • Epidemiology
        • Geographical Distribution of BSE
        • Control of BSE
        • Host Range
        • Infectivity of Cattle Tissues
        • Strain Typing of the BSE and Related Agents
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brachial Plexopathies
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy
        • Pathology and Pathophysiology
        • Diagnosis
        • Specific Brachial Plexus Disorders
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Anatomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Banking
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Obtaining Human Brain Samples for Research
        • Registration, Preparation, and Storage of Brain Tissue and Related Samples
        • Possibilities, Limitations, and Putative Pitfalls Inherent in the Study of Postmortem Human Brain Samples
        • Cession of Samples for Research
        • Management and Legal and Ethical Aspects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Death
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and Definition
        • Clinical Criteria
        • Qualifications of Physicians to Declare Brain Death
        • Exclusionary Guidelines and Ancillary Tests
        • Movements After Brain Death
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Development, Normal Postnatal
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Primitive Reflexes
        • Motor System
        • Sensory System
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Evolution
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • From Reptiles to Mammals
        • Brain Evolution in Primates
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Herniation; Surgical Management
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Imaging, Physiological
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Injury, Traumatic: Epidemiological Issues
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Traumatic Brain Injury Definitions
        • Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States Civilian Population
        • External Causes and Correlates of Traumatic Brain Injury in the Civilian Population
        • Traumatic Brain Injury in Selected Populations
        • Outcomes after Traumatic Brain Injury
        • Limitations and Challenges of Traumatic Brain Injury Epidemiological Research
        • Conclusion
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Ischemic Edema
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neuroinflammatory Response and Blood–Brain Barrier Opening
        • Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnosis of Brain Edema
        • Treatment of Brain Edema
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Mapping and Quantitative Electroencephalogram
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Techniques
        • Problems
        • Clinical Settings
        • Operating Room and Intensive Care Unit Monitoring
        • Dementia and Encephalopathy
        • Other Clinical Settings
        • Concluding Comments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Recording Techniques
        • Interpretation of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials
        • Clinical Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brainstem Syndromes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Vascular Supply of the Medulla
        • Medullary Syndromes
        • Vascular Supply of the Pons
        • Pontine Syndromes
        • Vascular Supply of the Mesencephalon
        • Mesencephalic Syndromes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Stimulation Therapy in Psychiatry
        • Abstract
        • Brain Stimulation Treatments in Psychiatry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Trauma, Contrecoup
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Trauma: Intensive Care Unit Management
        • Abstract
        • Background and Epidemiology
        • Grading Systems
        • Imaging
        • Intensive Care Unit Management
        • Resuscitation Targets
        • Intracranial Pressure Management
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Brain Tumors; Biology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diffuse Gliomas
        • Medulloblastomas
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Tumors; Clinical Aspects
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology
        • History and Physical Examination
        • Medical Management
        • Surgical Management
        • Prognostic Significance of Surgery
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brain Tumors; Genetics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sporadic Brain Tumors
        • Brain Tumors and Inherited Tumor Syndromes
        • Knudson's Two-Hit Model and Loss of Heterozygosity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Breath-Holding Spells
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Description
        • Epidemiology
        • Natural History
        • Long-Term Outcome
        • Pathophysiology
        • Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Breuer, Josef
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Mach–Breuer Theory of Endolymphatic Shift
        • The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: ‘Anna O.’ and Breuer's ‘Talking Cure’
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Broca, Paul
        • Abstract
        • From Anthropology to Aphemia
        • The Limbic Lobe
        • Broca's Neurological Legacy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Broca's Area
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Review
        • Broca's Aphasia
        • Neural Network Models of Language
        • Anatomy of Broca's Area
        • Asymmetries of Broca's Area
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brodmann, Korbinian
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brodmann's Areas
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Brodmann's Map
        • The Ambivalent Value of Brodmann's Map as a Guide to Functional Units in the Human Cerebral Cortex
        • In Vivo Brodmann Mapping” with High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brown, Alexander Crum
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Diagrammatic Representation of Chemical Compounds
        • Structure–Activity Relationships
        • Vestibular Physiology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brown-Séquard, Charles Edouard
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brown-Séquard's Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brudziński, Józef
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brudzinski's Sign
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Burn Encephalopathy
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Frequency
        • Pathogenesis
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bypass Surgery
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • C
      • CADASIL
        • Abstract
        • Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Pathology
        • Neuroimaging
        • Genetics
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cairns, Hugh
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Early Career
        • Nuffield Institute for Medical Research at Oxford
        • Motorcycle Helmets
        • Combined Services Military Hospital
        • Clinical Trials of Penicillin in War Casualties
        • The ‘Good Doctor’
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium
        • Abstract
        • Extracellular Calcium
        • Intracellular Calcium
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Callosotomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Canavan's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Neuroimaging
        • Neuropathology
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Genetics
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cannon, Walter Bradford
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Use of Animals in Scientific Research
        • Mechanical and Reflex Factors in Digestion
        • The Fight-or-Flight Response
        • Homeostasis
        • Cannon–Bard Theory of Emotion
        • Noradrenaline as a Neurotransmitter – a Missed Opportunity
        • Cannon's Law of Denervation (Denervation Supersensitivity)
        • Honors and Awards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Capacity and Consent
        • Abstract
        • Criteria for Capacity
        • Applying the Criteria in Context
        • Working with the Incapacitated Patient
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Capillary Telangiectasia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Carbon Dioxide Narcosis
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Features
        • Investigations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology of Cardiac Arrest
        • Pathophysiology of Cardiac Arrest
        • Treatment of Cardiac Arrest
        • Prognosis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cardiac Drugs
        • Abstract
        • Digoxin
        • Antihypertensives
        • Antiarrhythmics
        • Statins
        • Cyclosporine
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cardiovascular Regulation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Exercise
        • Pathophysiology
        • Recent Advances
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Carnitine Deficiency
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Primary Carnitine Deficiency
        • Secondary Carnitine Deficiency
        • Carnitine Deficiency in Epilepsy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Carotid Artery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy
        • Embryology
        • Comparative Functional Anatomy
        • Disease and Abnormal Conditions of the Carotid Artery
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Physical Findings
        • Electrophysiological Testing
        • Other Diagnostic Tests
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Casál, Gaspar
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Castle, William
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cataplexy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Caton, Richard
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cauda Equina
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cauda Equina Syndrome and Neurogenic Claudication
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Caudate Nucleus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neuronal Organization and Neurochemistry
        • Anatomic Connections of the Caudate Nucleus
        • Metabolic Properties and Disease Susceptibilities
        • Clinical Consequences of Caudate Nucleus Lesions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cavernous Malformations
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathology
        • Epidemiology
        • Natural History
        • Diagnosis
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Management
        • Surgical Technique
        • Surgical Outcomes
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cavernous Sinus Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Findings
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
        • Abstract
        • Integrins
        • Ig-CAMs
        • Cadherins
        • Selectins
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cell and Tissue Culture
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cell Lines Versus Primary Cells
        • Adult Human Brain Cell Culture
        • Inducible Pluripotent Stem Cells and Direct Production of Neurons From Peripheral Cells
        • Neural Stem Cell Cultures
        • Cell Characterization Using Cell Type-Specific Markers
        • Methods of Manipulating Cells In Vitro
        • Methods of Interrogating Brain Cells in Culture
        • Future Directions and Challenges
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cell Death
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of Programmed Cell Death
        • Classic Apoptosis Pathways
        • Programmed Cell Death in Neurological Diseases
        • Necrotic Cell Death in Neurological Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Central Nervous System, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neurogenesis
        • Spinal Cord
        • Medulla Oblongata
        • Pons and Cerebellum
        • Midbrain
        • Thalamus
        • Cerebral Hemisphere
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebellar Disorders
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cerebellum
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Gross Anatomy
        • Cytoarchitecture
        • Inputs
        • Connectivity
        • Development
        • Clinical
        • Synaptic Plasticity
        • Theories of Cerebellar Function
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Arteries
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Internal Carotid Artery
        • Circle of Willis
        • Middle Cerebral Artery
        • Anterior Cerebral Artery
        • Posterior Cerebral Artery
        • Vertebral Artery
        • Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
        • Basilar Artery
        • Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
        • Superior Cerebellar Artery
        • Posterior Cerebral Artery
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Blood Flow, Measurement of
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cortical Architecture
        • Cortical Connections
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Edema
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Hemispheric Interactions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Split-Brain Studies
        • Brain Imaging
        • Individual Differences
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Malformations, Surgical Treatment of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cortical Dysplasia
        • Surgical Treatment for Epilepsy Caused by Cortical Dysplasia
        • Anomalies of the Craniocervical Junction
        • Cerebral Vascular Malformations
        • Arteriovenous Malformations
        • Cerebral Cavernous Malformations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Metabolism and Blood Flow
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Microcirculation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Palsy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Spastic Disorders
        • Extrapyramidal Disorders
        • Hypotonic Disorders
        • Ataxic Disorders
        • Mixed Forms
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Protection
        • Abstract
        • Cerebral Protection
        • The Ischemic Penumbra
        • The Time Window
        • The Ischemic Cascade
        • Hypothermia
        • Stem Cells
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Vasculitis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Isolated Central Nervous System Vasculitis
        • Central Nervous System Vasculitis Associated with other Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Vasospasm, Treatment of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hypervolemia
        • Hypertension
        • Hemodilution
        • Endovascular Therapy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Veins and Venous Sinuses
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cerebral Veins
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy of the Cerebral Venous System
        • Pathophysiology
        • Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Diagnosis
        • Outcome
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Pressure Change and Headaches
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Headache Secondary to Low Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
        • Postlumbar Puncture Headache
        • Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks
        • Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas and Other Causes of Cerebrospinal Fluid Volume Depletion
        • Headache Secondary to High Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
        • Intracranial Mass Lesions
        • Hydrocephalus
        • Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Etiologies and Anatomical Considerations
        • Classification
        • Diagnosis and Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cerebrovascular Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Vascular Cognitive Impairment Defined
        • The Clinical Spectrum of Cerebrovascular Disease
        • Imaging of Vascular Cognitive Impairment
        • Impact of Cerebrovascular Disease on Cognition in Normal Individuals
        • Cerebrovascular Disease in Mild Cognitive Impairment
        • Vascular Risk Factors and Incident Dementia
        • Interaction of Cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's Disease
        • Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures of Cerebrovascular Disease and Incident Dementia
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cervical Dystonia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Etiology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cervical Spine Stabilization
        • Abstract
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Craniovertebral Instability
        • Atlantoaxial Instability
        • Subaxial Spine Fixation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cervical Spine Stabilization; Technical Aspects
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anterior Approach
        • Posterior Approach
        • Complications
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cervicogenic Headache
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diagnostic Criteria of Cervicogenic Headache
        • Musculoskeletal Impairments of the Cervical Spine
        • Treatment of Cervicogenic Headache
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Channelopathies; Clinical Manifestations
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Nondystrophic Myotonias
        • The Chloride Channelopathies
        • The Sodium Channelopathies
        • Periodic Paralyses
        • How do Mutations of Different Channels Result in Similar Phenotypes?
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Channelopathies; Genetics
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Charcot, Jean-Martin
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Charcot's Neurological Work
        • The Anatomoclinical Method
        • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Charcot's Disease
        • Other Scientific Contributions
        • Charcot as Teacher
        • Charcot, the Man
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification
        • De-/dysmyelinating Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease with Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
        • Diagnosis
        • Management
        • Summary
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chemokines
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Chemokine Superfamily and Their Receptors
        • Chemokines and Their Receptors in the Nervous System under Normal Conditions
        • Chemokines in the Nervous System During Pathological States
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chiari Malformations
        • Abstract
        • Types of Chiari Malformations
        • Origin of Chiari Malformations
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnostic Imaging
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chickpea Intoxication
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Child Abuse; Head Injuries
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definitions
        • Abusive Head Injuries
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Intracranial Injuries
        • Legal Responsibilities
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Childhood Brain Tumors
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology
        • Challenges in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology
        • Long-Term Effects
        • Low-Grade Gliomas
        • High-Grade Gliomas
        • Brainstem Gliomas
        • Medulloblastoma
        • Other Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors
        • Ependymoma
        • Craniopharyngioma
        • Germ Cell Tumors
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Child Neurology, History of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • American Child Neurology
        • European/Asian Child Neurology
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chorea
        • Abstract
        • Inherited Choreas
        • Structural Causes of Chorea
        • Miscellaneous Choreas
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Choreoathetosis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnostic Criteria
        • Additional Evaluation
        • Pathophysiology and Nerve Biopsy Findings
        • Treatment
        • Clinical Course
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Programs, Interdisciplinary
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Background
        • Interdisciplinary Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Program Treatment Overview
        • Interdisciplinary Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Program Treatment Strategies
        • Interdisciplinary Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Program Treatment Results
        • Interdisciplinary Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Program
        • Rise and Fall of Interdisciplinary Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Programs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia (CPEO)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Presentation and Differential Diagnosis
        • Genetics
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cingulotomy
        • Abstract
        • Indications
        • Technique
        • Alternative Surgical Options
        • Ethical Considerations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Circle of Willis
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy of the Circle of Willis
        • Imaging of the Circle of Willis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Clonus
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Coagulopathies and Stroke
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Inherited Thrombophilias
        • Inherited Thrombophilias and Ischemic Stroke
        • Antiphospholipid Antibodies
        • Patent Foramen Ovale and Hypercoagulability
        • Testing for Hypercoagulable States
        • Treatment
        • Recommendations for Further Research
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cocaine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Clinical Effects of Cocaine
        • Testing
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cognition, Social
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Perception and Recognition of Social Information
        • Evaluation of the Personal Relevance of Social Information
        • Social Knowledge: Putting Social Information in Context
        • Social Information Processing
        • Behavioral Response Selection and Regulation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cognition, Spatial
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Visual Perceptual Processing
        • Ventral and Dorsal Visual Processing Streams
        • Top-Down Modulation of Visual Processing
        • The Critical Role of the Parietal Cortex in Spatial Cognition
        • Egocentric and Allocentric Navigation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
        • Abstract
        • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
        • Background
        • Methods
        • Structure
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Cognitive Rehabilitation
        • Attention
        • Memory
        • Executive Functions
        • Spatial Perception
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Collins, Joseph
        • Abstract
        • Onuf and Collins on the Sympathetic Nervous System
        • The Neurological Institute of New York
        • Other Contributions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Coma
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Coma, Hyperosmolar
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hypernatremic Encephalopathy
        • Hyperglycemia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Coma, Postoperative
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Risk Factors
        • Pathogenesis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Investigations and Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Coma Scales
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Specific Scales
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Epidemiology
        • Genetics
        • Pathophysiology
        • Psychological Factors
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Treatment of
        • Abstract
        • Historical Perspective
        • Nomenclature
        • Pathophysiology
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Computational Neuroscience
        • Abstract
        • Models of the Single Neuron
        • Artificial Neural Networks
        • Oscillations
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Computed Tomography
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Production of Images
        • Special Techniques
        • Clinical Applications of Computed Tomography
        • Radiation Dose Consideration
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Concussion
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Postconcussion Syndrome
        • Consequences of Repeated Concussions
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Conduction Block
        • Abstract
        • Conduction Block
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Consciousness
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Wakefulness
        • Awareness
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Conus Medullaris Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cordotomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Corning, James Leonard
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Instrumented Carotid Compression and Vagal Nerve Stimulation
        • Development of Local and Spinal Anesthesia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Corpus Callosum
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Development
        • Role in Lateralization of Function
        • Models of Intracerebral Orchestration
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Corpus Striatum
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Projection Pathways
        • Corticostriatal Circuitry
        • Parkinson's Disease
        • Huntington's Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cortical Histogenesis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neuronal Proliferation
        • Neuronal Migration
        • Histogenetic Gradients
        • Disorders of Neuronal Proliferation and Migration
        • Laminar and Columnar Organization
        • Neurite and Synaptic Development
        • Regressive Events: Cell Death and Elimination of Synapses
        • Disorders of Laminar and Synaptic Organization
        • Glial Development and its Disorders
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Corticospinal/Corticobulbar Tracts
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cough and Exertional Headache, Primary
        • Abstract
        • Primary Cough Headache
        • Primary Exertional Headache
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cramps, Muscle
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definitions
        • Clinical Characteristics
        • Physiological Features
        • Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cranial Nerve Palsies, Surgery
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Craniectomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Craniofacial Neuralgia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Myofascial Pain Syndrome
        • Sensitization in Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes
        • Mechanism-Based Classification of Musculoskeletal Pain
        • Treatment of Myofascial Component in Musculoskeletal Pain
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Craniosynostosis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Etiology and Pathology
        • Craniofacial Syndromes
        • Treatment
        • Outcomes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Craniotomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Creutzfeldt, Hans
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (CJD)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease
        • Laboratory Aids to Diagnosis
        • Acquired Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cushing, Harvey
        • Abstract
        • Outline of Cushing's Life
        • Cushing as Surgeon and Scientist
        • Cushing as Teacher and Social Organizer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cushing's Disease
        • Abstract
        • History and Clinical Presentation
        • Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation
        • Treatment and Outcomes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Cushing's Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Definition and Manifestations
        • Etiologies and Pathology
        • Evaluation and Tumor Localization
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Cyanides
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cyanide Exposure
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Signs and Symptoms
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cytokines
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Interleukins
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • D
      • Dale, Henry Hallett
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dalton, John
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dana, Charles Loomis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Was Guiteau Insane?
        • Familial Essential Tremor
        • Posterior Rhizotomy (Dana's Operation)
        • The Putnam–Dana Syndrome (Subacute Combined Degeneration)
        • Dana's Text-book of Nervous Diseases (1892)
        • Literature, History, and the Charaka Club
        • Early Neurology in the US: The 1927 Hughlings Jackson Address
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dandy–Walker Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Embryogenesis
        • Etiology
        • Recurrence Risk in Siblings
        • Prevalence and Clinical Presentation
        • Pathological Findings
        • Associated Malformations
        • Neuroradiological Evaluation
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Prenatal Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis and Outcome
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dandy, Walter Edward
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dax, Marc
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Decerebrate Rigidity
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Decorticate Rigidity
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Decortication
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dedlow, George
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Deep Brain Stimulation
        • Abstract
        • Parkinson's Disease
        • Tremor and Dystonia
        • Complications
        • Future Prospects of Deep Brain Stimulation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Déjerine, Jules
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Déjerine-Klumpke, Augusta
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Delirium (Acute Confusional State)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Pathophysiology of Delirium
        • Diagnosis and Management
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Delusions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Types of Delusions
        • Clinical Syndromes Associated with Delusions
        • Pathophysiology of Delusions
        • Models of Delusion Formation Illuminate Normal Brain Processes
        • Treatment of Delusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dementia
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology
        • Common Pathological Pathways
        • Evaluation of a Dementia Patient
        • Diagnostic Issues
        • Primary Degenerative Dementias
        • Dementias Associated with Movement Disorders
        • Treatable Causes of Dementia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dendrites
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Denervation
        • Abstract
        • Motor Unit
        • Diagnosis of Muscle Denervation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Denny-Brown, Derek
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Depression and Dysthymia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History and Epidemiology
        • Diagnosis of Depression by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision
        • Comorbidity
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Theoretical Etiologies of Depression
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Depression and Psychosis, Postpartum
        • Abstract
        • Perinatal Major Depressive Disorder
        • Postpartum Psychosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dercum, Francis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • President Woodrow Wilson's Stroke
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Descartes, René
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Mind and Brain Interaction (Cartesian Dualism)
        • The Mechanism of the Body
        • Reflex Behavior
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Diabetes Insipidus
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Diabetes Mellitus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Acute Neurological Disorders Associated with Diabetes Mellitus
        • Chronic Neurological Disorders Associated with Diabetes Mellitus
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Diaschisis
        • Abstract
        • Diaschisis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Diastematomyelia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Diffuse Axonal Injury
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dioxins
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Diplopia and Strabismus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Optical Diplopia
        • Strabismic Diplopia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Disconnection Syndromes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Basic Principles
        • History
        • Major Disconnection Syndromes
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Disk Arthroplasty
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Diskectomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dissection, Arterial
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations from Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
        • Diagnosis of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Domoic Acid
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dopamine
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dorsal Root Ganglion
        • Abstract
        • Gross Anatomy
        • Histology
        • Connections
        • Development
        • Somatotopy
        • Clinical Aspects
        • Functional Aspects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Down's Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diagnosis
        • Physical Features
        • Cognitive Deficits
        • Hypotonia, Tactility, and Seizures
        • Congenital Heart Disease
        • Gut Disease
        • Immune and Endocrine Systems
        • Alzheimer's Disease
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dreaming
        • Abstract
        • Definitions and Historical Roots
        • The Meaning and Function of Dreaming
        • Rapid Eye Movement and Dreams in Major Depression
        • Nightmares and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Drowsiness
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • du Bois-Reymond, Emil
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Duchenne, Guillaume
        • Abstract
        • Electrodiagnosis and Electrotherapeutics
        • Duchenne Dystrophy
        • Medical Photography
        • Other Contributions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dura Mater
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Gross Anatomy of the Dura
        • Cranial Dura Microanatomy
        • Vascular Anatomy
        • Neuronal Anatomy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dysarthria
        • Abstract
        • Evaluation of the Dysarthric Patient
        • Treatment of the Dysarthric Patient
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dysequilibrium Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dyskinesias
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dyslexia, Developmental
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Neuropsychology
        • Neural Substrates
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dystonia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dystrophin and Dystrophin-Associated Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Dystrophin
        • Dystrophin-Associated Proteins
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • E
      • Eating Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diagnosis
        • Physiological Complications
        • Treatment
        • Outcome
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Eccles, John
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Economo, Constantin von
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Encephalitis Lethargica
        • Cytoarchitectonics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ecstasy
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Use and Epidemiology
        • Pharmacology
        • Effects in Humans
        • Toxicity and Related Deaths
        • Management of ‘Ecstasy’-Related Emergencies and Addiction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Edinger, Ludwig
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ehrlichiosis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ehrlich, Paul
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Eijkman, Christiaan
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Early Career
        • ‘Polyneuritic’ Chickens in Java
        • Beri-beri in Java Prisons
        • Later Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Electrocorticogram (ECOG)
        • Abstract
        • Electrocorticogram
        • Recording Techniques
        • Advantages and Limitations
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Electroencephalographic Spikes and Sharp Waves
        • Abstract
        • Definitions and Descriptions
        • Mechanisms
        • Clincal Correlations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Electromyography (EMG)
        • Abstract
        • Electromyography
        • EDX Findings with Various Disorders
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Electronystagmogram (ENG)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Electroretinogram (ERG)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Electrostimulation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diagnostic Electrostimulation
        • Deep Brain Stimulation
        • Vagal Nerve Stimulation
        • Spinal Cord Stimulation
        • Functional Electrical Stimulation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Elevated Intracranial Pressure, Management of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Physiology
        • Diagnosis and Monitoring
        • Management
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Embolism, Cardiac and Aortic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cardiac Sources of Embolism
        • Aortic Arch Atheroma
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Embolization, Therapeutic, Surgical
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anesthesia
        • General Procedure
        • Neuromonitoring
        • Anticoagulation
        • Aneurysm
        • AVMs
        • Fistula
        • Tumor
        • Complications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Emotion, Neural Mechanisms of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Brain Dysfunction and Emotions
        • Emotions and the Selection of Behaviors
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Emotions
        • Abstract
        • Emotions
        • A Historical Perspective
        • What are Emotions?
        • A Process Model of Emotion
        • Emotions: Functions and Types
        • Neuroanatomy of Emotion
        • Disorders of Emotion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Encephalitis/Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Clinical Features
        • Investigations
        • Pathology
        • Therapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Encephalitis, Viral
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathogenesis
        • Acute Viral Encephalitis
        • Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
        • Treatment and Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Pathology
        • Clinical Features
        • Investigations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Encephalomyopathies, Mitochondrial
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Disorders due to Defects of Mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic Acid
        • Disorders due to Defects of Nuclear Deoxyribonucleic Acid
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Encephalopathy, Anoxic–Ischemic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathology and Pathogenesis
        • Management
        • Prognostic Determination for Anoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy
        • Complications of Anoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Enders, John Franklin
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Cultivation of Poliovirus
        • Later Career and Recognition
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Endocannabinoids
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Synthesis and Degradation
        • Homeostatic Function
        • Functions during Pathological Conditions and Potential CB-Based Treatment Strategies
        • Potential for Cannabinoid-Based Pharmacotherapies for Other Central Nervous System Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Endonasal Surgery, Expanded
        • Abstract
        • Surgical Technique
        • Complications of Expanded Endonasal Surgery
        • What to Expect in the Hospital and After Discharge?
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Endoscopic Microsurgery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Optical Properties of Surgical Microscopes and Endoscopes
        • Instruments for Endoscope-Assisted Microneurosurgery
        • Clinical Application of Endoscope-Assisted Microneurosurgery
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Endovascular Therapy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principles
        • Occlusive Vascular Disease
        • Hemorrhagic Vascular Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysms
        • Abstract
        • Indications for Endovascular Treatment
        • Coils
        • Stents
        • Liquid Embolic Agents
        • Endovascular Approach to Different Aneurysms
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Endozepines and Coma
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Pathophysiology
        • Controversy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Enteroviruses
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Molecular Virology
        • Epidemiology
        • Neuropathogenesis
        • Clinical Features of Central Nervous System Infections
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment and Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ependyma
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epidemiology, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Case Ascertainment
        • Population-Based Rates
        • Risk
        • Basic Study Designs
        • New Directions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epidermal Nerve Fibers
        • Abstract
        • Historical Notes
        • Skin Structure and Innervation
        • Skin Biopsy Technique
        • Quantification of Epidermal Nerve Fibers
        • Epidermal Nerve Fiber in Peripheral Neuropathies
        • Regeneration of Epidermal Nerve Fibers
        • Epidermal Nerve Fibers and Neuropathic Pain
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epidural Empyema, Cranial
        • Abstract
        • See also
      • Epilepsy; Antiepileptic Drug Profiles
        • Abstract
        • Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
        • Clobazam (Onfi, Frisium)
        • Ethosuximide (Zarontin)
        • Ezogabine (Potiga)/Retigabine (Trobalt)
        • Felbamate (Felbatol)
        • Gabapentin (Neurontin)
        • Lacosamide (Vimpat)
        • Lamotrigine (Lamictal)
        • Levetiracetam (Keppra)
        • Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal)
        • Phenobarbital
        • Phenytoin (Dilantin)
        • Pregabalin (Lyrica)
        • Primidone (Mysoline)
        • Rufinamide (Banzel)
        • Tiagabine (Gabitril)
        • Topiramate (Topamax)
        • Valproate (Depakote/Depakene)
        • Vigabatrin (Sabril)
        • Zonisamide (Zonegran)
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Basic Mechanisms
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mechanisms of Seizure Generation
        • Mechanisms Underlying Epileptogenesis
        • Pharmacoresistance
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Comorbidity
        • Abstract
        • Epilepsy and Cardiac Disease
        • Seizures and Renal Disease
        • Hepatic Disease and Epilepsy
        • Seizures Associated with Systemic Cancer
        • Seizures Due to Endocrine or Metabolic Disorders
        • Seizures Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
        • Other Medical Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy, Diagnosis of
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Drug Treatment Principles
        • Abstract
        • Efficacy
        • Adverse Effects
        • Pharmacokinetics
        • Antiepileptic Drug Selection
        • Treatment
        • Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Epidemiology
        • Abstract
        • Incidence
        • Cumulative Incidence
        • Gender
        • Prevalence
        • Risk Factors for Epilepsy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Experimental Models
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definitions and Methods
        • In Vitro Models
        • In Vivo Models
        • Computational Models
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy, Gender Issues and
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Effects of Hormones on Seizure Vulnerability
        • Fertility and How Seizures Affect Reproductive Function
        • Pregnancy and Epilepsy
        • Family Planning
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Genetics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Genetics of Epilepsy Syndromes Without Structural or Metabolic Etiology
        • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsies with Complex Inheritance
        • Genetics of Symptomatic Epilepsies
        • Malformations of Cortical Development
        • Inherited Metabolic Disorders
        • Chromosomal Abnormalities
        • Genetic Counseling
        • Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy, Invasive Monitoring for
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Historical Introduction
        • Health Burden
        • Basic Concepts
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Classification of Epileptic Seizures
        • Classification of the Epilepsies
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Effects of Seizures on the Brain
        • Postmortem Examination in Epilepsy
        • Surgical Neuropathology of Epilepsy
        • Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Precipitating Factors
        • Abstract
        • Seizure Precipitants in the Absence of Epilepsy
        • Common Seizure Precipitants in Epilepsy
        • Uncommon Seizure Precipitants in Epilepsy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Prognosis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Seizure Remission
        • Mortality
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy, Psychiatric Comorbidities of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiologic and Clinical Aspects
        • Bidirectional Relations Between Epilepsy and Psychiatric Disorders
        • The Impact of Psychiatric Comorbidities in the Management of Seizure Disorders
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Risk Factors
        • Abstract
        • General Distribution of Causes of Epilepsy in Clinical/Epidemiological Studies
        • Classic Risk Factors
        • Progressive Disease as a Risk Factor
        • Other Risk Factors
        • Special Situations
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Social Consequences
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Concept of Epilepsy
        • Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents
        • Leisure
        • Epilepsy in Adults
        • Risks
        • Epilepsy in the Elderly
        • Women with Epilepsy
        • Quality of Life and Treatment
        • Stigma and Attitudes
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy; Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Rationale
        • Evaluation for Candidacy
        • Candidacy Diagnoses
        • Surgical Techniques
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Epilepsy; Temporal Lobe
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epileptic Seizures and Syndromes of the Temporal Lobe
        • Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
        • Lateral Neocortical Temporal Lobe Seizures
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epilepsy Treatment Strategies
        • Abstract
        • Medical Treatments
        • Other Treatments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epileptic Seizures
        • Abstract
        • The Epilepsies
        • Epileptic Seizures
        • Seizure Classification
        • Focal Seizures
        • Generalized Seizures
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epileptic Syndromes and Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epileptic Syndrome
        • Epileptic Diseases
        • Diseases Frequently Associated with Epileptic Seizures or Syndromes
        • Epileptic Encephalopathies
        • Classification of Epileptic Syndromes and Diseases
        • Topographic Symptomatic (or Probably Symptomatic) Epilepsies
        • Epilepsies with Seizures Precipitated by Specific Modes of Activation
        • Epilepsies with Seizures Activated by Fever
        • Epileptic Encephalopathies
        • Classification of Diseases Frequently Associated with Epileptic Seizures or Syndromes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Epileptogenesis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Animal Models of Epileptogenesis
        • Neuronal Injury
        • Gliosis
        • Neurogenesis
        • Blood–Brain Barrier Dysfunction and Inflammation
        • Axonal and Dendritic Plasticity
        • Channelopathy
        • Epigenetic Mechanisms
        • Antiepileptogenesis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Episodic Ataxias
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathogenesis
        • Pathology
        • Clinical Presentations
        • Diagnosis and Imaging
        • Viral Studies
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Erb, Wilhelm Heinrich
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Electrodiagnosis and Neuromuscular Disorders
        • Description of the Knee Jerk and a Proposed Reflex Mechanism
        • Association of Tabes Dorsalis with History of Syphilis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Erection, Penile; Sleep-Related
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Erlanger, Joseph
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Early Career
        • The Nerve Action Potential
        • Honors and Awards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Essential Tremor
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ethanol
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ethical Issues
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Standard Definitions of Ethical Principles and Terms
        • Clinical Scenarios and Ethical Reasoning
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Euler, Ulf von
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Substance P
        • Prostaglandin
        • Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine)
        • von Euler–Liljestrand Mechanism
        • The Nobel Committee and the 1970 Nobel Prize
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Evoked Potentials
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Types of Evoked Potentials
        • Clinical Applications
        • Sources and Signal Averaging
        • Interpretation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ewald, J Richard
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Excessive Daytime Sleepiness
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Executive Function
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Attention
        • Set Shifting
        • Fluency
        • Inhibition
        • Planning, Problem Solving, and Abstract Reasoning
        • Self-Monitoring
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Executive Function
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Conceptualization of Executive Function
        • Assessment of Executive Dysfunction
        • Rehabilitation of Executive Dysfunction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Eyelids
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Eye Movement Recording
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Electrooculogram
        • Infrared Reflectance Oculography
        • Video Oculography
        • Magnetic Scleral Search Coil Technology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Eye Movements; Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Eye Movements; Saccades
        • Abstract
        • Functions and Characteristics of Saccades
        • Saccadic Pathways
        • Abnormal Saccades
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Eye Movements; Smooth Pursuit
        • Abstract
        • Purposes and Properties of Smooth Pursuit
        • Cerebellar Control of Smooth Pursuit
        • Brainstem Mechanisms of Smooth Pursuit
        • Vertical Smooth Pursuit
        • Acknowledgements
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Eye Movements; Vergence
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neurology of Vergence
        • Dynamic and Static Aspects of Vergence
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • F
      • Fabry's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathogenesis
        • Diagnosis
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Facial Nerve (Cranial Nerve VII)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Facial Nerve (Motor Division)
        • The Nervus Intermedius
        • Vascular Supply of the Seventh Cranial Nerve
        • Bell's Palsy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Falls and Drops
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Familial Dysautonomia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Genetics
        • Neuropathology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Features and Management
        • Neurological Features
        • Ophthalmological Problems
        • Gastrointestinal Dysfunction
        • Respiratory Insufficiency
        • Cardiovascular Abnormalities
        • Renal Problems
        • Orthopedical Problems
        • Prognosis and Future Treatments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Fasciculations
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Fatigue
        • Abstract
        • Overview and Perspectives
        • Weakness Versus Fatigue
        • Assessment of Fatigue: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Consequences
        • Central Fatigue
        • Peripheral Fatigue
        • Evaluation of Muscle Fatigability in Health and Disease
        • Fatigue in Neurological Disorders
        • Fatigue in Central Nervous System Disorders
        • Fatigue in Peripheral Nervous System Disorders
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Febrile Seizures
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Femoral Nerves
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Femoral Neuropathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ferrier, David
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Fibromyalgia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Pathophysiology
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Fibular (Peroneal) Nerve
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy
        • Fibular Mononeuropathy at the Fibular Neck
        • Fibular Mononeuropathy in the Upper Thigh (Sciatic Mononeuropathy Affecting the Fibular Nerve Selectively)
        • Deep Fibular Mononeuropathy at the Ankle (Anterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome)
        • Superficial Fibular Mononeuropathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Filters, Analog/Digital
        • Abstract
        • Physiological Signals
        • Digital Filters
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Fisher's Syndrome and Bickerstaff's Encephalitis; Immunology of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and the Historical Aspect
        • Heterogeneity in Clinical Presentation
        • Antecedent Infections
        • Immunopathogenesis of Fisher's Syndrome and Bickerstaff's Brainstem Encephalitis
        • Clinical Course and Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Fixation and Processing of Central Nervous System Tissue
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Design Considerations for CNS Analysis
        • Fixation of CNS Tissues
        • Processing of CNS Tissues
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Fixation and Processing of the Peripheral Nervous System
        • Abstract
        • General Considerations
        • Fixation and Processing of the Peripheral Nervous System for Ultrastructural Endpoints
        • Fixation and Processing of the Peripheral Nervous System for Light Microscopy, Immunohistochemistry, and Histochemistry Endpoints
        • Teased Fiber Preparation of the Peripheral Nervous System
        • Preparation of Skin Biopsies for Intraepidermal Nerve Fiber Density Determination
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Flourens, Marie-Jean-Pierre
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Focal Cortical Dysplasia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition
        • Evolution of Classification Systems
        • Pathology Features
        • Neuroradiology
        • Outcome Following Surgery
        • What is the Cause of Focal Cortical Dysplasia?
        • What Makes Focal Cortical Dysplasia Epileptogenic?
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Foerster, Otfrid
        • Abstract
        • The Early Years
        • The Neurologist
        • The Scientist
        • The Surgeon
        • The Teacher
        • The Man
        • Epilogue
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Foot Drop
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Etiology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ford, Frank R
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Forel, Auguste-Henri
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Fields of Forel
        • Neuron Theory
        • Retirement
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Forster, Francis
        • Abstract
        • Distinguished Career
        • Famous Cases
        • Legacy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Freeman II, Walter Jackson
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • The Freeman–Watts Frontal Lobotomy
        • Freeman's Transorbital (‘ice pick’) Lobotomy
        • Chlorpromazine and the Decline of Lobotomy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Freud, Sigmund
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Frey, Łucja
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Friedreich, Nikolaus
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Friedreich's Ataxia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Frontal Lobes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neuroanatomy
        • Functions and Important Connections of the Frontal Lobes
        • Common Causes of Frontal Lobe Damage
        • Signs of Frontal Lobe Damage
        • Assessment of Frontal Lobe Functioning
        • Recovery after Frontal Lobe Damage
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Frontotemporal Dementia
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Syndromes
        • Clinical–Pathological Correlations
        • Neuropathology
        • Genetics
        • Diagnosis and Imaging
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Functional Electrical Stimulation
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Fungal Abscess, Cerebral
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Funk, Casimir
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
        • Vitamins
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • G
      • GABAA Receptor Channels; Properties and Regulation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structure of GABAA Receptors
        • GABAA Receptor Biosynthesis, Intracellular Trafficking, Recycling, and Degradation
        • Physiological Properties of GABAA Receptor Channels
        • Pharmacological Properties of GABAA Receptors
        • Functional Domains Involved in the Ion Channel
        • Functional Domains for Agonist and Allosteric Drug Actions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gage, Phineas
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gait and Gait Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Normal Gait
        • Abnormal Gaits
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gajdusek, D. Carleton
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Galactosemia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Basic Defect
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Galen
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gall, Franz Joseph
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Galvani, Luigi (Aloisio)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • De Viribus Electricitatis in Motu Musculari Commentarius
        • The Galvani–Volta Controversy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ganglionectomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gangliosidoses
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gap Junctions in the Nervous System
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Properties of Gap Junctions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gasser, Herbert Spencer
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Early Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gastrointestinal Functions
        • Abstract
        • Normal Gastric, Small Bowel, and Colonic Motility
        • Normal Gastrointestinal Secretion
        • Normal Gastrointestinal Sensation
        • Regulation of Gut Functions
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gaucher's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathogenesis
        • Diagnosis
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Genetic Testing, Molecular
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Genitofemoral Nerve
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further reading
      • Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Clinical and Neuropathological Features in Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker Disease Families Associated with Other Prion Protein Gene Mutations
        • Diagnosis and Therapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Geschwind, Norman
        • Abstract
        • Early Career
        • Disconnexion Syndromes in Animals and Man
        • Later Career and Legacy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Giant Cell (Temporal) Arteritis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathology
        • Demographics
        • Disease Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Diagnostic/Treatment Complications
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gilles de la Tourette, Georges
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Glial Tumors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Environmental Factors
        • Molecular Biology
        • Glioma Classification
        • Anaplastic Ependymoma
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Globus Pallidus
        • Abstract
        • Cytology
        • Connectivity
        • Physiology
        • Ventral Pallidum
        • Functional Considerations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Glossopharyngeal Nerve (Cranial Nerve IX)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Gross Anatomy
        • Functional Components
        • Clinical Correlations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Glycogen Storage Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia (Glucose-6-Phosphatase Deficiency: von Gierke's Disease) and Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ib (Glucose-6-Phosphate Translocase Deficiency)
        • Glycogen Storage Disease Type II (Lysosomal Acid alpha-Glucosidase Deficiency, Pompe's Disease, Acid Maltase Deficiency, and alpha-1,4 Glucosidase Deficiency)
        • Glycogen Storage Disease Type III (Amylo-1,6-Glucosidase (Debrancher) Deficiency, Limit Dextrinosis, Cori's Disease, and Forbes' Disease)
        • Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV (Brancher Deficiency, Amylopectinosis, Amylo-1,4-1,6-Transglucosidase Deficiency, and Andersen's Disease)
        • Glycogen Storage Disease Type V (Muscle Phosphorylase Deficiency, McArdle's Disease, and Myophosphorylase Deficiency)
        • Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI (Hepatic Phosphorylase Deficiency and Hers' Disease)
        • Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII (Muscle Phosphofructokinase Deficiency and Tarui's Disease)
        • Glycogen Storage Disease Type IX (Phosphorylase Kinase Deficiency)
        • Glycogen Storage Disease Type 0 (Liver Glycogen Synthase Deficiency)
        • Glycogen Storage Disease Type XI (Fanconi–Bickel Syndrome)
        • Glycogen Storage Diseases Mimicking Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • GM1 Gangliosidosis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Goldberger, Joseph
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Early Career
        • Observational Studies of Pellagra
        • Human Experiments Concerning Pellagra
        • The ‘Pellagra-Preventive Factor’
        • An Animal Model: Black Tongue in Dogs
        • Prevention of Pellagra
        • Endemic Pellagra and Complex Social Issues
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Golgi, Camillo
        • Abstract
        • Biographical Sketch
        • Golgi's Major Achievements
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Goltz, Friedrich Leopold
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gowers, William Richard
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gräfe, Albrecht von
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Contributions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Granit, Ragnar
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • The Electrophysiology of Color Processing in the Retina
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Grasp Reflex
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Graves' Orbitopathy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Griesinger, Wilhelm
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Grijns, Gerrit
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Guillain–Barré Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Guillain–Barré Syndrome
        • History
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Clinical Variants
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Diagnostic Studies
        • Pathophysiology
        • Therapy
        • Supportive Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Guillain, Georges
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Guillain–Barre´–Strohl Syndrome
        • Guillain's Sign (or Guillain–Alajouanine Reflex, Mediopubic Reflex)
        • Guillain–Alajouanine–Garcin Syndrome (or Garcin Syndrome, Hemibasal Syndrome)
        • Guillain–Mollaret Triangle
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Guttmann, Ludwig
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • H
      • Hall, Marshall
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hallpike, Charles Skinner
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hallucinations, Visual and Auditory
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Visual Hallucinations
        • Auditory Hallucinations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hammond, William A
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Early Career
        • Surgeon General and Court-martial
        • Private Practice
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Handedness and Cerebral Laterality
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hartline, Haldan Keffer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Headache and Craniofacial Neuralgias
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia
        • Nervus Intermedius Neuralgia (Geniculate Neuralgia, Ramsay Hunt Syndrome)
        • Superior Laryngeal Neuralgia
        • Nasociliary Neuralgia (Charlin's Neuralgia)
        • Supraorbital Neuralgia
        • Other Terminal Branch Neuralgias
        • Ocular Diabetic Neuropathy
        • Head or Facial Pain Attributed to Herpes Zoster
        • Tolosa–Hunt Syndrome
        • Central Causes of Facial Pain
        • Anesthesia Dolorosa
        • Central Poststroke Pain
        • Facial Pain Attributed to Multiple Sclerosis
        • Burning Mouth Syndrome
        • Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (Atypical Face Pain)
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Headache, Hypnic
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Differential Diagnosis and Diagnostic Work-Up
        • Comorbidity
        • Course of Disease
        • Therapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Headache, Posttraumatic
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology
        • Classification
        • Characteristics of Posttraumatic Headache
        • Pathophysiology of Posttraumatic Headache
        • Treatment of Posttraumatic Headache
        • Special Populations
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Headache, Tension-Type
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition
        • Diagnosis
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Head, Henry
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Herpes Zoster and the Head–Campbell Dermatomal Map
        • Self-Experiments on Cutaneous Sensation
        • Central Sensory Disorders
        • The Mass Reflex and Autonomic Dysreflexia (Head–Riddoch Syndrome)
        • Aphasia
        • Literature and Love
        • Awards and Honors
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Head Trauma, Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hearing Loss
        • Abstract
        • Types of Hearing Loss
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Investigation
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Helmholtz, Hermann
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hemangiomas
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hemiatrophy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hemifacial Spasm
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hemispherectomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification
        • Symptoms
        • Genetic Types of HSP
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hering, Ewald
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Herniation Syndromes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Supratentorial Herniation
        • Tonsillar Herniation
        • Management of Brain Herniation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Herpesviruses, Human
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hess, Walter
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Heterotrimeric G Proteins
        • Abstract
        • G Protein Superfamily
        • Heterotrimeric G Proteins and G Protein-Coupled Receptors
        • Gα Structure and Function
        • Gβγ Structure and Function
        • Nucleotide-Driven G Protein Functional Cycle
        • GTPase-Activating Proteins
        • Cellular Physiological Context of G Proteins
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hexosaminidase Deficiency
        • Abstract
        • Tay–Sachs Disease (Infantile GM2 Gangliosidosis)
        • Atypical GM2 Gangliosidoses
        • Genetics
        • Prospects for Therapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Hippocampus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hippocampal Circuitry and Location Within the Limbic System
        • Pharmacology of the Hippocampus
        • The Hippocampus and Memory
        • The Hippocampus and Epilepsy
        • The Hippocampus and Schizophrenia
        • Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hippocrates
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • His Sr., Wilhelm
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Histochemical Staining of CNS Tissue
        • Abstract
        • What Stain (i.e., Dyes) and What Is Stained (i.e., Target)?
        • Principles of Dye Staining Methods
        • Pitfalls with Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples and Myelin Stains
        • Silver Impregnation Methods
        • Fluorochrome as a Conformational Probe
        • Lectin and Immunohistochemistry
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hitzig, Eduard
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • HIV Infection, Neurological Complications of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
        • Biology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
        • Advances in Antiretroviral Therapy
        • Neurological Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
        • Central Nervous System Opportunistic Processes in Immunodeficiency States
        • Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • H.M. (Henry Gustav Molaison)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hodgkin, Alan Lloyd
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • The Action Potential
        • Honors
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hoffmann H-Reflex
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hoffmann, Johann
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hoffmann, Paul
        • Abstract
        • Hoffman–Tinel Sign
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hoffmann's Sign
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Method of Elicitation
        • Clinical Significance
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Holmes, Gordon
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • World War I
        • Mapping the Visual Cortex
        • Later Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Horner, Johann Friedrich
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Oculosympathetic Paresis (Horner's syndrome)
        • Horner's Law
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Horner's Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Horsley, Victor
        • Abstract
        • The Early Years
        • The Surgeon
        • The Scientist
        • The Social Reformer
        • Epilogue
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Horton, Bayard Taylor
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hounsfield, Godfrey N
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Computed Tomography
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Human African Trypanosomiasis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Geography, Epidemiology, and Transmission
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Features
        • Clinical Management in Endemic Countries and Rural Settings
        • Biological Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Viruses (HTLVs)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus-1
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hun, Henry
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Huntington, George
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Huntington's Disease
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hunt, James Ramsay
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Geniculate Neuralgia
        • Entrapment Neuropathy of the Deep Palmar Branch of the Ulnar Nerve
        • Progressive Cerebellar Dysynnergia
        • Carotid Artery Occlusion in the Neck
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hydrocephalus
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hyperglycemia and Coma
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition
        • Etiology and Clinical Features
        • Epidemiology
        • Laboratory Values
        • Pathophysiology of Impaired Consciousness in Hyperglycemia
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hyperhidrosis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hyperthermia
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Incidence
        • Causes
        • Clinical Features
        • Pathogenesis
        • Management
        • Outcomes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hypnotics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists
        • Antidepressants
        • Antipsychotics
        • Antihistamines
        • Melatonin
        • General Treatment Principles
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hypoglossal Nerve (Cranial Nerve XII)
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy
        • Physiology and Function
        • Clinical Examination
        • Clinical Syndromes
        • Laboratory Studies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hypoglycemia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hypomelanosis of Ito
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hypothermia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification
        • Pathophysiology of Complications
        • Clinical Features
        • Laboratory Features
        • Management
        • Outcome/Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest
        • Abstract
        • Background and Rationale
        • Patient Selection
        • Technique
        • Outcomes of Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hypotonic Infant
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Assessment
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Disorders Causing Central Hypotonia
        • Disorders Causing Peripheral Hypotonia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • I
      • Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension
        • Abstract
        • Introduction/Diagnostic Criteria
        • Epidemiology
        • Monitoring/Diagnosis
        • Etiology
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Immune System, Adaptive; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Adaptive Immunity
        • Neurological Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Immune System, Innate; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Innate Immune System and Central Nervous System
        • CNS Autoimmune Diseases and the Innate Immune System
        • Innate Immune System and Multiple Sclerosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Immunohistochemistry and Brain Tumors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Glial Tumors
        • Nonglial Tumors
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Immunology of Demyelinating Immune Neuropathies
        • Abstract
        • Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
        • Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
        • Pathology
        • Laboratory Diagnosis
        • Animal Models
        • Pathogenesis
        • Multifocal Motor Neuropathy
        • Pathology
        • Animal Models
        • Pathogenesis
        • Antimyelin-Associated Glycoprotein Neuropathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Impulse Conduction: Molecular Perspectives
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Axonal Membrane Structure
        • Fluctuations in Axonal Excitability Associated with Impulse Conduction
        • Implications of Ion Channel Physiology for Neurological Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Inferior Colliculus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Central Nucleus
        • Cortex
        • Lateral Nucleus
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Influenza Virus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • 1918 Influenza Pandemic, Encephalitis Lethargica, and Postencephalitic Parkinsonism
        • Reye's Syndrome
        • Swine Influenza Virus Vaccine and Guillain–Barré Syndrome
        • Encephalopathy Associated with Influenza
        • Human Influenza Due to Avian Influenza Virus H5N1
        • Summary
        • Further Reading
      • Inouye, Tatsuji
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • In Situ Hybridization
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • In Situ Hybridization Techniques in the Cytogenetic Evaluation of Constitutional Disorders
        • In Situ Hybridization Techniques in the Cytogenetic Evaluation of Acquired Disorders: Primary Brain Tumors
        • In Situ Hybridization Evaluation of Primary Brain Tumors: Glial Neoplasms
        • In Situ Hybridization Evaluation of Primary Brain Tumors: Non-Glial Neoplasms
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Insomnia
        • Abstract
        • Nosologies and Classifications of Insomnia
        • Causes of Insomnia
        • Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Insomnia, Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Objectives of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment
        • Techniques Utilized in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia
        • Evidence for Efficacy and Practicality
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Insomnia, Fatal
        • Abstract
        • Genetics
        • Clinical Features
        • Neuropathology
        • Scrapie Prion Protein
        • Pathogenesis
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Intercostal Nerve
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Symptoms
        • Etiology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Interferons
        • Abstract
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Use in Neurological Diseases
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Intervertebral Disk
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy
        • Biochemistry
        • Biomechanics
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Intoxication
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Diagnosis
        • Investigations
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Primary
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Risk Factors and Etiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Medical Stabilization
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Intracranial Hypertension
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Causes
        • Diagnosis
        • Management
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Intracranial Pressure
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Intracranial Pressure Monitoring
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ion Channels, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Functional Properties of Ion Channels
        • Ion Channel Families
        • Structure–Function Relationships
        • Ion Channel Diseases
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Isaacs' Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Laboratory Features
        • Pathogenesis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ischemic Cell Death; Mechanisms
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Mitochondrial Dysfunction as a Death Trigger
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ischemic Stroke; Acute Treatment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Emergency Management
        • Tissue Plasminogen Activator
        • Prevention and Management of Complications
        • Experimental Treatments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ischemic Stroke; Animal Models
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Itard, Jean-Marc Gaspard
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • J
      • Jackson, John Hughlings
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Aphasia
        • The Nature of the Epileptic Discharge
        • Evolutionary Neurophysiology
        • Psychology
        • Ophthalmology in General Medicine
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Jakob, Alfons
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • James, William
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • James–Lange Theory of Emotions
        • The Principles of Psychology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • JC (Crawford, John)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Jendrassik, Ernö
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Jet Lag
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Jewell, James Stewart
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • American Neurological Association
        • A Delver in Books and Journals
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • K
      • Katz, Bernard
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Action Potential Mechanisms
        • Physiology of Neurotransmitter Release
        • Postsynaptic Mechanisms
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Keen, William Williams
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • The US Civil War
        • Secret Surgery on President Cleveland
        • World War I
        • Works
        • Honors and Recognition
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Kennedy's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Description
        • Physical Examination
        • Anatomical and Clinical Pathology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Genetics and Molecular Biology
        • Counseling and Diagnosis
        • Management and Therapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Kenny, ‘Sister’ Elizabeth
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Kernicterus
        • Abstract
        • Bilirubin Metabolism
        • Cellular Effects of Bilirubin
        • Bilirubin Determination
        • Diagnostic Findings
        • Associated Conditions
        • Treatment of Newborn Jaundice and Prevention of Kernicterus
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Kernig's Sign
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Kernig, Vladimir
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Korsakoff, Sergei
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Korsakoff's Psychosis
        • Relationship between Korsakoff's Psychosis and Wernicke's Encephalopathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Krabbe's Disease
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Kühne, Wilhelm (Willy) Friedrich
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Enzymes and Digestion
        • Neuromuscular Physiology
        • Rhodopsin and Photochemical Transduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Kussmaul Breathing
        • See also
    • L
      • Lacunar Infarcts
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathology
        • Risk Factors
        • Clinical Syndromes
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Management
        • Secondary Prevention
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lambert–Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Clinical Features
        • Pathophysiology of Lambert–Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome
        • Immunopathology of Lambert–Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome
        • Electrodiagnostic Findings
        • Treatment of Lambert–Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome
        • Medications/Situations to Avoid
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lambert–Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS), Immunology of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neuromuscular Transmission
        • Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels
        • Antibodies in Lambert–Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome
        • Neuromuscular Junction in Lambert–Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome
        • Associated Disease
        • Etiology
        • Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lambert, Edward
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Laminectomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Langdon Down, John
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Langley, John Newport
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Language and Discourse
        • Abstract
        • Discourse in Normal Cognitive Aging
        • Discourse of the Dementias
        • Discourse in Focal Neurological Injuries
        • Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Language Disorders, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Aphasia Resulting from Stroke
        • Nonfluent Aphasias
        • Fluent Aphasias
        • Primary Progressive Aphasia
        • The Right Hemisphere and Language
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lasègue, Charles
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lashley, Karl Spencer
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Learning
        • The Migraine Aura
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Lateral Spine Surgery, Direct (Extreme)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lauterbur, Paul
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
        • Development of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Mansfield's Contributions
        • The Damadian Controversy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lead
        • Abstract
        • General Description and History
        • Sources of Exposure
        • Routes of Absorption, Deposition, and Elimination
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Toxic Effects of Lead Poisoning
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment and Prognosis
        • Regulation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Leão, Aristides
        • Abstract
        • Cortical Spreading Depression
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Learning Disability: Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Prevalence
        • Etiology
        • Comorbidity
        • Genetics
        • Neuroanatomy
        • Learning/Cognitive Profile
        • Assessment
        • Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lennox, William Gordon
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Leprosy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Picture
        • Epidemiology
        • Consequences
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Leptin
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Leptin and Obesity
        • Physiological Effects of Leptin
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Leptomeninges; Arachnoid and Pia
        • Abstract
        • Arachnoid
        • Pia
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lesch–Nyhan Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Disease Symptoms
        • Gouty Arthritis
        • Molecular Genetics of Lesch–Nyhan Syndrome
        • Treatment and Prospects
        • Further Reading
      • Leukodystrophy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Leukoencephalopathy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lewis, Morris J
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lewy, Fritz Heinrich
        • Abstract
        • Lewy Bodies in Parkinson's Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lhermitte, Jean
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lhermitte's Symptom
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Light Therapy
        • Abstract
        • Human Circadian Rhythms
        • Light Therapy for Circadian Rhythm Disorders
        • Light Therapy for Mood Disorders
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Autosomal Dominant Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy
        • Autosomal Recessive Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Limbic System
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Development and Definitions of the Term
        • Structures of the Limbic System
        • Nature of the Limbic System
        • Difficulties of the Term
        • Practical Use of the Term
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lipidoses
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lipoprotein Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Tangier's Disease
        • Abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen–Kornzweig Disease)
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Little, William John
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lobectomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lobectomy, Temporal
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lobotomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Localization
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Diagnosis
        • Knowledge of Neuroanatomy
        • Discrete Lesions Versus System Pathology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Locked-In Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lorente de Nó, Rafael
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lower Motor Neuron Lesions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Clinical Neurophysiology
        • Differentiating Lower Motor Neuron Weakness from Other Causes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lumbar Plexopathy
        • Abstract
        • Lumbar Plexopathy
        • Causes of Lumbar Plexopathy
        • Anatomy of the Lumbosacral Plexus
        • Clinical Consequences
        • Diagnostic Tests
        • Symptoms and Signs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lumbar Puncture, Ventriculostomy, and Ventriculitis
        • Abstract
        • Anatomical Overview
        • Physiological Considerations
        • Indications and Contraindications for Lumbar Puncture and Ventriculostomy
        • Lumbar Puncture
        • Ventriculostomy
        • Complications
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lumbar Spine Stabilization
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Causes of Lumbar Instability
        • Surgical Indications and Patient Evaluation
        • Surgical Approaches
        • Surgical Adjuncts
        • Surgical Complications
        • Postoperative Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Luria, Alexander Romanovich
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Luys, Jules Bernard
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lyme Disease
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lysosomal Storage Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Lysosome and its Contents
        • Pathophysiology and Diagnosis
        • Recent Advances
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • M
      • MacEwen, William
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mach, Ernst
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Mach Bands
        • Mach–Breuer Theory of Endolymphatic Shift
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Magendie, François
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Experimental Keratomalacia (Vitamin A-Deficiency Eye Disease)
        • Bell–Magendie Law
        • Skew Deviation in Acute Cerebellar Lesions (Magendie–Hertwig Sign)
        • Foramen of Magendie
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Magnetic Resonance Angiography of Cervical and Intracranial Vessels
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Noncontrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography
        • Conventional Bolus-Chase Magnetic Resonance Angiography Technique
        • Time-Resolved Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Intraoperative
        • Abstract
        • Intraoperative MRI
        • Systems
        • Experience
        • Discussion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Magnetic Resonance (MR); Overview
        • Abstract
        • Basics
        • Relaxation
        • Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
        • Abstract
        • Basics
        • Chemical Shift
        • Scalar Coupling
        • Clinical Application
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Magnetic Stimulation
        • Abstract
        • Magnetic Stimulator and Coils
        • Which Elements of the Motor Cortex Are Stimulated?
        • Methods and Measurements
        • Use of the Magnetic Coil for Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
        • Stimulation of Cranial Nerves
        • Safety Considerations and Side Effects
        • Magnetic Stimulation in Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Magnetoencephalography
        • Abstract
        • Brain Electrical Activity
        • Brain Imaging
        • Source Localization
        • Recording Methodology
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Malaria
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology and Transmission
        • Pathogenesis
        • Diagnosis
        • Clinical Features
        • Treatment and Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Malformations of Central Nervous System
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Manganese
        • Abstract
        • Description
        • Other Exposures
        • Regulation
        • Routes of Exposure
        • Metabolism and Elimination
        • Mechanisms
        • Neurological Effects
        • Other Health Problems
        • Diagnosis and Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Maple Syrup Urine Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History of Maple Syrup Urine Disease
        • The Branched-Chain α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Complex
        • Mutations Causing Maple Syrup Urine Disease
        • Pathophysiology
        • Future Concerns
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Marie, Pierre
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Marinescu, Gheorghe
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Marinescu–Sjögren Syndrome
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mass Effect
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Etiology and Pathophysiology
        • Symptoms and Signs
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Measles Virus, Neurological Complications of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Virus
        • The Acute Infection
        • Measles Virus and the Central Nervous System
        • Postinfectious Measles Encephalitis
        • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
        • Subacute Measles Encephalitis with Immunosuppression
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Median Nerve and Neuropathy
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy
        • Motor Innervation
        • Sensory Innervation
        • Entrapment Sites
        • Etiology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
        • Cervical Radiculopathy
        • Brachial Plexopathy
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Medulla Oblongata
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomical Features
        • Physiological Functions
        • Clinical Significance of Lesions of the Medulla Oblongata
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Megalencephaly
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Melatonin
        • Abstract
        • Melatonin and ‘Biological Clock’ System
        • Circulating Melatonin Levels in Humans
        • Endogenous Melatonin and Sleep Physiology
        • Effects of Melatonin Treatment on Sleep
        • Mechanisms of Melatonin Effects on Sleep
        • Melatonin Therapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Membrane Potential
        • Introduction
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Memory, Autobiographical
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Dissociations in Autobiographical Memory: Semantic and Episodic Components
        • The Cognitive Neuroscience of Autobiographical Memory
        • Autobiographical Memory and Self-Identity
        • Autobiographical Memory in Psychogenic Amnesia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Memory, Episodic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Assessment of Episodic Memory
        • Neural Substrates of Episodic Memory
        • Episodic Memory Function in Clinical Populations
        • Episodic Memory across the Lifespan
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Memory, Explicit/Implicit
        • Abstract
        • Neuropsychological Dissociations
        • Behavioral Dissociations
        • Neuroimaging Dissociations
        • Evidence Contrary to Implicit versus Explicit Memory Dissociations
        • Ongoing Issues
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Memory, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Declarative and Nondeclarative Memory
        • Long-Term and Short-Term Memory
        • Retrograde and Anterograde Memory
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Memory, Semantic
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Category Specificity
        • Modality Specificity
        • Anatomical Considerations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Memory, Working
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Alan Baddeley's Influential Model of Working Memory
        • Measurement of Working Memory
        • Neuroscience Investigations of Working Memory
        • Integration of Neuroscience Findings with Baddeley's Model
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ménière, Prosper
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ménière's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Mechanism
        • Treatment
        • Diet and Medication
        • Surgical Intervention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Meningiomas
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Imaging Characteristics
        • Treatment and Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Meningitis, Bacterial
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Meningitis, Eosinophilic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Parasitic Causes of Eosinophilic Meningitis
        • Rare Parasitic Causes of Eosinophilic Meningitis
        • Nonparasitic Infectious Etiologies of Eosinophilic Meningitis
        • Myeloproliferative and Neoplastic Etiologies of Eosinophilic Meningitis
        • Other Noninfectious Causes of Eosinophilic Meningitis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Meningitis, Fungal
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Picture
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Complications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Meningitis, Viral
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathogenesis
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Symptoms and Signs
        • Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Meningitis
        • Other Causes of Lymphocytic Meningitis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Menkes Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Biochemical Pathology
        • Molecular Pathology
        • Prenatal Testing
        • Treatment
        • Summary
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Genetics
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mental Status Testing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Psychiatric Status
        • Cognitive Status
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Meralgia Paresthetica
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Syndrome
        • Etiology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Electrodiagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mercury
        • Abstract
        • Description
        • Production
        • Routes of Exposure
        • Metabolism and Elimination of Mercury
        • Mechanisms
        • Neurological Effects
        • Other Health Effects
        • Diagnosis and Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Merritt, H. Houston
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mesmer, Franz
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (Sulfatide Lipidosis)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Characteristics
        • Pathology
        • Biochemistry and Genetics
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Metastases, Brain
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anticonvulsants
        • Corticosteroids
        • Radiotherapy
        • Surgery
        • Radiosurgery
        • Adjuvant Whole Brain Radiotherapy Used in Conjunction with Conventional Surgery or Stereotactic Radiosurgery
        • Chemotherapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Methanol
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Meynert, Theodore Hermann
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Microcephaly
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Microglia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History and Detection
        • Microglial Origin
        • Microglial Activation
        • Microglial Cytotoxicity
        • Microglia as Antigen-Presenting Cells
        • Microglia as a Sensor of Tissue Pathology
        • Other Central Nervous System Macrophages
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Microneurography
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microneurographic Recording Technique
        • Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Healthy Humans
        • Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Clinical Conditions
        • Skin Sympathetic Nerve Activity
        • Future Perspectives
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Microneurosurgery
        • Abstract
        • Historical Background
        • Microneurosurgical Instruments
        • Microneurosurgical Techniques
        • Education
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Microscopy
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Typical Components of the Microscope
        • Fluorescent Markers
        • Key Microscopy Concepts
        • Polarizing and Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy
        • Confocal Microscopy
        • Two-Photon (Multiphoton) Scanning Microscopy
        • Electron Microscopy
        • Novel Techniques
        • Basics of Image Acquisition and Processing
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Microvascular Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Types of Lesions
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Micturition
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy
        • Neuroanatomy
        • Physiology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Midbrain
        • Abstract
        • Embryology
        • General Anatomy of the Midbrain
        • Tectum
        • Tegmentum
        • Pathology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Migraine, Children and
        • Abstract
        • Introduction to Pediatric Migraine
        • Diagnosing Migraine in Pediatric Patients
        • The Childhood Periodic Syndromes
        • Acute Migraine Treatment in Children and Adolescents
        • Preventive Treatment for Pediatric and Adolescent Migraine
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Migraine; Clinical Aspects
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition and Diagnosis
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Migraine; Genetics
        • Abstract
        • Migraine
        • Pathophysiology of Migraine
        • Genetic Epidemiology of Migraine
        • Hemiplegic Migraine
        • Is It Possible to Translate Genetic Results from Familial Hemiplegic Migraine to Common Migraine?
        • Identification of Susceptibility Factors for Common Migraine
        • Conclusion/Summary/Future Studies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Migraine, Ischemic Stroke and
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Migraine, Medical Treatment of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Aspects
        • Managing Migraine Triggers
        • Acute Migraine Treatment
        • Preventive Therapy of Migraine
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Migraine, Medication Overuse Headache and
        • Abstract
        • Chronic Migraine Epidemiology
        • Chronic Migraine Diagnosis
        • Comorbid Disorders
        • Risk Factors for the Development of Chronic Migraine
        • Chronic Migraine Treatment
        • Reversion from Chronic to Episodic Migraine
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Migraine; Menstruation, Pregnancy and Lactation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Menstrual Migraine
        • Migraine During Pregnancy
        • Migraine During Lactation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Migraine, Neurostimulation Treatment of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Occipital Nerve Stimulation
        • Supraorbital Nerve Stimulation
        • Vagus Nerve Stimulation
        • Sphenopalatine Ganglion Stimulation
        • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
        • Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Migraine, Pathophysiology of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Trigeminovascular Anatomical Mechanisms
        • Central Control of Trigeminovascular Nociceptive Traffic and Migraine Symptoms
        • The Migrainous Brain
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mild Cognitive Impairment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Context
        • Diagnostic Paradigms for Mild Cognitive Impairment
        • Epidemiology of Mild Cognitive Impairment
        • Biomarkers for Mild Cognitive Impairment
        • Neuropsychology of Mild Cognitive Impairment
        • Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mills, Charles Karsner
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Minot, George R and Murphy, William P
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mitchell, Silas Weir
        • Abstract
        • Early Life and Career
        • Studies of Nerve Injuries During the US Civil War
        • The Rest Treatment
        • After the Civil War
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondrial Disorders: Metabolic and Genetic Basis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Specific Pathways of Fuel Metabolism
        • Common Pathways of Oxidative Metabolism
        • Mitochondrial Genetics
        • Diagnostic Approaches
        • Functional Testing
        • Genetic Testing
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke (MELAS)
        • Abstract
        • Clinical and Laboratory Features
        • Genetics
        • Clinical Heterogeneity
        • Genetic Heterogeneity
        • Diagnosis
        • Pathophysiology
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Monakow, Constantin von
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Moniz, Egaz
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Family
        • Medical Career
        • Political Career
        • Cerebral Angiography
        • Prefrontal Leucotomy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mononeuropathy Multiplex
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Monro, Alexander
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Moro, Ernst
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Moro Reflex
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Motor Control, Peripheral
        • Abstract
        • Histology and Connections of the Peripheral Nervous System
        • Physiological Events Leading to Muscle Contraction
        • Spinal Control Mechanisms for Muscle Contraction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Motor Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomical and Electrophysiological Definitions of the Motor Areas of Cortex
        • Output of Cortical Motor Areas
        • Inputs to Cortical Motor Areas
        • Activity of Motor Cortical Neurons
        • Effect of Lesions of Motor Cortical Areas
        • Plasticity of Primary Motor Cortex
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Motor Evoked Potentials
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Recording Techniques
        • Interpretation of Motor Evoked Potentials
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Motor System; Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Motor Unit Potential
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Motor Unit Potential Morphology
        • Recruitment/Interference Pattern
        • Motor Unit Potential in Pathological States
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Movement Disorders; Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hypokinetic Movement Disorders
        • Hyperkinetic Disorders
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Movement Disorders; Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Moyamoya Disease
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MPTP Neurotoxicity
        • Abstract
        • Discovery of 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine-Induced Parkinsonism
        • Neuropathology
        • Pathogenetic Implications
        • Mechanisms of MPTP Neurotoxicity
        • MPTP Based Experimental Models
        • MPTP in the Post-α-Synuclein Era
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mucopolysaccharidoses
        • Abstract
        • Manifestations of the Mucopolysaccharidoses
        • Mucopolysaccharidoses I (α-L-Iduronidase Deficiency)
        • Mucopolysaccharidoses II (Iduronosulfatase Deficiency)
        • Mucopolysaccharidoses III (Sanfilippo Syndromes)
        • Mucopolysaccharidoses IV (Morquio Syndrome)
        • Mucopolysaccharidoses VI (Maroteaux–Lamy Syndrome)
        • Mucopolysaccharidoses VII (Sly Disease)
        • Mucopolysaccharidoses IX (Hyaluronidase Deficiency)
        • Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency
        • Treatment of the Mucopolyssacharidoses
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Müller, Johannes
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Multifocal Motor Neuropathy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Other Diagnostic Tests in Multifocal Motor Neuropathy
        • Diagnostic Categories in Multifocal Motor Neuropathy
        • Pathogenesis
        • Therapy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Multiple Sclerosis and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: Immunology
        • Abstract
        • Multiple Sclerosis, Basic Biology
        • Genetics and Immunology
        • Gray and White Matter: Inflammation and Demyelination
        • White Matter Lesions and Pathology
        • The Fate of Oligodendrocytes and Remyelination
        • Gray Matter Lesions and Pathology
        • Application of Advanced Imaging Techniques in Multiple Sclerosis Pathology
        • Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Multiple Sclerosis; Diagnosis
        • Abstract
        • Historical Description of Multiple Sclerosis
        • Typical Clinical Presentations
        • Clinical Subtypes of Multiple Sclerosis
        • Diagnosing Multiple Sclerosis
        • Multiple Sclerosis Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Multiple Sclerosis; Epidemiology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology in Multiple Sclerosis
        • Distribution from Prevalence Surveys
        • Survival
        • Migration
        • Epidemics
        • Multiple Sclerosis Risk Factors
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Multiple Sleep Latency Test
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Factors Affecting Multiple Sleep Latency Test
        • Methodology
        • Utility
        • Standards of Practice Parameters
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Multiple System Atrophy
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Multiple System Atrophy and Pure Autonomic Failure
        • Multiple System Atrophy and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (Steele–Richardson–Olszewski Syndrome)
        • Multiple System Atrophy and Corticobasal Ganglionic Degeneration
        • Multiple System Atrophy and Cerebrovascular Syndromes
        • Special Tests
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Multisystem Atrophy (MSA)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Münchausen by Proxy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Muscle Biopsy
        • Abstract
        • Biopsy
        • Normal Muscle
        • Neurogenic Disorders
        • Myogenic Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Muscle Biopsy; Processing and Evaluation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • To Biopsy the Muscle
        • Preparation of the Biopsied Muscle
        • Evaluation of the Biopsied Muscle
        • Outlook
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Muscle Contraction; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Membrane Propagation of Electrical Activity
        • Excitation–Contraction–Relaxation Cycle
        • Contractile Apparatus and Noncontractile Structural Complexes
        • Diseases of Muscle Excitation and Contraction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Muscle Strength, Assessment of
        • Abstract
        • Manual Muscle Testing
        • Hand-Held Dynamometer
        • Quantitative Muscle Testing with Fixed Dynamometry
        • Isokinetic Dynamometry
        • Functional Tests
        • Functional Scales
        • Pelvic Floor Strength
        • Respiratory Muscle Strength
        • Variance and Reliability
        • Variability due to the Patient
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Muscle Tone
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neurophysiological Regulation of Muscle Tone
        • Clinical Syndromes of Altered Muscle Tone
        • Management of Altered Muscle Tone
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Muscular Dystrophy, Becker and Duchenne
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Dystrophin–Glycoprotein Complex
        • Other Sarcolemmal Proteins
        • Muscular Dystrophies
        • The Dystrophinopathies: Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy
        • Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy
        • Other Autosomal Recessive Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies
        • Autosomal Dominant Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Muscular Dystrophy: Emery–Dreifuss, Facioscapulohumeral, Scapuloperoneal, and Bethlem Myopathy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy
        • Scapuloperoneal Dystrophy
        • Emery–Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy
        • Bethlem Myopathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Muscular Dystrophy, Oculopharyngeal
        • Abstract
        • Definition and Epidemiology
        • Clinical Phenotype
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Molecular Genetics and Diagnosis
        • Pathogenesis
        • Therapy
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Musculocutaneous Nerve
        • Abstract
        • Musculocutaneous Nerve
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Musical Brain
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • From Vibrating Molecules to Violin Concerto
        • Memory and Music
        • Musical Training
        • Emotion and Music
        • Implications for the Future
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Myasthenia Gravis
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Features
        • Normal Neuromuscular Transmission
        • Immunology
        • Diagnosis
        • Therapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myasthenia Gravis, Immunology of
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Overview
        • Antibodies to Components of the Neuromuscular Junction
        • Antibodies to Other Muscle Components
        • Antibodies to Nonmuscle Antigens
        • The Thymus and Myasthenia Gravis
        • Immunogenetics of Myasthenia Gravis
        • Immunoregulation in Myasthenia Gravis
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myasthenic Syndromes, Congenital
        • Abstract
        • Definitions and Basic Concepts
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Investigation of the Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome
        • Presynaptic Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome
        • Synaptic Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome
        • Postsynaptic Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome
        • Pre- and Postsynaptic Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome
        • Prenatal Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome with Fetal Akinesia and Deformations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myelin
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myelin Disorders
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myelin Proteins
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myelomeningocele
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myoclonus
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myokymia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myopathy, Congenital
        • Abstract
        • Myopathy, Congenital
        • Clinical Features
        • Laboratory Data
        • Treatment
        • Specific Congenital Myopathies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myopathy, Endocrine
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Thyroid Disorders
        • Parathyroid Disorders
        • Adrenal Disorders
        • Pituitary Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myopathy, Metabolic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Basic Principles of Muscle Energy Metabolism
        • Defects of Glycogen Metabolism
        • Defects of Lipid Metabolism
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myopathy, Mitochondrial
        • Abstract
        • Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Defects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myopathy; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Assessment
        • Laboratory Studies for the Evaluation of Myopathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myopathy, Toxic
        • Abstract
        • Acute Myopathies
        • Subacute to Chronic Myopathies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myositis, Inflammatory
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Signs
        • Diagnosis
        • Pathogenesis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myotonia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Myotonic Dystrophies
        • Nondystrophic Myotonias
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myotonic Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Chloride Channel Myotonias
        • Sodium Channel Myotonias
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Myotonic Dystrophy
        • Abstract
        • Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1
        • Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2
        • Treatment
        • Surgery Risks
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nansen, Fridtjof
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Academic Career
        • Arctic Explorer
        • Neuroscientist
        • Patriot, Diplomat, and Humanitarian
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Narcolepsy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Diagnostic Criteria
        • Pathophysiology
        • Differential Diagnosis of Hypersomnolence
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neglect Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Signs and Symptoms
        • Pathophysiology
        • Treatments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neonatal Seizures
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical and Electroencephalographic Features
        • Pathophysiology
        • Etiology
        • Neonatal Epileptic Syndromes
        • Treatment
        • End Point of Acute Therapy
        • Chronic Antiepileptic Drug Therapy and its Eventual Discontinuation
        • Relative Risks and Benefits of Acute and Chronic Therapy
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nerve and Joint Blocks/Lesioning
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Spinal Injections
        • Therapeutic Injections
        • Percutaneous Diagnostic and Treatment Options for Joint Pain
        • Sympathetic Blocks for Neuralgias and Visceral Pain
        • Epidural Blood Patch
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nerve Conduction Studies
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy
        • General Concepts
        • Pathophysiology
        • Technical Considerations
        • Anomalous Innervations
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nerve Injury
        • Abstract
        • Pathogenesis
        • Classification
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nerve Regeneration
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nerve Repair
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Seddon's Classification System
        • Sunderland's Classification System
        • Molecular Mechanisms of Nerve Repair
        • Clinical Assessment
        • Pain Management
        • Surgical Nerve Repair
        • Outcomes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nerve Roots
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nerve Sheath Tumors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neurofibroma and Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor
        • Schwannoma
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nervous System, Neuroembryology of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction to Neuroembryology
        • Principles of Ontogenesis
        • Developmental Processes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neural Tube Defects
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Open Neural Tube Defects
        • Skin-Covered Neural Tube Defects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuroacanthocytosis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Neurocardiogenic Syncope
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Aspects
        • Head-Upright Tilt Table Testing
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurocognitive Function, Autoimmune Disorders and
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
        • Antiphospholipid Syndrome
        • Rheumatoid Arthritis
        • Primary Sjögren's Syndrome
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Neurocysticercosis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Life Cycle
        • Pathology and Clinical Features
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuroepidemiology, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Population-Based Rates
        • Cerebrovascular Disease
        • Primary Neoplasms
        • Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders
        • Dementia
        • Parkinson's Disease
        • Overview of Neurological Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurofibromatosis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Management
        • Molecular Biology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurogenetics, Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuroimaging, Headache Disorders and
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Migraine
        • Photophobia in Migraine
        • Migraine Aura
        • Cluster Headache and Related Disorders
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuroimaging, Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurointervention, Embolization Materials for
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sheaths
        • Guide Catheters
        • Distal Access Catheters
        • Microcatheters
        • Microguidewires
        • Aneurysm Treatment
        • Microballoons
        • Flow Diversion
        • Pushable Coils
        • Particle Embolics
        • Liquid Embolics
        • Onyx
        • Stroke Devices
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurolysis
        • Abstract
        • Technique
        • Adverse Effects
        • Indications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuromodulation Techniques, Pain and
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History of Devices
        • Basics of Neurostimulation of the Spinal Cord
        • Indications for Stimulation
        • Patient Selection
        • Spinal Cord Stimulation in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Treatment Algorithm
        • Spinal Cord Stimulation
        • Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
        • Intrathecal Drug Delivery Systems
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuromuscular Disorders; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Disorders of the Motor Neurons
        • Disorders of the Sensory Neurons
        • Disorders of the Nerve Roots
        • Disorders of Peripheral Nerve
        • Disorders of the Neuromuscular Junction
        • Disorders of Muscle
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuromuscular Disorders, Sleep and
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diagnosis
        • Management
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuromuscular Junction, Normal
        • Abstract
        • Presynaptic Structure and Function
        • Postsynaptic Structure and Function
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuromuscular Transmission Disorders: Electrodiagnostic Tests
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Repetitive Nerve Stimulation Test
        • Compound Muscle Action Potential
        • Single-Fiber Electromyography
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders, Immunology of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum of Disorders
        • Neuromyelitis Optica–Immunoglobulin G
        • Clinical Utility of Neuromyelitis Optica–Immunoglobulin G Testing
        • Autoimmune Accompaniments
        • Treatment Responses
        • Susceptibility Factors
        • Immunopathology
        • Pathogenic Properties of Neuromyelitis Optica–Immunoglobulin G In Vitro
        • Animal Models of Neuromyelitis Optica
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Assessment
        • Enzyme Activities
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuronal Death and Neuroprotection after Stroke and Brain Trauma
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology of Acute Brain Injury
        • Neuronal Excitotoxicity and Oxidative Stress
        • Poly(Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Activation and Secondary Energy Depletion
        • Activation of Enzymatic Casacades and Programmed Neuronal Death
        • Extraneuronal Cell Death and Inflammation
        • Neuroprotective Strategies
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuronal Inclusions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neuronal Inclusions Composed of Tau Protein
        • Neuronal Perikaryal Tau Inclusions
        • Neuritic Tau Inclusions
        • Neuronal Inclusions Composed of α-Synuclein
        • Neuronal Inclusions Composed of TDP-43
        • Neuronal Inclusions Composed of Fused in Sarcoma
        • Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusions
        • Other Inclusions in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurons, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neuron Morphology
        • Synapses – Contact Points between Neurons
        • Neuronal Cytoskeleton – Transport
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuro-Oncology Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuro-Ophthalmology
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathic Pain and Its Management
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definitions
        • Mechanisms of Neuropathic Pain
        • Prevalence and Importance of Neuropathic Pain
        • How Can Neuropathic Pain Be Detected?
        • Management of Neuropathic Pain
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathies, Amyloid
        • Abstract
        • Amyloid Light-Chain Amyloid Neuropathy
        • Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathies, Autonomic
        • Abstract
        • Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy
        • Guillain–Barré Syndrome
        • Porphyria
        • Drug-Induced Acute Autonomic Neuropathies
        • Heavy Metal Poisoning
        • Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathies, Diabetic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diabetic Cranial Neuropathies
        • Diabetic Thoracoabdominal Neuropathy (Truncal Radiculopathy)
        • Proximal Diabetic Neuropathy or Diabetic Polyradiculoplexopathy
        • Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy
        • Mononeuropathies
        • Symmetrical Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathies, Entrapment
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Predisposing Factors
        • Pathophysiology
        • Double Crush Syndrome
        • Clinical Neurophysiology
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathies, Iatrogenic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cranial Neuropathies
        • Iatrogenic Plexopathies
        • Limb Mononeuropathies
        • Multiple Mononeuropathies
        • Drug-Induced Polyneuropathies
        • Treatment and Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathies, Idiopathic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Epidemiology
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathies, Instrumental
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Frequency of Entrapment Neuropathy in Instrumentalists
        • Specific Nerve Entrapment Syndromes in Instrumentalists
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathies, Nutritional
        • Abstract
        • Historical Background
        • Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Deficiency
        • Niacin Deficiency
        • Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Deficiency and Toxicity
        • Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Deficiency
        • Vitamin E Deficiency
        • Strachan's Disease
        • Alcoholic Neuropathy
        • Critical Illness Neuropathy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathies, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification
        • Diagnosis
        • History
        • Pattern Recognition of Neuropathic Disorders
        • Neurophysiological Tests
        • Laboratory Data
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathy, Anti-Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein
        • Neuropathy and Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein
        • Anti-Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein IgM Antibody Detection
        • Clinical Features of the Neuropathy
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Electrophysiological Features
        • Pathological Features
        • Pathogenesis
        • Therapy
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathy, Axillary
        • Abstract
        • Causes of Neuropathy
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropathy, Toxic
        • Abstract
        • Basic Principles and Correlated Clinical Features
        • Agents Associated with Peripheral Neuropathy
        • Occupational and Environmental Agents
        • Pharmaceutical Agents
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropeptides; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Synthesis of Neuropeptides
        • Distribution of Neuropeptides in the Central Nervous System and Periphery
        • Transport of Neuropeptides
        • Neuropeptide Receptors
        • Opioid Peptides and Their Receptors
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurophysiology, Intraoperative
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Techniques Used
        • Anesthetic Effects
        • Interpretation of IONM Data
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropsychology, Developmental
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Moderating Factors
        • Clinical Evaluations
        • Report Writing
        • Treatment Interventions
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuropsychology; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • History
        • Purpose of Neuropsychological Assessment
        • Overview of the Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neuroradiology, Diagnostic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History and Development of Diagnostic Radiology
        • Imaging Modalities
        • Disease Categories
        • Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurosyphilis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Monitoring Therapy
        • Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurotology
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurotoxicology; Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurotransmitter Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neurotransmitters and Neuroactive Drugs
        • Receptor Activation and Signal Transduction
        • Neurotransmitter Receptors: Structure and Function
        • Ionotropic Receptors: Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
        • Metabotropic Receptors: G protein-Coupled Receptors
        • Future Directions
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Neurotransmitters; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neurotransmitter Hypothesis
        • Classic Neurotransmitter Criteria
        • Classic Neurotransmitters
        • Nonclassic Neurotransmitters
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurotrophic Signals, Axonal Transport of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Endo/Lysosomal System for Trafficking Neurotrophic Signals
        • Neurotrophins and Neurotrophin Signaling
        • Axonal Signaling by Neurotrophins: A Necessity and a Challenge
        • Models for Long-Distance Axonal Transport of Neurotrophin Signals
        • p75 Neurotrophin Receptor and Signaling Endosomes
        • Nonneurotrophin Signaling Systems Employ Endocytosis and Trafficking
        • Axonal Transport and Neurodegenerative Diseases
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Neurotrophins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Function
        • Structure and Signaling
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Newton, Isaac
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nicotinic Receptors
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Structure
        • Function
        • Clinical Relevance
        • Current and Future Issues
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Niemann–Pick Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • NPD Types A and B
        • NPD Type C
        • Pathogenesis
        • Diagnosis
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nightmares
        • Abstract
        • Definitions
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nissl, Franz
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nitric Oxide
        • Abstract
        • Nitric Oxide Synthase
        • Nitric Oxide as a Neuronal Messenger
        • Molecular Targets of Nitric Oxide
        • Protein Targets of Nitric Oxide
        • Nitric Oxide as an Endogenous Neurotoxin
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nodes of Ranvier
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Non-REM (Thalamocortical) Sleep
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Scoring
        • Physiological Regulation
        • Distinctive Pattern of Synchronous Discharge
        • Two Key Forces Driving TCS
        • Rethinking TCS for What It Is, Not for What It Is Not
        • The Broader Ontology of TCS
        • Avoiding Mereological Fallacies When Thinking About TCS
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs; Acetaminophen
        • Abstract
        • Nonopioiod Pharmacological Therapy
        • Acetaminophen
        • Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Norepinephrine
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Neurochemistry of Norepinephrine
        • Adrenergic Receptors
        • Effects of Norepinephrine
        • Drugs that Mimic or Block the Effects of Norepinephrine
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nystagmus and Saccadic Intrusions and Oscillations
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definitions
        • Nystagmus
        • Saccadic Intrusions and Oscillations
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • O
      • Obesity
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Etiology
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Occipital Lobe
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Visual Pathways: From the Retina to the Occipital Cortex
        • Mapping Visual Areas: Retinotopy
        • ‘What’ and ‘Where’ Processing Streams in the Human Brain
        • Functional Subsystems
        • Form Perception and Object Recognition
        • Conclusions
        • Further Reading
      • Oculomotor Nerve (Cranial Nerve III)
        • Abstract
        • Oculomotor Nerve Anatomy
        • Oculomotor Nerve Palsy – Appearance
        • Oculomotor Nerve Palsy – Common Etiologies
        • Oculomotor Nerve Palsies – Uncommon Etiologies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Oldendorf, William
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Training and Career
        • Neuroimaging
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Olfactory Nerve (Cranial Nerve I)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • From Molecules to Receptors
        • Cranial Nerve I: The Olfactory Nerve
        • The Olfactory Bulb
        • Olfactory Cortex
        • The Accessory Olfactory System
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Oligodendrocytes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Development of Oligodendrocytes
        • Control of Oligodendrocyte Number: Regulation of Differentiation and Survival
        • Functions of Oligodendrocytes
        • Oligodendrocytes in Disease
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Onufrowicz (Onuf), Bronislav
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Early Career
        • The Pathological Institute
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ophthalmoplegia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Opioids
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Opioid Classification
        • Opioid Effects
        • Pharmacology
        • Dosing and Conversion
        • Tolerance, Dependence, and Addiction
        • Withdrawal
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Oppenheim, Hermann
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Optical Coherence Tomography
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • How Does OCT Work?
        • OCT in Retinal Diseases
        • OCT in Optic Neuropathies
        • OCT in MS
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Optic Chiasm and Tract
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Correlations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Optic Nerve (Cranial Nerve II)
        • Abstract
        • Retina
        • Optic Nerve Head
        • Optic Nerve
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Optic Nerve Disorders
        • Abstract
        • The Optic Nerve – Anatomic Overview
        • Optic Neuropathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Optic Neuritis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diagnosis
        • Investigation
        • Treatment
        • Follow-Up
        • Secondary Causes of Optic Neuritis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Optokinetic Nystagmus
        • Abstract
        • Optokinetic Nystagmus
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Organic Acid Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cerebral Organic Acid Disorders
        • Branched-Chain Organic Acid Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Organic Solvents
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Organophosphates and Carbamates
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Orthostatic Hypotension
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Definition
        • Diagnosis
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Osler–Weber–Rendu Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Osler, William
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • P
      • Paget's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Incidence
        • Signs and Symptoms
        • Diagnostic Testing
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain, Acute and Postoperative
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Opioids
        • Aniline Derivatives (Acetaminophen and Paracetamol)
        • Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
        • Anticonvulsants
        • N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Antagonists
        • α2-Agonists
        • Other Analgesics
        • Multimodal Analgesia
        • Regional and Neuraxial Analgesia
        • Peripheral Nerve Blockade
        • Neuraxial Analgesia
        • Other Peripheral Nerve Blocks
        • Nonoperative Acute Pain
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain: Antidepressant, Anticonvulsants
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mechanisms and Pharmacology
        • Antidepressant Mechanisms of Action
        • Anticonvulsant Mechanisms of Action
        • Trial Results as a Proxy for Clinical Effectiveness
        • Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Dosing
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain, Arthritic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Osteoarthritis
        • Arthritis of the Spine
        • Rheumatoid Arthritis
        • Gout and Pseudogout
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain, Autonomic Dysfunction and
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Disorders of Pain Perception and Autonomic Function
        • Increased Pain Phenotypes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain; Basic Mechanisms
        • Abstract
        • The Nociceptor
        • Response to a Variety of Stimulus Modalities
        • Two Major Classes of the Nociceptor
        • Ascending Pathways
        • Descending Pathways
        • Sensitization of Peripheral Nociceptor Terminals
        • Central Sensitization
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain, Cancer
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Select Cancer Pain States
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain, Children and
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Impacts of Pain Experience
        • Measurement
        • Treatment
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain; Complementary and Alternative Therapies
        • Abstract
        • Acupuncture
        • Chiropractic
        • Massage Therapy
        • Herbal Medicine
        • Other Complementary and Alternative Medicine Options
        • Comment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain, Deafferentation
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Features
        • Mechanisms of Deafferentation Pain
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain, Impaired Communicative Ability and
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pain and Cognitive Impairment
        • Pain Assessment in People with Cognitive Impairments
        • Other Populations with Limited Ability to Communicate
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain Management; Future Directions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Future Directions in the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Pain Conditions
        • Future Directions in Pharmacotherapy for Pain
        • Future Directions in Interventional Therapies for Pain
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain, Nociceptive vs. Neuropathic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Nociceptive Pain
        • Neuropathic Pain
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain, Older Adults and
        • Abstract
        • Prevalence of Chronic Pain in Older Adults
        • Impact of Chronic Pain in Older Adults
        • Aging of Pain Perception
        • Pain Perception in Demented Patients
        • Assessment of Pain in Older Adults
        • Management of Pain in Older Adults
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain, Pelvic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diagnoses and Etiologies
        • General Guidelines for Diagnostic Evaluation
        • General Guidelines for Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain; Psychiatric and Psychological Interventions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Psychiatric Interventions
        • Antipsychotics
        • Psychological Interventions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain Relief in Substance Abusers
        • Abstract
        • Definitions – Addiction, Substance Abuse, and Substance Dependence
        • Prevalence of Substance Abuse
        • Assessment
        • Monitoring and Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain, Spine and Radicular
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy of the Spine
        • Assessment and Management of Spine and Radicular Pain
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pain; Surgical Management
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Surgical Procedures
        • Principles of Preoperative Decision Making
        • Surgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pallidotomy
        • Abstract
        • Indications
        • Physiological Rationale for Pallidotomy
        • History and Surgical Technique
        • Complications
        • Results
        • Alternative to Pallidotomy
        • Pallidotomy for Dystonia and Hemiballism
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PANDAS-Like Illnesses
        • Abstract
        • Further Reading
      • Papez, James W
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Papilledema
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Causes
        • Recommended Workup
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Paralysis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Paraneoplastic Neurologic Disorders: Central
        • Abstract
        • Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration
        • Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis
        • Paraneoplastic Sensory Neuronopathy
        • Paraneoplastic Opsoclonus–Myoclonus
        • Paraneoplastic Stiff-Person Syndrome
        • Paraneoplastic Limbic and Brainstem Encephalitis
        • Progressive Encephalitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Paraparesis and Paraplegia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Paraquat and Parkinson's Disease (PD)
        • Abstract
        • The Proposed Contribution of Environmental Exposures: The Paraquat Connection
        • How Paraquat Enters the Brain
        • Paraquat Specifically Targets the Same Midbrain Neurons Preferentially Affected in Parkinson's Disease
        • Paraquat Exposure also Results in Increased α-Synuclein Aggregation, an Additional Hallmark of the Human Disorder
        • Paraquat Neurotoxicity Involves Oxidative Stress
        • Oxidatively-Induced Pathways Involved in Paraquat Neurotoxicity
        • Paraquat Neurotoxicity Involves Neuroinflammatory Events
        • Paraquat, α-Synuclein, and Other Parkinson's Disease-Related Proteins
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Parasites and Neurological Disease; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Protozoal Diseases
        • Cestode Infections
        • Nematode Infections
        • Trematode Infections
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Parasomnias
        • Abstract
        • Pathophysiology
        • Common Parasomnias
        • Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Parasympathetic System; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Features
        • Parasympathetic Output to Cranial Effectors
        • Vagal Pathways
        • Parasympathetic Control of the Pelvic Organs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Paresis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Parietal Lobe
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy
        • Clinical Deficits Associated with Parietal Lobe Injury
        • Behavioral Consequences of Parietal Injury: Dominant Hemisphere
        • Behavioral Consequences of Parietal Injury: Nondominant Hemisphere
        • Behavioral Consequences of Bilateral Parietal Injury
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Parkinsonism
        • Abstract
        • Drug-Induced Parkinsonism
        • Neurodegenerative Disorders
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Parkinson, James
        • Abstract
        • The Shaking Palsy (Parkinson's Disease)
        • Reform of the Lunacy Acts
        • Politics and Social Advocacy
        • Paleontology
        • Advice to those Considering a Career in Medicine
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Parkinson's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Historical Perspective
        • Prevalence
        • Clinical Picture
        • Diagnosis
        • Etiology
        • Treatment
        • Other Management Aspects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Parkinson's Disease; Epidemiology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Disease Frequency
        • Risk Factors
        • Genetic Forms of Parkinsonism
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Paroxysmal Movement Disorders
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pasteur, Louis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Stereochemistry: The Tartaric Acid Problem
        • Fermentation
        • Biogenesis Versus Spontaneous Generation
        • Pasteurization
        • Origins of Asepsis and Antisepsis
        • Immunology and Vaccination
        • Rabies Vaccine
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pavlov, Ivan
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • The Conditioned Reflex
        • The Nobel Prize and Pavlov's Legacy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Peduncular Hallucinosis
        • Abstract
        • Description and Clinical Features
        • Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Course and Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pelizaeus–Merzbacher Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Phenotypes along the Pelizaeus–Merzbacher/Spastic Paraplegia 2 Disease Spectrum
        • Neuroimaging
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • PLP1 and Proteolipid Protein-1 Biology
        • Pelizaeus–Merzbacher Disease Molecular Genetics and Pathogenesis
        • Genotype–Phenotype Correlation
        • Molecular Testing
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Penfield, Wilder
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Education
        • New York Period
        • Montreal Neurological Institute
        • Contributions
        • Second Career
        • Honors and Awards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Perception and Perceptual Disorders
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep (PLMS)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep
        • Polysomnographic Features of Periodic Limb Movements
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Peripheral Nerve Vasculitis, Immunology of
        • Abstract
        • General Aspects of Vasculitis
        • Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody-Associated Vasculitis
        • Cryoglobulinemia and Hepatitis C-Associated Vasculitis
        • Nonsystemic Vasculitic Neuropathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Peroxisomal Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Peroxisome Biogenesis
        • Metabolic Role of Peroxisomes
        • Human Peroxisomal Disorders
        • Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders
        • Single Peroxisomal Enzyme Deficiencies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Persistent Vegetative State
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Personality Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Normal Personality
        • Psychopathology
        • Prevalence
        • Comorbidity with Other Psychiatric Disorders
        • Treatment Considerations
        • Likely Changes to Personality Nomenclature
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Phantom Limb Pain
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology of Phantom Pain
        • Pharmacological Management of Phantom Limb Pain
        • Key Points
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pharmacology, Antipsychotic
        • Abstract
        • Indications
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • ‘Typicals’ and ‘Atypicals’
        • Clozapine
        • Monitoring
        • New Directions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Basic Defect
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Maternal Phenylketonuria Syndrome
        • Biopterin Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Phobias
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)
        • Specific Phobia
        • Agoraphobia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Phonology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Developmental Disorders of Phonology
        • Acquired Phonological Disorders
        • Distinction from Impairments of Articulation
        • Neural Basis of Phonological Processing
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Phrenic Nerve
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy and Function
        • Causes of Phrenic Nerve Dysfunction
        • Evaluation of Phrenic Neuropathy
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment of Phrenic Neuropathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
        • Abstract
        • Biomedical and Biopsychosocial Models of the Treatment of Pain
        • Medication
        • Therapy Professionals
        • Physical Modalities
        • Multidisciplinary Management of Pain
        • Interdisciplinary Management of Pain
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pick, Arnold
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Contributions to Behavioral Neurology
        • Pick's Disease
        • Impact and Legacy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pituitary Tumors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Symptoms and Signs
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Specific Pituitary Tumors
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Placebo Effect
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Mechanisms
        • Pharmacology
        • Role of Prefrontal Lobes
        • Hidden Treatments
        • Physical Performance
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • POEMS Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnostic Criteria
        • Neuropathological Findings
        • Therapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Physico-Chemical Properties
        • Environmental Contamination and Human Exposure
        • Effects on Human Health
        • Effects in Laboratory Animals
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Polymyalgia Rheumatica
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Pathology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Polysomnography, Clinical
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Focus
        • Technology
        • Indications
        • Correlation with Other Assessment Tools
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Polysomnography; Technique
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Procedure
        • Electroencephalogram
        • Electrooculogram
        • Electromyogram
        • Electrocardiogram
        • Monitoring Respiration During Sleep
        • Blood Gas Measurement
        • Body Position
        • Endoesophageal pH
        • Digital Systems
        • Portable Monitoring
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pons
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Functional Neuroanatomy
        • Clinical Aspects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pontine Nuclei
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Projection Neurons and Interneurons
        • Origin of Corticopontine Fibers
        • Lamellar and Somatotopic Patterns in the Pontine Nuclei
        • Subcortical Inputs
        • Pontocerebellar Connections
        • Clinical Aspects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Porphyria
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Heme Biosynthesis
        • Hepatic Porphyrias
        • The Erythopoietic Porphyrias
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Postictal Manifestations
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Postictal Functional Deficits
        • Postictal Signs Mediated by the Autonomic Nervous System
        • Postictal Headache
        • Postictal Neuropsychological and Behavioral Manifestations
        • Physiological Findings
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Post-Polio Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnosis
        • Neuromuscular Evaluation
        • Pathogenesis
        • Management
        • Prognosis
        • Quality of Life
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Assessment for Screening
        • Assessment for Diagnosis
        • Semistructured Diagnostic Interviews
        • Psychological Tests and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures
        • Diagnostic Evaluation for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
        • Treatment Planning
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Prevalence
        • Clinical Features
        • Pathophysiology
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Prognosis
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pregnancy and Neurological Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hormones of Pregnancy
        • Seizures and Pregnancy
        • Migraine and Pregnancy
        • Meningioma and Pregnancy
        • Pregnancy and Multiple Sclerosis
        • Maternal Depression
        • Maternal Stress
        • Maternal Cognition
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology
        • Histology and Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis
        • Prognosis
        • Treatment
        • Delayed Neurotoxicity
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Problem Solving
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Brain Regions Involved in Problem Solving
        • Modern Theories and Models of Problem Solving
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Procháska, Georg (Jiří)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
        • Abstract
        • The Organism, JC Virus
        • Development of the Disease from Latent Infection
        • Radiological Diagnosis
        • Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Virus in the Cerebrospinal Fluid
        • Neuropathology
        • Prognosis
        • Recent Basic Research
        • Future Studies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Prosopagnosia
        • Abstract
        • Historical Background
        • Why Faces?
        • How Selective is Prosopagnosia?
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pseudotumor Cerebri (PTC)
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Psychiatry Diagnosis
        • Abstract
        • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and Descriptivism
        • The Problem of Complex Systems (e.g., the Brain)
        • Research Domain Criteria
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Psychogenic Unresponsiveness
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Classification
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Pathophysiology
        • Management
        • See also
        • References
      • Psychosocial and Demographic Factors in Pain
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Psychosocial and Demographic Factors Involved in the Experience of Pain
        • Disparities in Pain Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Psychotherapy, Psychodynamic
        • Abstract
        • Major Theoretical Influences
        • Shifting Relationship with Psychiatry
        • Setting the Frame
        • Who Can Benefit?
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ptosis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pulvinotomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pupillary Disorders, Afferent
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pupillary Disorders, Efferent
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pupils
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics of Pupillary Responses
        • Iris Structure and Innervation
        • Parasympathetic Pathways
        • Sympathetic Pathways
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Purkinje, Jan
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Putnam, James Jackson
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Putnam's Acroparaesthia or Syndrome (Carpal Tunnel Syndrome)
        • Beri-beri among Fishermen in Temperate Zones
        • Putnam–Dana Syndrome (Subacute Combined Degeneration)
        • Psychoanalysis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • Q
      • Quadriplegia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Test (QSART)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Quincke, Heinrich Irenäus
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • R
      • Rabies Virus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Virology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Radiculopathy
        • Abstract
        • Radiculopathy
        • Anatomy
        • Historical Aspects
        • Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Radiculopathy
        • Pathophysiology of Radiculopathy
        • Clinical Diagnosis
        • Clinical Localization of Radiculopathy
        • Electrodiagnosis of Radiculopathy
        • Neuroradiology of the Spine
        • Management of Radiculopathy
        • Thoracic Radiculopathy
        • Chronic Pain Syndromes Related to Spine Pain and Radiculopathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Radiculopathy, Cervical
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Nonoperative Management
        • Surgical Management
        • Operative Techniques
        • Posterior Approach
        • Anterior Approach
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Radiculopathy, Lumbosacral
        • Abstract
        • Lumbar Nerve Root Compression
        • Differential Diagnosis of Lumbar Radiculopathy
        • Diagnostic Imaging for Lumbar Radiculopathy
        • Nonsurgical Treatment of Lumbar Radiculopathy
        • Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Radiculopathy Caused by Degenerative Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Radiosurgery
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Radiosurgery – Gamma Knife and Cyberknife
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Radiotherapy and Antineoplastic Drugs, Neurological Complications of
        • Abstract
        • Neurological Complications of Radiotherapy
        • Neurological Complications of Chemotherapy and Other Antineoplastic Drugs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ramón y Cajal, Santiago
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Application of the Golgi Stain
        • Paladin of the Neuron Theory
        • Ramón y Cajal's Legacy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Recklinghausen, Friedrich Daniel von
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • von Recklinghausen's Disease (Neurofibromatosis Type 1)
        • Other Contributions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Reflexes, Spinal Cord and Blink
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Refractory Period
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Remak, Robert
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
        • Abstract
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Associated Conditions
        • Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Respiration
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Central Component of Breathing
        • Peripheral Component of Breathing
        • Breathing Abnormalities
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Respiratory Chain Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features of Respiratory Chain Disorders
        • Diagnosis of Respiratory Chain Disorders
        • Classification of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Disorders
        • Therapy for Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definitions and Diagnosis
        • Epidemiology, Etiology, and Pathogenesis
        • Management
        • Resources
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Retina
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rett's Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Characteristics
        • Variant Phenotypic Expression
        • Clinical Profile
        • Rett's Syndrome in Males
        • What is Known about Rett's Syndrome?
        • Molecular Genetics of Rett's Syndrome
        • Pervasive Growth Failure
        • Brain Development in Rett's Syndrome
        • Variable Clinical Expression
        • Long-Term Management and Survival
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Revascularization, Cerebral
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Brain Imaging
        • Vascular Imaging
        • Differential Diagnosis and Approach to Diagnosis
        • Management
        • Course and Outcome
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Reye's Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rhabdomyolysis and Myoglobinuria
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rhizotomy
        • Abstract
        • Rhizotomy for Trigeminal Neuralgia
        • Rhizotomy for Pain
        • Rhizotomy for Spasticity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rickettsial Infections
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Rickettsial Ecology
        • Human Disease
        • Neurological Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Therapy
        • Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Riddoch, George
        • Abstract
        • World War I
        • World War II
        • Riddoch at Nuremberg: The Rudolf Hess Affair
        • The Stress of War
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rigidity
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rippling Muscle Disease
        • Abstract
        • Inherited Rippling Muscle Disease
        • Caveolin-3
        • Phenotypic Variability
        • Symptoms and Signs
        • Immune-Mediated Rippling Muscle Disease (with Myasthenia Gravis)
        • Autoantibodies with Rippling Muscles and Myasthenia Gravis
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Risk Assessment for Suicide and Violence
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • What is a Violence or Suicide Risk Assessment?
        • Violence Risk Assessment
        • Suicide and Self-Harm Risk Assessment
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rodbell, Martin
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • First and Second Messengers
        • Signal Transduction
        • G protein
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rolando, Luigi
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Romberg, Moritz
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Romberg's Sign
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rosettes and Pseudorosettes
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rotenone
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mode of Toxicity
        • Toxic Effects
        • Routes of Exposure
        • Neurological Effects
        • Rotenoids
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rubella Virus
        • Abstract
        • Rubella Virus
        • Molecular Aspects of the Virus
        • Historical Information
        • Clinical Syndromes
        • Treatment and Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rusk, Howard A
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Development of Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Neurorehabilitation
        • The Benefits of Comprehensive Neurorehabilitation
        • Development of Civilian Rehabilitation Programs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • S
      • Sabin, Albert
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sachs, Bernard
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Salk, Jonas
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Saphenous Nerve
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy
        • Saphenous Neuropathy
        • Clinical Symptoms
        • Etiology
        • Diagnosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sarcoidosis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features of Neurosarcoidosis
        • Diagnosis
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Neurodiagnostic Testing
        • Diagnostic Certainty
        • Treatment
        • Clinical Course and Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Schistosomiasis
        • Abstract
        • Life Cycle
        • General Aspects of Schistosomal Infection
        • Schistosomiasis of the Central Nervous System
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Schizophrenia/Psychosis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Primary Psychosis
        • Schizophrenia and Schizophreniform Disorder
        • Schizoaffective Disorder
        • Delusional Disorder
        • Brief Psychotic Disorder
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Schwann Cell Immunology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Antigen Presentation and Immune Initiation
        • Autoimmune Mechanisms in Neuropathy
        • Schwann Cells and Immune Regulation
        • Novel Schwann Cell Autoantibody Targets in Autoimmune Demyelinating Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Schwann, Theodor
        • Abstract
        • Education and Training
        • The Cell Theory
        • Later Academic Career
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sciatic Nerve
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Scoliosis
        • Abstract
        • Idiopathic Scoliosis
        • Congenital and Neurogenic Scoliosis
        • Neuromuscular Scoliosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Secondary Axotomy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Axonal Pathology
        • Consequences of Secondary Axotomy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Séguin, Édouard
        • Abstract
        • Early Career in France
        • Development of Special Education in the United States
        • Medical Thermometry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Seguin, Edward Constant
        • Abstract
        • Localization of Spinal and Cerebral Disease
        • Other Contributions
        • Tragedy and Sorrow
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Self-Awareness
        • Abstract
        • Historical Context
        • Definition
        • Clinical Conceptual Models of Self-Awareness
        • Neurological Correlates of Self-Awareness
        • Determination of Deficits in Self-Awareness
        • Practical Implications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sensation
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Anatomy and Physiology of Sensation
        • Pathological Sensations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sensation, Assessment of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Bedside Tests of Sensation
        • Quantitative Sensory Testing
        • Nerve Conduction Studies and Clinical Neurophysiology
        • Near-Nerve Recordings
        • Somatosensory Evoked Potentials
        • Nerve Fiber Density
        • Nerve Biopsy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sensory Neuronopathy, Paraneoplastic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Clinical Features
        • Laboratory Features
        • Histopathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sensory Receptors; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mechanoreceptors
        • Thermal Receptors
        • Pain Receptors
        • Other Receptors
        • Sensory Perception
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sensory System; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Sensory Modalities
        • Dorsal Root Ganglion and Plexuses
        • Processing and Perception of Sensory Information
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sensory Testing, Quantitative
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Clinical and Laboratory Features
        • Pathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Serotonin
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sex Headache, Primary
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnosis
        • Prognosis
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sexual Dysfunction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neurophysiology of Sexual Function
        • History and Examination
        • Primary Versus Secondary Sexual Dysfunction
        • Primary Sexual Dysfunction
        • Secondary Sexual Dysfunction
        • Ancillary Evaluations
        • Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sherrington, Charles Scott
        • Abstract
        • Sherrington, Charles Scott
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Shunts, Neurosurgical
        • Abstract
        • Ventricular Shunts
        • Shunt Valves
        • When Shunts Fail
        • Shunt Infections
        • Subdural Shunts
        • Cyst and Syrinx Shunts
        • Other Ventricular Shunts
        • Surgical Implantation of Shunts
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Silent Period
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mixed Nerve Silent Period
        • Procedure
        • Physiological Mechanisms
        • Clinical Applications
        • Cutaneous Silent Period
        • Procedure
        • Physiological Mechanisms
        • Clinical Application
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Single-Fiber EMG
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Fiber Density
        • Neuromuscular Jitter
        • Normal Jitter Values
        • Technical Considerations
        • Single-Fiber Electromyography in Myasthenia Gravis
        • Single-Fiber Electromyography in Neuropathy
        • Single-Fiber Electromyography in Myopathy
        • Other Uses for Single-Fiber Electromyography
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Physical Principles
        • Brain Perfusion Imaging with Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography
        • Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging of Neurotransmitter Systems
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sjögren–Larsson Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features and Pathology
        • Genetics
        • Biochemistry
        • Biochemical Pathogenesis and Potential Biomarkers
        • Diagnosis
        • Therapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Skull
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sleep and Epilepsy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Seizures Across the Sleep–Wake Cycle
        • Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Epilepsy
        • Effects of Epilepsy Therapies on Sleep
        • Sleep Organization in Epilepsy
        • Differentiating Nocturnal Seizures from Parasomnias and Other Paroxysmal Events
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sleep, Condition of
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Sleep Stages
        • Neuronal Mechanisms for Sleep
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sleep Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sleep Disorders: Clarification and Diagnosis
        • Evaluation of Sleep Complaints
        • The Insomnias
        • The Hypersomnias
        • Sleep-Related Movement Disorders
        • The Sleep Apnea Syndromes
        • The Parasomnias
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sleep Medicine, History of
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sleep; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Sleep Stages in Normal Adults
        • Sleep Architecture in Normal Adults
        • Ontogeny of Sleep
        • Sleep Regulation
        • Sleep Requirements
        • Sleep Deprivation and its Effects
        • Other Factors Affecting Sleep
        • Theories of Sleep
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sleep Paralysis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sleep–Wake Cycle
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Slit Ventricle Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Treatment
        • Current Classification
        • Current Treatment Paradigm
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Smell
        • Abstract
        • Sense of Smell
        • Structure of the Olfactory System
        • Central Olfactory Pathway
        • Olfactory Signal Transduction
        • Disorders of Olfaction
        • Evaluation of Olfaction
        • Biomimetic Artificial Nose
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Smith–Lemli–Opitz Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Pathophysiology
        • Management and Treatment
        • Future Challenges/Research
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Smoking and Nicotine
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Snake Venoms
        • Abstract
        • Further Reading
      • Snoring
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology and Risk Factors
        • Pathophysiology
        • Health Consequences
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Somatosensory Evoked Potentials
        • Abstract
        • Recording Technique
        • Short-Latency Upper Extremity Somatosensory Evoked Potentials
        • Medium- and Long-Latency Somatosensory Evoked Potentials of Upper Extremity Stimulation
        • Lower Extremity Somatosensory Evoked Potentials
        • Clinical Application of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sömmerring, Samuel Thomas von
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Selected Works
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spasms
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spasticity
        • Abstract
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Spasticity and Cerebral Palsy
        • Medical Treatment
        • Surgical Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Speech Disorders; Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sperry, Roger
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Nerve Regeneration and Plasticity
        • Equipotentiality
        • Split-Brain Studies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sphincter Disturbances
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy and Neurophysiology of Anal Canal
        • Anorectal Dysfunction
        • Evaluation of Anal Sphincter Function and Electromyographic Studies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spiller, William Gibson
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • The Spiller–Frazier Operation for Trigeminal Neuralgia
        • Cordotomy
        • Clinical Care and Teaching
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spinal Cord Anatomy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Gross Anatomy
        • Internal Organization
        • Functional Considerations of Spinal Cord Anatomy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spinal Cord Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Spinal Cord Diseases with Prominent Upper Motor Neuron Findings
        • Spinal Cord Diseases with Prominent Lower Motor Neuron Findings
        • Spinal Cord Diseases with Prominent Upper And Lower Motor Neuron Findings
        • Spinal Cord Diseases with More Prominent Sensory Findings
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spinal Cord Transection
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Spinal Cord Transection as Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spinal Cord Tumors, Biology of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Pathology
        • Management of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spinal Cord Tumors, Treatment of
        • Abstract
        • Metastatic Tumors
        • Astrocytomas
        • Ependymomas
        • Myxopapillary Ependymomas
        • Spinal Hemangioblastomas
        • Spinal Meningiomas
        • Nerve Sheath Tumors: Schwannomas and Neurofibromas
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spinal Muscular Atrophy
        • Abstract
        • Molecular Genetics of Spinal Muscular Atrophy
        • Diagnostic Classification
        • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMN1): Signs and Symptoms
        • Laboratory Evaluation
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Non-5q Spinal Muscular Atrophies
        • Prevention
        • Management of Spinal Muscular Atrophy
        • Systemic Manifestations of SMN1 Mutation
        • Prognosis
        • Future Therapies
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spinal Roots
        • Abstract
        • Dorsal and Ventral Roots
        • Anatomical Structure
        • Separation of Efferent and Afferent Functions
        • Dorsal and Ventral Root Fibers
        • Segregation of Dorsal Root Fibers by Size
        • Myotomes and Dermatomes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spinal Stroke
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spine Surgery, Minimally Invasive
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spitzka, Edward Charles
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Promoting the Reform of Institutional Psychiatry (1878–80)
        • The Insanity Defense of Charles Guiteau (1881)
        • The Execution of William Kemmler (1890)
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Spondylosis, Cervical and Lumbar
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Spurzheim, Johann Gaspar
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Startle Syndromes
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Status Epilepticus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Classification
        • Electroencephalography of Status Epilepticus
        • Pathophysiology
        • Management
        • Morbidity, Mortality, and Prognosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Stem Cells and Neurogenesis
        • Abstract
        • Biology of Stem Cells
        • Stem Cells in the Adult Brain
        • Adult Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus and Subventricular Zone
        • Neuronal Differentiation and Activity-Dependent Integration
        • Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis
        • Functional Significance of Newborn Neurons
        • Disease Relevance of Adult Neurogenesis
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Stenosis, Lumbar
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Stereotactic Biopsy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Stereotactic Surgery
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Steroids, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Steroidogenic Enzymes
        • Electron Transfer Proteins
        • Tropic Hormone Stimulation and Acute Regulation of Steroidogenesis
        • Expression of Steroidogenic Enzymes in the Nervous System
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Stiff Person Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Electrophysiology–Neuropathology–Pathophysiology
        • Therapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Stroke; Epidemiology
        • Abstract
        • Deaths
        • Illness and Disability
        • Risk Factors and Prevention
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Stroke Imaging/Diffusion–Perfusion MRI
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Stroke; Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Stroke Risk Factors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Risk and Classification of Risk Factors
        • Stroke Risk Markers and Risk Factors
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Stroke Units
        • Abstract
        • Justification for Stroke Units
        • What is a Stroke Unit?
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Stupor
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Subacute Necrotizing Encephalomyelopathy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biochemistry and Genetics
        • Clinical Features
        • Pathology
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Subdural Empyema
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Substance Abuse
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Alcohol
        • Drug Abuse
        • Stimulants
        • Heroin (and Other Opioids)
        • DSM-V Update
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Risk Factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
        • The Terminal Pathway to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
        • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Sleep
        • Arousal
        • Vulnerability of Preterm Infants
        • Recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Superior Colliculus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Superficial Layers
        • Deep Layers
        • Functional Significance
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Suprascapular Nerve
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Disorders
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sweating Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hyperhidrosis
        • Anhidrosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Swedenborg, Emanuel
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sydenham's Chorea
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sydenham, Thomas
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Sydenham's Chorea
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sylvius, Franciscus
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sympathectomy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sympathetic System; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Features
        • Preganglionic Sympathetic Output
        • Sympathetic Ganglia
        • Functions of the Sympathetic System
        • Clinical Correlations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Syncope
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Frequency
        • Mechanism and Classification
        • History and Physical Examination
        • Investigations
        • Therapy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Syringomyelia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Etiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Trauma
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Syrinx
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • T
      • Tabes Dorsalis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Takaki, Kanehiro
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Takayasu's Arteritis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tardive Dyskinesia
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Taste
        • Abstract
        • Introduction: The Importance of Taste
        • Taste and the Concept of Flavor
        • The Taste Bud
        • Central Connections to the Brainstem and Cortex
        • Saliva and Taste
        • Disorders of Taste
        • Treatments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Taylor, John Madison
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tay–Sachs Disease
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Temporal Lobes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Conditions that Result in Injury to the Temporal Lobes
        • Do the Right and Left Temporal Lobe Play Different Roles in Cognition?
        • Relationship between Cognition and Extent of Temporal Lobe Damage
        • Memory
        • Semantic Memory and Language
        • Auditory Perception
        • Emotion and Motivation
        • Visual Perception
        • Olfaction
        • Differences between Diseases and Conditions
        • Functional Neuroimaging
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Temporomandibular Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Evaluation of Patients
        • Diagnosis of Temporomandibular Muscle Pain and Joint Pain
        • Management Strategies
        • Further Reading
      • Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Myofascial Pain
        • Temporomandibular Disorders and Headaches – The Convergence Hypothesis
        • Treating Headache by Targeting Temporomandibular Disorders
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Future Reading
      • Tetanus
        • Abstract
        • Signs and Symptoms
        • Epidemiology
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tetany
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tetrodotoxin
        • Abstract
        • Brief History of Studies of Puffer Fish Toxin – Tetrodotoxin
        • Chemistry of Tetrodotoxin
        • Sources and Distributions
        • Animals Containing Tetrodotoxin are Resistant to Tetrodotoxin
        • Intoxication with Tetrodotoxin
        • Mechanism of Action of Tetrodotoxin on the Sodium Channel
        • Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Sodium Channels
        • Therapeutic Application of Tetrodotoxin
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thalamotomy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Overview
        • Current Use of Thalamotomy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thalamus
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Major Components
        • Thalamic Nuclear Organization
        • Classification of Thalamic Nuclear Groups
        • Physiological Response Patterns
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Therapeutic Neuroradiology; Angioplasty and Stenting
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Arterial Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Therapeutic Neuroradiology; Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis
        • Mechanical Thrombectomy or Aspiration
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thermoregulatory Sweating
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neuronal Mechanisms of Thermoregulatory Sweating
        • Thermoregulatory Sweating Effectors: The Sweat Glands
        • Disorders of Thermoregulatory Sweating
        • Thermoregulatory Sweat Test
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thiamine (Vitamin B1) and Beri-Beri
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pyruvate Decarboxylase
        • α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase
        • Branched-Chain α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase
        • Transketolase
        • Thiamine Deficiency States
        • Thiamine Dependency States
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thoracic Nerve, Long
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy and Function
        • Causes of Long Thoracic Nerve Dysfunction by Location
        • Evaluation of Long Thoracic Nerve Dysfunction
        • Prognosis and Treatment of Long Thoracic Nerve Palsy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thoracic Outlet Syndromes
        • Abstract
        • Arterial Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
        • Venous Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
        • True Neurological Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
        • Disputed Neurological Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
        • Traumatic Neurovascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thoracic Spine Stabilization
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Surgical Indication
        • Patient Selection and Preoperative Management
        • Surgical Approaches
        • Instrumentation and Arthrodesis
        • Surgical Adjuncts
        • Surgical Complications
        • Postoperative Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thunderclap Headache
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Primary Thunderclap Headache
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thyroid and Thyroid Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis)
        • Thyroid Ophthalmopathy
        • Hypothyroidism (Myxedema)
        • Hashimoto's Encephalopathy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tibial Nerve
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy
        • Electrodiagnostic Evaluation
        • Clinical Syndromes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tic Disorders
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tinel, Jules
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Tinel's Sign (Hoffmann–Tinel Sign)
        • Pheochromocytoma (Labbé's Syndrome)
        • World War II
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Tinnitus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mechanism
        • Subjective Tinnitus
        • Objective Tinnitus
        • Pulsatile Tinnitus
        • Clinical Evaluation
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Todd, Robert Bentley
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Toxic Encephalopathy
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Clinical Picture
        • Pathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Toxoplasmosis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Transmission
        • Infection and Disease of Humans
        • Central Nervous System Toxoplasmosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Transient Epileptic Amnesia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Transient Epileptic Amnesia: Development of the Concept
        • Clinical Features of Transient Epileptic Amnesia
        • Differential Diagnosis of Transient Epileptic Amnesia
        • Pathophysiology of Transient Epileptic Amnesia
        • Neuropsychology of Transient Epileptic Amnesia
        • Accelerated Long-term Forgetting
        • Remote Memory Impairment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Transient Global Amnesia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Diagnostic Criteria
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Neuropsychological Presentation
        • Pathophysiological Mechanisms
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Transposition, Surgical, of Vertebral Artery
        • Abstract
        • Evaluation
        • Surgical Technique
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Traumatic Brain Injury, Mild
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Diagnosis
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Persistent Problems – Definitions of Postconcussional Disorder
        • Multiple Factors that Impede Recovery
        • A Biopsychosocial Understanding
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Traumatic Brain Injury; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification
        • Pathophysiology
        • Management
        • Prognostic Determination
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias (TACs) – Cluster Headache
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Context
        • Classification
        • Epidemiology and Genetics
        • Clinical Features
        • Pathophysiology
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias (TACs) – Hemicrania Continua
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology and Sex Distribution
        • Family History and Genetics
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Differential Diagnosis of Hemicrania Continua
        • Differential Diagnosis between Hemicrania Continua and Other Primary Headaches
        • Diagnosis and Investigations
        • Natural History and Prognosis
        • Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias (TACs) – Paroxysmal Hemicrania
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology and Sex Distribution
        • Family History and Genetics
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Triggers
        • Subtypes
        • Differential Diagnosis of Paroxysmal Hemicrania
        • Diagnosis and Investigations
        • Natural History and Prognosis
        • Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias (TACs) – SUNCT/SUNA
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Characteristics
        • Epidemiology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Pathophysiology
        • Making a Diagnosis of SUNCT/SUNA
        • Treatment of SUNCT/SUNA
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Trigeminal Nerve (Cranial Nerve V)
        • Abstract
        • Trigeminal Nerve (Cranial Nerve V)
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Trigeminal Neuralgia
        • Abstract
        • Medical Therapy
        • Surgical Treatment
        • Percutaneous Procedures
        • Stereotactic Radiosurgery
        • Microvascular Decompression
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Trinucleotide Repeat Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Loss-of-Function of the Gene Containing the Repeat
        • Protein Gain-of-Function due to Polyglutamine Tract Expansion
        • RNA Gain-of-Function due to Expanded CG-Rich Repeat Tracts
        • Polyalanine Tract Expansion
        • Unclassified Repeat Expansion Disorders
        • Natural History of Repeat Expansion Disease: Features and Considerations
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Trochlear Nerve (Cranial Nerve IV)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy
        • Trochlear Nerve Palsies
        • Localization of Trochlear Nerve Palsies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tropical Neurology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epilepsy
        • Cerebrovascular Disease
        • Myopathy
        • Movement Disorders
        • Demyelinating Diseases
        • Toxic and Nutritional Factors
        • Toxins
        • Nutrition
        • Bites and Stings
        • Heat Disorders
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tuberculosis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Features
        • Management
        • Molecular Biology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tumors, Central Nervous System; Epidemiology of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Descriptive Epidemiology
        • Social Class
        • Suggested Causes of Brain Tumors
        • Pathogenesis of Nervous System Tumors
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Turner's Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features of Turner's Syndrome
        • Neuroanatomical and Neurophysiological Changes Associated with Turner's Syndrome
        • Neurocognitive Profile
        • TS Psychosocial Profile
        • Conclusions, Limitations, and Future Directions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • U
      • Ulnar Neuropathy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Ulnar Nerve Anatomy
        • Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow
        • Laboratory Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Ulnar Neuropathy at the Wrist
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ultrasound, Carotid
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Basic Principles
        • Carotid Duplex Ultrasonography
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ultrasound, Transcranial Doppler
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principles
        • Use of Transcranial Doppler to Measure Cerebral Blood Flow, Vessel Stenosis, and Emboli
        • Milestones in the Development of Transcranial Doppler
        • Examination Techniques
        • Intracranial Stenosis and Thrombosis
        • Intracranial Monitoring for Microemboli and Altered Perfusion
        • Relative Blood Flow Changes
        • Evaluation of Vasospasm
        • Evaluation of Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Uncus
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Upper Motor Neuron Lesions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Differential Diagnoses
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Uremic Encephalopathy
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Clinical Manifestations of Acute and Chronic Uremic Encephalopathy
        • Pathogenesis of Uremic Encephalopathy
        • Encephalopathy Related to Treatment of Uremia
        • Posterior Reversible Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome
        • Investigations
        • Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • V
      • Vagus Nerve (Cranial Nerve X)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Gross Anatomy
        • Functional Components
        • Clinical Correlations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Valsalva Maneuver
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Use of the Valsalva Maneuver to Evaluate Adrenergic Function
        • Valsalva Ratio
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Van Gehuchten, Arthur
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vanishing White Matter Disease (CACH Syndrome)
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology and Genetics
        • Clinical Signs
        • Pathology
        • Physiological Function of eIF2B and the Unfolded Protein Response
        • Pathogenesis
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Varicella-Zoster Virus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Varicella-Zoster Virus Genome
        • Varicella-Zoster Virus Pathogenesis
        • Varicella-Zoster Virus Latency
        • Varicella-Zoster Virus Reactivation
        • Neurological Complications of Zoster
        • Prevention of Zoster
        • Simian Varicella Virus Infection of Nonhuman Primates
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vascular Steal
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vasculitic Neuropathy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vasculitis, Cerebral; Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Classification and Clinical Findings
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vasculitis, Nervous System; Immunology of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diagnostic Criteria and Disease Subtypes
        • Clues from Histopathology and Immunological Studies of PACNS
        • The Role of Amyloid in PACNS
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vasomotor Reflexes, Skin
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Venous Malformation
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vertebrate Nervous System, Development of the
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Early Embryological Development of the Nervous System
        • Segmentation
        • Neuronal and Glial Differentiation
        • Neuronal Proliferation and Migration
        • Neuronal Death
        • Formation of Synaptic Connections
        • Activity-Dependent Remodeling
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vertigo and Dizziness
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification of Symptoms and Syndromes
        • Major Vestibular Syndromes (Acute, Episodic, and Chronic)
        • Overlap Syndromes
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vesalius, Andreas
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vestibular Loss
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Unilateral Vestibular Loss
        • Bilateral Vestibular Loss
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vestibular Neuritis and Labyrinthitis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vestibular Reflexes
        • Abstract
        • Peripheral Sensory End Organ
        • Central Processor
        • Motor Output of the Vestibular System Neurons
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vestibular System
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • How Does the Vestibular System Work?
        • Vestibular Symptoms
        • Common Vestibular Disorders
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vestibulocochlear Nerve (Cranial Nerve VIII)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Viral Vaccines and Antiviral Therapy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Vaccines
        • Vaccines for Neurological Viral Diseases
        • Vaccines for Other Important Viral Diseases
        • Uses of Vaccines
        • Neurological Complications of Immunization
        • Antiviral Drugs
        • Frontiers
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Virchow, Rudolph
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Virchow's Archive
        • Cellular Pathology and the Nervous System
        • Final Years and Legacy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Visceral Pain
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Visceral Sensory Innervation
        • Visceral Nociceptors
        • Central Processing and Representation of Visceral Afferent Input
        • Visceral Hypersensitivity
        • Closing Comments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Visual Color and Form Perception
        • Abstract
        • Color Perception
        • Form Perception
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Visual Field
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Methods of Examination
        • Terminology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Visual Loss, Cerebral
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Visual Loss; Overview
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy and Physiology of the Visual System
        • Causes of Visual Loss
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Visual Loss, Transient
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Evaluation
        • Vascular Causes
        • Neurological Causes
        • Ophthalmic Causes
        • Other Causes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Visual Motion and Space Perception
        • Abstract
        • Motion Perception
        • Space Perception
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Visual Pathways; Anatomy and Field Defects
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy of the Visual System
        • Localization of Lesions in the Optic Pathways
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Visual System, Central
        • Abstract
        • Subcortical Visual Pathways from Retina to Cortex
        • Striate Cortex and Beyond
        • Central Disorders of Vision
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamin A
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Vitamin A Deficiency
        • Vitamin A Toxicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamin D
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Vitamin D Deficiency
        • Vitamin D Dependency
        • Vitamin D Excess
        • Newer Findings on Vitamin D in the Nervous System
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamins; Overview
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vogt, Cécile and Oskar
        • Abstract
        • Early Careers
        • Berlin
        • Basal Ganglia Studies
        • Oskar Vogt and Cyto- and Myeloarchitectonics
        • Oskar Vogt and Lenin's Brain
        • Work Disrupted by the Nazis
        • Honors and Recognition
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Volume Conduction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Brain Generator Sources
        • Electrical Potential Spread
        • Recording the Electroencephalogram on the Surface
        • Electrode Placement as Spatial Sampling
        • Limitations on Electrodes Coverage and Referencing
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vomiting Center
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Area Postrema as a Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone for Vomiting
        • Vagal Afferent Fibers Elicit Nausea and Vomiting
        • Physiology of Nausea and Vomiting
        • Therapeutic Implications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • von Hippel–Lindau Disease
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Features
        • Management
        • Molecular Biology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • W
      • Wakefulness
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Wald, George
        • Abstract
        • The Visual Cycle of Vitamin A
        • Experimental Dietary Night Blindness
        • Hormone-Like Actions of Vitamin A
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Walker, Mary Broadfoot
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Myasthenia Gravis
        • Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Wallenberg, Adolf
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Waller, Augustus Volney
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Wepfer, Johannes Jacob
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Wernicke, Carl
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Aphasia
        • Wernicke's Encephalopathy
        • Other Neurological Contributions
        • Models of Mental Illness
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Wernicke's Area
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features of Wernicke's Aphasia
        • Localization of Wernicke's Area
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Wernicke's Encephalopathy
        • Abstract
        • Wernicke's Encephalopathy
        • Clinical Features
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Westphal, Carl
        • Abstract
        • Agoraphobia
        • The Knee Jerk and Westphal's Sign
        • Westphal–Strümpell Pseudosclerosis
        • Edinger–Westphal Nucleus
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Whipple's Disease
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • White Matter
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Gross Anatomy
        • Microscopy
        • Neurochemistry
        • Arterial Angioarchitecture
        • Blood Flow and Metabolism
        • Embryonic and Fetal Development
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Whytt, Robert
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Willis, Thomas
        • Abstract
        • Early Life and Education
        • The First Neurological Research Team
        • London Period
        • Collateral Circulation to the Brain
        • Other Neurological Contributions
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Wilson, Samuel Alexander Kinnier
        • Abstract
        • Career
        • Wilson's Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Wilson's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features and Natural History
        • Molecular Pathology
        • Diagnosis and Genetic Counseling
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Wilson's Disease, History of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Wilson's Disease
        • An Expanded Clinical Spectrum
        • Tissue Deposition of Copper
        • Genetics
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Wollaston, William Hyde
        • Abstract
        • Homonymous Hemianopsia
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Women's Health, Neurology of
        • Abstract
        • Hormone Actions in the Brain
        • Neuroendocrine Function and the Hypothalamic Control of Reproduction
        • Hormones and Brain Structure
        • Women's Neurological Health across the Life Cycle
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Writer's Cramp/Tremor
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • Y
      • Young, Thomas
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Career
        • Accommodation
        • The Young–Helmholtz Theory of Trichromatic Color Vision
        • Visual Fields
        • See also
        • Further Reading
  • Index
  • Authors

Quotes and reviews

Praise for the first edition:

"Here is a work that the busy clinical neurologist - practicing or academic - can keep next to her/his two-volume OED, Webster's Unabridged, and Internet access. Aminoff and Daroff - themselves encyclopedic in their knowledge, breadth, and editorial experience - have put together a truly all-encompassing editorial compendium."--NEUROLOGY (October 2003)

 
 
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