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Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems
 
 

Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2nd Edition

 
Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2nd Edition,Neal K. Van Alfen,ISBN9780444525123
 
 
 

N Van Alfen   

Academic Press

9780444525123

9780080931395

2752

This five-volume reference work comprehensively covers the important areas of agriculture and food science, covering methods, practices, and ideas in this growing discipline.

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Key Features

  • Addresses important challenges of sustainability and efficiency from a global perspective.
  • Takes a detailed look at the important issues affecting the agricultural and food industries today.
  • Full colour throughout.

Description

Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Second Edition addresses important issues by examining topics of global agriculture and food systems that are key to understanding the challenges we face. Questions it addresses include:

  • Will we be able to produce enough food to meet the increasing dietary needs and wants of the additional two billion people expected to inhabit our planet by 2050?
  • Will we be able to meet the need for so much more food while simultaneously reducing adverse environmental effects of today’s agriculture practices?
  • Will we be able to produce the additional food using less land and water than we use now?

These are among the most important challenges that face our planet in the coming decades. The broad themes of food systems and people, agriculture and the environment, the science of agriculture, agricultural products, and agricultural production systems are covered in more than 200 separate chapters of this work. The book provides information that serves as the foundation for discussion of the food and environment challenges of the world. An international group of highly respected authors addresses these issues from a global perspective and provides the background, references, and linkages for further exploration of each of topics of this comprehensive work.

Readership

The core market is academic institutions, particularly those teaching agricultural science, plant science, ecology, environmental science, genetics, molecular biology and soil science. It will also appeal to government officials and think tanks in the areas of agricultural and environmental policy, ecology and sustainability.

Neal K. Van Alfen

Neal Van Alfen is professor of plant pathology at UC Davis. His research focuses on fungal molecular biology with the goal of controlling plant diseases using low-input, sustainable methods such as biological control using fungal viruses. He also has expertise on the effects of air pollution on environmental health, having served as a consultant to industry in this area for 15 years. An elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Phytopathological Society, Van Alfen serves, or has served, on numerous national and international committees and boards, including the Binational Agricultural Research and Development Foundation, a foundation that supports about $ 8 million per year in research for Israeli and U.S. scientists. He is editor of the Annual Review of Phytopathology, the editor-in-chief of the Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, and on the editorial board of Journal of Integrative Agriculture, the leading agricultural journal of China. He served as president of the American Phytopathological Society, was member-at-large of the Section on Agriculture, Food, and Renewable Resources of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, chaired the National Agricultural Biotechnology Council, chaired the Administrative Heads Section of the American Public and Land Grant Universities. Van Alfen served as dean of the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, UC Davis from 1999 - 2012 during which he led a three-fold increase of extramural research support per faculty member, created a number of research and outreach centers and institutes, including the Agricultural Sustainability Institute, the Robert Mondavi Institute for Wine and Food Science, and the Center for Produce Safety. He led fund raising efforts that resulted in creation of 14 new endowed chairs for faculty and resulted in the construction of a $ 100 million academic center for food and beverage research and education. The UC Davis agricultural, food and environmental science programs are routinely ranked among the best in the world. He previously served as head of the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Texas A&M University; professor of biology and molecular biology and biochemistry and Cooperative Extension Specialist, Utah State University; and plant pathology research scientist, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven. Prior to earning a doctoral degree in plant pathology from UC Davis, Van Alfen earned bachelor’s (chemistry) and master’s (botany) degrees from Brigham Young University.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Davis, USA

Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2nd Edition

  • Editor-in-Chief
  • Associate Editors
  • Preface
  • Permission Acknowledgments
  • Article Titles
    • A
      • Advances in Animal Biotechnology
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • What is Animal Biotechnology?
        • Earliest Animal Biotechnology
        • Assisted Reproductive Technology
        • Transgenic Technologies for Food and Other Products
        • Biopharming: Transgenic Animal Advances in Medicine and Research
        • Transgenic Animals with Increased Disease Resistance
        • Biotechnology Enhances and Advances Selective Breeding
        • Risks and Regulations
        • Multimedia Annexes
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Advances in Pesticide Risk Reduction
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Pesticides in the Environment
        • Strategies to Reduce Pesticide Risks
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Agbiotechnology: Costs and Benefits of Genetically Modified Papaya
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Papaya Is the Fruit of Angels
        • Worldwide Threat on Papaya Production by Papaya Ringspot Virus
        • No Natural Source for Resistance Breeding and No Effective Control Measures by Agricultural Practices
        • Control of Papaya Ringspot Virus by Cross-Protection
        • Effective Control of Papaya Ringspot Virus by Netting
        • Control of Papaya Ringspot Virus by RNA Silencing-Based Transgenic Resistance
        • Coat Protein-Transgenic Papaya Resistant to Papaya Ringspot Virus Saves Papaya Industry in Hawaii
        • Coat Protein-Transgenic Papaya Facing Complicated Situations in Taiwan
        • Papaya Production Is Seriously Limited by Papaya Ringspot Virus in Southeast Asian Countries
        • Current Advances on Papaya Biotechnology
        • Environmental and Food Safety Assessments of Transgenic Papaya and International Trading
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
      • Agribusiness Organization and Management
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Concept of Agribusiness
        • Global Agribusiness Environment
        • Agribusiness Firm Management
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Agricultural Cooperatives
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Concept of a Cooperative
        • Modern History and Types of Cooperatives
        • Economic Theory of Cooperatives
        • Cooperative Management
        • Cooperatives and Economic Performance
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Agricultural Ethics and Social Justice
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Agricultural Ethics
        • Agricultural Ethics and Justice
        • History of Agricultural Ethics
        • Rights-Based Ethics and Agriculture
        • Consequentialism and Agriculture
        • Communitarianism and Agriculture
        • Environmental Ethics and Agriculture
        • Unintended Consequences
        • Structure of Agriculture
        • Conduct and Professional Ethics
        • Research Ethics in Agricultural Science
        • Animal Well-Being
        • Agricultural Biotechnology
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Agricultural Finance
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Microagricultural Finance
        • Macroagricultural Finance
        • Disclaimer
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Agricultural Labor: Demand for Labor
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The Economics of Labor Demand
        • Mechanization of US Agriculture in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
        • Substitution of Biological Advances and Chemicals for Farm Labor and Other Agricultural Materials
        • More on Mechanization of Fruit and Vegetable Harvesting
        • Structure of Farms
        • Estimates of the Wage Elasticity of Demand for US Farm Labor
        • Conclusions
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Agricultural Labor: Gender Issues
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • History of Women as Agricultural Labor
        • Women as Flexible Agricultural Labor: The Current Situation
        • Guest Worker Programs
        • Key Gender Issues
        • Potential for Improvements
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Agricultural Labor: Labor Market Operation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Farm Labor Market
        • Guest Workers: Braceros and H-2A Workers
        • Unions
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Agricultural Labor: Supply of Labor
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Farm Employment
        • Farm Workers: US and Foreign Born
        • Immigration Reform and Farm Workers
        • Farmers and Farm Workers
        • Food Processing and Meatpacking
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Agricultural Law
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Institutions Supporting Agricultural Law
        • Transactions in Real Property
        • Leases of Real Estate Interests and Granting Access to Property
        • Agricultural Nuisances
        • Business Arrangements
        • Governmental Regulations and Programs
        • Water Resources
        • Environmental Issues
        • Other Issues
        • Conclusory Comments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Agricultural Mechanization
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Grain Harvesting and Threshing Machines
        • Tractors
        • Tools for Tillage
        • Cotton Mechanization: Gins and Harvesters
        • Dairy Innovations: From Churns to Milking Machines
        • Perspectives
        • See also
        • References
      • Agricultural Policy: A Global View
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Policy Impacts on Agricultural Prices
        • Why Governments Distort Agricultural Markets the Way They Do?
        • Prospects for Further Policy Reforms
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Agroforestry: Complex Multistrata Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction and Definition
        • Types, Composition, Distribution, and Temporal Dynamics of CMSAF
        • Environmental Functions
        • Production and Intensification
        • Futures of CMSAF
        • See also
        • References
      • Agroforestry: Conservation Trees and Erosion Prevention
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Earthflow Erosion
        • Slump Erosion
        • Fluvial Erosion Forms
        • Tunnel Gully Erosion
        • Gully Erosion
        • Rill Erosion
        • Stream Bank Erosion
        • Illustrative Case Studies – China
        • Summary
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Agroforestry: Fertilizer Trees
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Fertilizer Trees: Definition
        • Benefits of Fertilizer Trees
        • Provision of Products
        • Trade-offs
        • Conclusions
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • References
      • Agroforestry: Fodder Trees
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Fodder Tree Species
        • Fodder Tree Practices
        • Fodder Yields
        • Animal Productivity
        • Benefits and Impacts
        • Gender Considerations
        • Key Challenges for Enhancing Fodder Trees' Benefits
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Agroforestry: Hydrological Impacts
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Complementary and Competitive Interactions for Resources
        • Why Tree Root Distribution Matters
        • Importance of Hydraulic Lift
        • Modeling the Impacts of Agroforestry
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Agroforestry: Participatory Domestication of Trees
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Strategy
        • Techniques
        • Outcomes
        • Future Impact
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Agroforestry: Practices and Systems
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction: A Brief History of the Development of Agroforestry
        • Agroforestry: Concepts, Principles, and Characteristics
        • Agroforestry: Practices and Systems
        • Geographical Distribution and Area under AFS
        • Brief Description of Major Agroforestry Practices
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Air: Confined Animal Facilities and Air Quality Issues
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Air Pollutants
        • Large Ruminant Facilities
        • Swine Facilities
        • Poultry Facilities
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Air: Greenhouse Gases from Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Introduction: Agriculture and Land Use
        • Nitrous Oxide
        • Methane
        • Carbon Dioxide
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Analyses of Total Phenolics, Total Flavonoids, and Total Antioxidant Activities in Foods and Dietary Supplements
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Analysis of Total Phenolics in Foods and Dietary Supplements
        • Analysis of Total Flavonoids
        • Chemical Total Antioxidant Activity Assays
        • Cell-Based Total Antioxidant Assay
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Animal Health: Ectoparasites
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Direct Consequence of Ectoparasites in Livestock
        • Indirect Consequence of Ectoparasites: Vector Transmission of Zoonotic Diseases
        • Heartwater (Cowdriosis)
        • African Swine Fever
        • Anaplasmosis
        • Bluetongue
        • Bovine Babesiosis
        • Theileriosis (East Coast Fever) and Tropical Theileriosis
        • Trypanosomiasis
        • Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Venzuelan Equine Encephalitis, Western Equine Encephalitis, Japanese Encephalitis, and West Nile
        • Final Remarks
        • See also
        • References
      • Animal Health: Foot-and-Mouth Disease
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The Agent
        • Pathogenesis
        • Virulence Factors
        • Host Immune Responses to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
        • Disease Outbreaks
        • Disease Control Measures
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
      • Animal Health: Global Antibiotic Issues
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Antibiotics Used as Growth Promoters
        • Antimicrobials for Pre-harvest Foodborne Pathogens Reduction in Food Animals
        • Antibiotics Used as Veterinary Medicine
        • Limitations of Antibiotic Use in Animals
        • Public Health Concerns about Antibiotic Resistance
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Animal Health: Mycotoxins
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Main Toxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxins
        • Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feedstuffs
        • Toxicological Effects of Mycotoxins
        • Prevention of Mycotoxicoses
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Animal Health: Tuberculosis
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • The Disease
        • The Agent: The Mycobacterium Genus
        • Tuberculosis in Human Beings
        • Zoonotic Potential of Bovine Tuberculosis
        • Immune Response to Mycobacteria
        • Diagnosis
        • Epidemiology and Risk Factors
        • Disease Control
        • See also
        • References
      • Animal Welfare: Stress, Global Issues, and Perspectives
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Definitions
        • Farm Animals
        • Laboratory Animals
        • Wildlife
        • Animals in Exhibits and for Recreation
        • Conflicting Societal Issues and Pressures
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Asian Aquaculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Aquaculture – A Brief History
        • Asian Aquaculture: The Champion
        • Economics of Asian Aquaculture
        • Main Aquaculture Species in Asia
        • Main Environments for Fish
        • Sustainable Aquaculture Production
        • Aquatic Animal Health Management
        • Aquaculture Certification
        • Future Forecast and Some Final Remarks
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • B
      • Beef Cattle
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Beef Cattle Operations and Production Systems
        • Breeding and Genetics
        • Nutrition
        • Reproduction
        • Health
        • Behavior and Welfare
        • Carcass and End Products
        • Global Cattle and Beef Comparisons
        • New and Emerging Technologies
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Agroecosystems
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Ecosystem Services and Disservices in Agricultural Landscapes
        • Managing Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes
        • Measuring Ecosystem Services and Evaluating Service Providers
        • Promoting Synergies between Yield and Ecosystem Services
        • Landscape Context
        • Policies and Programs to Conserve and Enhance Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes
        • Knowledge Gaps
        • References
      • Biodiversity: Conserving Biodiversity in Agroecosystems
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Components of Soil Biodiversity
        • Biodiversity and Soil Function: Why Maintaining Abundant and Diverse Communities Is Beneficial?
        • Conserving Soil Biodiversity in Agroecosystems through Management Options at Different Scales
        • Future Research in Soil Biodiversity
        • Conclusion
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Biosecurity and Equine Infectious Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Biosecurity
        • Equine Herpesvirus-1 Neurological Disease
        • Management of Outbreaks of Neurological Disease Associated with EHV-1
        • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
        • Strangles in Horses
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Biotechnology Crop Adoption: Potential and Challenges of Genetically Improved Crops
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Agronomic Traits and Sustainability
        • Barriers to Introduction
        • Future Directions
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Biotechnology: Herbicide-Resistant Crops
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Nontransgenic Herbicide-Resistant Crops
        • Transgenic Herbicide-Resistant Crops
        • The Future – Where This Technology May Be in the Next Decade and Beyond
        • See also
        • References
        • Relavant Websites
      • Biotechnology: Pharming
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Products
        • Production Systems
        • Purification
        • Regulatory Considerations
        • Case Study
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Biotechnology: Plant Protection
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Breakthrough Scientific Discoveries and New Scientific Resources Available for Exploitation
        • Harnessing New Knowledge on Pattern-Recognition Receptor Proteins and R Proteins
        • Widening Resistance Protein Recognition Specificity
        • Blocking Pathogen-Effector Uptake into Plant Cells
        • Removal of Plant-Susceptibility (S) Targets
        • Targeting Pathogenicity Factors
        • Enhancing Plant Defense-Signaling and the Overexpression of Key Defense Components
        • Engineering Nematode Resistance
        • Enhancing Resistance against Insect Pests
        • Combining Approaches to Achieve Sustainable and Durable Crop Protection
        • Conclusions and Future Prospects
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Biotechnology: Regulatory Issues
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Trends in the Use, Research, and Development of Foods Produced using Modern Biotechnology
        • Safety of Biotech Crops
        • Regional and International Regulatory Policy and Instruments on Biotechnology
        • National Regulatory Framework
        • Labeling of Genetic Modification Foods and Consumer Choice
        • Costs of Regulatory Compliance
        • Emerging Issues
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Breeding: Animals
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Brief History of Breeding Livestock
        • Technology and Organization of Modern Selection Programs
        • Selection among Breeds and Lines
        • Genetic Evaluation Using Phenotypes
        • Using Molecular Genetics and Genomics in Selection
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Breeding: Plants, Modern
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Historical Development of Plant Breeding Methods
        • New Statistical Techniques for Selection
        • New Sources of Germplasm
        • Using Genetic Markers in Selection Programs
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • C
      • Changing Structure and Organization of US Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Measures of Farm Size and Structure
        • Finances of Farm Operator Households
        • Significant Trends
        • Aging Principal Operators and Beginning Farmers
        • Policy Role in Farm Size and Structure
        • Future Challenges
        • Concluding Comments
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Climate Change: Agricultural Mitigation
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Mitigation as Part of the Climate Change Discourse
        • Territorial, Sectoral, and Demand-Based Interpretations of ‘Agriculture’
        • Current Emission Estimates
        • Projected Increases and Relevance of Demand-Side Adjustments
        • Technical Opportunities for Efficiency Gain Plus Emission Reduction
        • Indirect Emissions, Emission Displacement, and Macrosolutions
        • Carbon Markets and Other Experiments with Micro-Incentive Systems
        • Closing Remarks
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Climate Change and Plant Disease
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Plant Diseases and Weather
        • How Climate Change Can Affect Plant Disease
        • General Predictions for Plant Disease under Climate Change
        • Additional Reading
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
      • Climate Change: Animal Systems
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Animal Systems
        • Mitigation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Climate Change: Cropping System Changes and Adaptations
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Climate Change: Horticulture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Projected Climatic Changes
        • Climate Change Impacts on Horticulture
        • Horticultural Adaptation to Climate Change
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Climate Change: New Breeding Pressures and Goals
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Climate Change
        • Climate Change on Agriculture
        • Drought and Heat Stress
        • Flooding Stress
        • Responses and Adaptation of Plants to Climate Change
        • Biotechnology Tools in the Breeding for Climate Change
        • Molecular Breeding
        • Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Drought and Heat Stress
        • Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Flooding Stress
        • Genetic Engineering
        • Climate Change on the Future of Plant Breeding
        • See also
        • References
        • Relavant Websites
      • Climate Change, Society, and Agriculture: An Economic and Policy Perspective
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Basics of Climate Change
        • Damages and Economic Dimension
        • If Greenhouse Gases Are Causing Climate Change, Why Are They Still Emitted?
        • Basic Policy and Social Action Approaches
        • Information Efforts
        • Climate Change Mitigation
        • Adaptation in Climate Change
        • Effort Allocation and Economic Tools for Climate Change Analysis
        • Concluding Comments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cloning Animals by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transplantation
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Applications of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: Why Clone Animals?
        • Cloning Animals: Methodological Approaches
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cloning: Plants – Micropropagation/Tissue Culture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Stage 0: Stock Plants
        • Stage I: Establishment
        • Stage II: Multiplication
        • Stage III: Pretransplant Stage
        • Stage IV: Acclimatization
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Computer Modeling: Applications to Environment and Food Security
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Why Models in Agriculture?
        • Model Applications to Manage Nitrogen for Crop Production and Water Quality
        • Model Applications to Optimize Water Use in Crop Production
        • Evaluating Agricultural Systems and Management Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions
        • Climate-Change Effects on Environment and Crop Production
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Computer Modeling: Policy Analysis and Simulation
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Steps to Build a Simulation Model
        • Parameter Estimation for Stochastic Variables
        • Applying Simulation Models
        • Ranking Risky Alternatives
        • Selection of a Simulation Add-In for Excel
        • Getting Started with Stochastic Simulation
        • Examples of Applying Simulation to Agriculture
        • Farm Policy Analysis
        • Investment Analysis
        • Insurance Analysis
        • Technology Assessment
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Appendix
      • Consumer-Oriented New Product Development
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • New Product Development
        • Consumer-Oriented New Product Development
        • Structured Approaches to New Product Development
        • Concluding Remarks
        • References
      • Critical Tracking Events Approach to Food Traceability
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Currently Accepted Concepts for Food Traceability
        • The Old Concept of ‘External Traceability’
        • The Old Concept of ‘Internal Traceability’
        • An Example Investigation
        • Traceforward Investigations
        • Limitations of Current Systems, Technology, and Thinking
        • Limitations of Lot or Batch Numbers for Traceability
        • Logistic Event-Based Approach to Traceability – Critical Tracking Events
        • Current Frameworks and Standards
        • The Critical Tracking Events Framework
        • Data Security
        • Categorization of Critical Tracking Events
        • Critical Tracking Event Codes
        • Technology Considerations and Platforms
        • Distributed versus Centralized Data
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Crop Insurance
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Types of Crop Insurance
        • History of Involvement of Federal Government in Multiperil Crop Insurance
        • Structure of the US Multiperil Crop Insurance Industry
        • Subsidies for US Multiperil Crop Insurance Policies
        • Issues Associated with Crop Insurance
        • Crop Insurance Outside the United States
        • Summary
        • References
      • Crop Pollination
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Modes of Pollination
        • Benefits of Pollination
        • Crop Dependency on Biotic Pollination
        • Economic Valuation of Crop Pollination
        • Threats to Pollination Services
        • Management of Pollination Services
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
    • D
      • Dairy Animals
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Cattle
        • Buffalo
        • Goat
        • Sheep
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Detection and Causes of Bovine Mastitis with Emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • General Summary of Mastitis
        • Mastitis Detection Tests
        • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Prevalence in Dairy Industry, and Food Safety Implications of Staphylococcus aureus in Milk
        • Food Safety Implications of Staphylococcus aureus in Milk
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Determining Functional Properties and Sources of Recently Identified Bioactive Food Components: Oligosaccharides, Glycolipids, Glycoproteins, and Peptides
        • Glossary
        • Guiding Agriculture, Food, and Nutrition Sciences to Improve the Sustainability and Health Value of the Food Supply System
        • Bioactive Molecules versus Nutrients
        • Health Targets and Model Foods
        • Mining Functional Molecules from Food Processing Side-Streams: Promoting Environmental Sustainability While Sourcing Molecules for Health Targets
        • Scaling Up: PILOT and Industrial Scale Extraction of Functional Compounds from Food Matrices and Processing Effluents
        • Conclusion and Future Directions
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Domestication of Animals
        • Abstract
        • Introduction: What is Domestication?
        • Species of Domesticated Animals
        • Common Principles of Domesticated Animals
        • The Where, When, and How of Domestication
        • Impacts of Animal Domestication
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Domestication of Plants
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The Concept of Domestication and the Domestication Syndrome
        • Where Did Domestications Take Place?
        • When and How Quickly Did Domestication Take Place?
        • A Common Feature among Domestications: Reduction of Genetic Diversity at the Genome Level
        • The Genetic and Molecular Basis of the Domestication Syndrome
        • Implications of Domestication Studies for Crop Improvement, Distributed Breeding, Redomestication, and Neodomestication
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dust Pollution from Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Dust as a Nuisance, Pollutant, and Natural Resource
        • Environmental Regulations
        • Techniques to Measure Dust in the Atmosphere
        • Sources of Agricultural Dust
        • Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • E
      • Ecoagriculture: Integrated Landscape Management for People, Food, and Nature
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction and Definition
        • Examples of Ecoagriculture Landscape Initiatives
        • An Ecoagriculture Landscape Approach: Key Elements
        • Current Scope and Scale of Integrated Landscape Initiatives
        • Current State of Research on Ecoagriculture Landscape Management
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Economics of Natural Resources and Environment in Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Agricultural Production and the Environment
        • Key Concepts in Environmental and Resource Economics
        • Agri-Environmental Externalities, Natural Resources, and Public Policy
        • Summary and Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Edaphic Soil Science, Introduction to
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Soil Variation in Space and Time
        • Key Edaphic Soil Properties
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Emerging Plant Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Ecological Changes in Distribution Causing Emerging Diseases
        • Environmental Change Causing Emerging Diseases
        • Genetic Change in Pathogens Causing Emerging Diseases
        • The Identity of Future Emerging Diseases – Prediction?
        • Countering Invasive Plant Diseases
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Emerging Zoonoses in Domesticated Livestock of Southeast Asia
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Factors Influencing the Emergence of Zoonotic Infectious Diseases among Livestock in Southeast Asia
        • Impact of Emerging Zoonoses on Southeast Asia
        • Emerging Viral Zoonoses in Southeast Asia
        • Emerging Influenza A Viruses
        • Reemerging Endemic Bacterial Zoonoses
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Energy and Greenhouse Gases Footprint of Food Processing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Industries
        • Greenhouse Gas Footprint
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • F
      • Farm Management
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Planning
        • Implementation
        • Control and Evaluation
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Fermentation: Food Products
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Fermented Vegetables
        • Fermented Beans and Cereals
        • Fermented Milk
        • Fermented Fish
        • Fermented Meat
        • Fermented Alcohols
        • Others
        • Microorganisms in Fermented Foods
        • Healthy Functions of Fermented Foods
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Fermented Beverages
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Beer
        • Wine
        • Cider
        • Mead
        • Sake
        • Chicha
        • Whisk(e)y
        • Cognac
        • Brandy
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Food Chain: Farm to Market
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The Food Chain
        • The Role of Food Security
        • International Trade
        • Transnational Corporations and Food Processing
        • Supermarket Revolution
        • A Description of Global Export
        • The Food Chain in the United States
        • The Food Chain in India
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Food Engineering
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Food Engineering in a Changing Human Society
        • Current Fields of Food Engineering
        • Education in Food Engineering
        • Future Challenges for Food Engineering
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Food Labeling
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • General Food Labeling Requirements
        • The Federal Agencies That Regulate Food Labels and Their Statutory Authority
        • When Packages Must Be Labeled
        • Prior Approval Required for Meat and Poultry Products
        • Mandatory Requirements of the Food Label
        • Nutrition Labeling
        • Health Claims
        • Health Claims
        • Front-of-Pack Labeling Initiatives
        • Global Approaches to Food Labeling
        • Australia
        • Brazil
        • China
        • Costa Rica
        • Chile
        • European Union
        • India
        • Japan
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Food Law
        • Abstract
        • Food Law
        • International Food Law
        • US Food Law
        • European Food Law
        • Private Food Law
        • The World of Food Law
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Food Marketing
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Food Manufacturers
        • Food Wholesalers
        • The Food-at-Home Market
        • The FAFH Market
        • Direct Farm-to-Consumer Markets
        • Selected Issues in Food Marketing
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Food Microbiology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Assessing the Microbiological Quality and Safety of Foods
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Food Packaging
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Requirements of Packaging Materials
        • Packaging Materials
        • Food Packaging and Shelf Life
        • Packaging Systems
        • Food Packaging and Sustainability
        • References
      • Food Safety: Emerging Pathogens
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Bacteria
        • Viruses
        • Parasites
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Food Safety: Food Analysis Technologies/Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Food Composition
        • Physicochemical and Biological Properties
        • Sampling and Sample Preparation
        • General Analysis Methods
        • Physicochemical Analysis
        • Biological Analysis
        • Food Contaminants and Residues Analysis
        • Modern Instrumental Analysis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Food Safety: Shelf Life Extension Technologies
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Needs and Principles for Food Safety and Food Preservation
        • Microbial Inactivation Indices and Inactivation Kinetics
        • Food Quality Aspects during Preservation and Shelf Life Considerations
        • Food Preservation Technologies
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Food Security: Development Strategies
        • Abstract
        • Rice and Food Security in Asia
        • Changing Consumption Patterns
        • Future Consumption Trends
        • Future Supply Prospects
        • Climate Change
        • Market Distortions
        • Toward a Food-Secured Asia
        • References
      • Food Security: Food Defense and Biosecurity
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Global Food System Defense
        • Highlighted Food Defense Incidents
        • Economically Motivated Adulteration
        • Food Defense Policy
        • Threat Agents and Detection
        • Vulnerability Assessment
        • Food Defense Preparedness
        • Risk and Crisis Communication
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Food Security, Market Processes, and the Role of Government Policy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • An Overview of Food Security Dynamics
        • The Three Fundamental Transformations Needed to Ensure Food Security
        • The Changing Food Marketing System
        • What Is Driving Food Security? The Changing Global Environment
        • The Way Forward
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Food Security: Postharvest Losses
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Increasing Food Supply
        • Some Definitions
        • Nature of the Problem
        • Causes of Losses
        • Cause – Commodity Link
        • Factors Affecting Losses
        • Magnitude of Losses
        • Loss Reduction Activities
        • See also
        • References
      • Food Security: Yield Gap
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Economic Conception of Yields and Yield Gaps
        • Measurement of Yields and Yield Gaps
        • Interpretation of Yield Gaps
        • Conclusion
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Food Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Food Additives
        • Intentional Food Adulterants
        • Food Contaminants
        • Processing-Induced Toxicants
        • Natural Toxicants
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Forage Crops
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Importance of Forages
        • Forage Agroecosystems
        • Classes of Forage Crops
        • Growth Patterns of Forage Crops
        • Forage Quality
        • What Influences Forage Quality in Crop Plants?
        • Environmental Services of Forage Crop Systems
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • From Foraging to Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Earliest Agriculture: Theories and Constructs
        • Agriculture-Domestication Enigma Revisited
        • Agriculture, Domestication, and Future Food Security
        • References
        • Relevant Website
    • G
      • Genebanks: Past, Present, and Optimistic Future
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Origins of Ex Situ Conservation
        • How to Keep Plants in Storage Alive
        • Genebank Use and Impact
        • Genebanks of the Twenty-First Century
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Genomics of Food Animals
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Genome Maps
        • Reference Genome Assemblies
        • Resequencing Genomes
        • Comparative Genomics
        • Transcriptomics
        • Proteomics
        • Epigenetics
        • Impact of Food Animal Genomics
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Genomics: Plant Genetic Improvement
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction and Key Concepts
        • The Basic Technologies
        • The Phenotype and Environment
        • Comparative Genomics and Phenomics
        • Changing Agendas to Meet New Challenges and Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Global Agriculture: Industrial Feedstocks for Energy and Materials
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Resources and Feedstocks
        • Chemicals and Materials from Biomass
        • Energy from Biomass
        • The Challenge of Sustainability
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Global Food Supply Chains
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Global Supply Chain Management and Logistics (Parts of this Section are Based on van der Vorst et al. (2005))
        • Quality Management and Standards in Global Food Supply Chains
        • Transparency in Food Supply Chains
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Government Agricultural Policy, United States
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Early US Agricultural Policies
        • Farm to Food Legislation
        • Empirical Consequences of Market-Distorting Policies
        • Unintended Consequences of US Agricultural Policies
        • Other Forms of Intervention
        • Policy Making and the Changing Political–Economic Landscape
        • See also
        • References
      • Green Revolution: Past, Present, and Future
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Father of the Green Revolution
        • Defining the Green Revolution
        • Food Production versus Human Population
        • Malnutrition
        • Importance of a Reliable Food Supply
        • Green Revolution in Africa
        • Is the Green Revolution a Myth?
        • Other Issues
        • Preservation of Biodiversity
        • Nutritional Changes in Food Supply
        • Role of Poverty
        • Role of Women in Agriculture
        • Paying Forward
        • Support of Research and Development
        • Biotechnology
        • The Green Revolution of Today and the Future
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • H
      • Heterosis in Plants
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Potential Genetic Explanations
        • How Many Genes Are Involved?
        • Gene Expression in Hybrids and Inbreds
        • Heterosis in Polyploids
        • Progressive Heterosis
        • Inbreeding Depression
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Human Nutrition: Malnutrition and Diet
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Principles of Human Nutrition
        • Macronutrients
        • Carbohydrates
        • Recommendations for the Intake of Sugars and Starches
        • Recommendations for the Intake of Fiber
        • Major Food Sources of Carbohydrates (Fruits, Vegetables, Grains, and Milk Products)
        • Micronutrients
        • Growth and Development – When Are Nutrient Needs Highest?
        • Malnutrition Is Most Likely in Children and the Elderly
        • Overfed, but Undernourished – the New Malnutrition
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
    • I
      • Industrialized Farming and Its Relationship to Community Well-Being
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • History of Public, Government, and Academic Concern with the Consequences of Industrialized Farming
        • Research by Lobao and Colleagues
        • Review of Past Research on Industrialized Farming and Well-Being
        • Research Issues Involved in Analyzing Industrialized Farming and Its Community Impacts
        • Types of Studies Conducted on the Effects of Industrialized Farming: Research Designs and Methodology
        • Conclusions of Studies Examining Industrialized Farming and Community Well-Being
        • Types of Detrimental Impacts Reviewed by Social Scientists
        • Summary and Conclusion
        • See also
        • Disclaimer
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Integrated Pest Management in Tree Fruit Crops
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • General Principles of Integrated Pest Management
        • Tactics
        • Integrated Pest Management in Tree Fruit with Focus on Apple as Example
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Intellectual Property in Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • What Is Intellectual Property?
        • Intellectual Property and Agricultural Research
        • Proliferation of Patents in Agricultural Biotechnology
        • Strategies for Access to Technologies for Agricultural Research
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • International and Regional Institutions and Instruments for Agricultural Policy, Research, and Development
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Major International Research and Policy Institutions and Instruments
        • Major Regional Organizations
        • Conclusions and the Future
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • International Trade
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • General Equilibrium Tariffs
        • Optimal Byrd Tariff
        • Trade Remedy Actions
        • The Scientific Tariff and Multifunctionality
        • Tariff Rate Quotas and Importer/Exporter Agreements
        • Equivalence of Tariffs and Quotas
        • Empirical Work
        • Overall Agricultural Distortions
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Invasive Aquatic Animals
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Historic Introductions of Aquatic Species
        • Methods for Slowing or Reversing the Effects of Aquatic Invasions
        • Responses to Aquatic Invasive Animals Have Included the Following Ideas
        • Examples of Aquatic Invasive Animals of Global Importance
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Invasive Species: Plants
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The Biology of Plant Invasions
        • Contemporary Issues in Invasion Ecology
        • Using the Past to Inform the Future
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Investments in and the Economic Returns to Agricultural and Food R&D Worldwide
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Investments in Science Worldwide
        • Private Sector Food and Agricultural Research and Development
        • The Returns to Investments in Agricultural Research and Development
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
    • L
      • Land Use: Catchment Management
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Agricultural Catchment Water Quality
        • Technical Options for Water Quality Mitigation
        • Governance, Costs, and Benefits of Water Quality Mitigation
        • Monitoring and Evaluation of Mitigation Effectiveness
        • Sustainable Intensification
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Land Use, Land Cover, and Food-Energy-Environment Trade-Off: Key Issues and Insights for Millennium Development Goals
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction and Overview
        • Land Use and Land Cover: Reconciliation of Issues and Evidences
        • Proximate Causes behind Recent Land-Use Changes: Food–Energy–Environment Trilemma
        • Changes in Land Use and Energy–Food Security Trade-Off: From the Perspective of MDG
        • ‘New’ Lands: Myths and Realities of Land Deal
        • Land-Use and Land-Cover Change through the Modeling ‘Lens’: A Bird’s Eye (Re-) View
        • Concluding Observations
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Land Use: Management for Biodiversity and Conservation
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Biodiversity, Agriculture, and Well-Being
        • Case Studies: The US Prairies and the New Zealand Greening Waipara Project
        • The Urgent Need for Changes in Policy and Practice
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Land Use: Restoration and Rehabilitation
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Restoration
        • Rehabilitation
        • Reallocation
        • Degradation, Rehabilitation, and Restoration in Agriculture
        • Restoration and Rehabilitation
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Linkages of the Agricultural Sector: Models and Precautions
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Models for Estimation of Impacts
        • Alternative Metrics for Impact Analysis
        • Conclusion
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • M
      • Marek’s Disease and Differential Diagnosis with Other Tumor Viral Diseases of Poultry
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Signs and Lesions
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Control
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Market-Based Incentives for the Conservation of Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes: Examples from Coffee Cultivation in Latin America
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Market-Based Incentives: Promise and Pitfalls
        • Coffee Cultivation in Latin America: Management Practices, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Function
        • Market Incentives to Conserve Ecosystem Services in Coffee
        • Strategies and Opportunities for Improving Conservation of Ecosystem Services through Market Incentives
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Markets and Prices
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Price Functions
        • Equilibrium Price
        • Planning Prices
        • Price in Agricultural Markets
        • Futures Prices
        • Government Regulations on Prices
        • Efficient Price
        • Price Level
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mathematical Models to Elaborate Plans for Adaptation of Rural Communities to Climate Change
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Scope and Objectives
        • The State Of The Art
        • Methodology
        • Case Studies
        • Final General Model
        • Advantages of the Proposed Solution
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Medicinal Crops
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Resources and Distribution
        • Processing and Utilization
        • Partial Medicinal Crops
        • Medicinal Plant-Derived Bioactive Compounds Produced by Endophytic Fungi
        • Conclusions and Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mineral Nutrition and Suppression of Plant Disease
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Nitrogen
        • Phosphorus
        • Potassium
        • Calcium
        • Magnesium
        • Chlorine
        • Sulfur
        • Micronutrients
        • Iron
        • Manganese
        • Zinc
        • Copper
        • Molybdenum
        • Boron
        • Nickel
        • Beneficial Elements (Silicon and Aluminum)
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • N
      • Natural Capital, Ecological Infrastructure, and Ecosystem Services in Agroecosystems
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Origin of the Concepts
        • An Ecosystem Approach for the Management of Agroecosystems
        • Application of the Concepts to Resource Management
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • O
      • Organic Agricultural Production: Plants
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Markets and Trends
        • Organic Certification
        • Principles of Organic Farming
        • Organic Farming Practices
        • Sustainability of Organic Farming Systems
        • Future of Organic Farming
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Organic Livestock Production
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Short Historical Retrospective
        • Initiation of Organic Livestock Production
        • Framework Conditions of Organic Livestock Farming
        • Practices of Organic Livestock Farming
        • Consumers' Perspectives
        • Gap Between Theory and Practices
        • Inconsistencies between Principles and Minimum Standards
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
    • P
      • Pathogen-Tested Planting Material
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Quarantine
        • Certification
        • Vegetatively Propagated Crops
        • Producing G1 Plants
        • Seed Propagated Crops
        • Impact of Improvements in Pathogen Detection on Certification Programs
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plant Abiotic Stress: Salt
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Salinity and Sodicity
        • Principal Responses of Plants to Salinity
        • Physiological Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in Plants
        • Integrating the Whole-Plant Response
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plant Abiotic Stress: Temperature Extremes
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Response of Rice to Temperature Stress
        • Temperature Stress Adaptation Mechanisms
        • Adapting Rice to High-Temperature Stress – Prospects and Constraints
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Plant Abiotic Stress: Water
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Water Uptake and Loss in Crops
        • Water Stress Effects at the Molecular, Metabolic, and Physiological Level
        • Reducing Yield Loss under Water Stress
        • Industry Efforts to Develop Drought-Resistant Hybrids/Varieties
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plant Biotic Stress: Weeds
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Weeds – A Definition
        • Weed Impacts in Agricultural Systems
        • Weed Management Practices
        • Evolution of Avoidance of Weed Management
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plant Cloning: Macropropagation
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The Use of Macropropagation
        • Techniques of Macropropagation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Plant Disease and Resistance
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Plants Get Sick Too!
        • A Conceptual Basis for the Evolution of Plant–Microbe Interactions
        • How do Pathogens Find and Enter the Plant?
        • PAMP-Triggered Immunity: The First Line of Active Defense
        • Effector-Triggered Susceptibility: The Pathogen Retaliates
        • Effector-Triggered Immunity: Evolution of Plants to Evade ETS
        • Defense Response Pathways are Shared between PTI and ETI
        • How Does the Environment Impact Disease in the Context of Climate Change?
        • Applying Knowledge of Plant–Microbe Interactions to Disease Control Strategies
        • Concluding Perspectives
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Plant Health Management: Biological Control of Insect Pests
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Natural Biological Control
        • Importation Biological Control
        • Conservation Biological Control
        • Augmentative Biological Control
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
      • Plant Health Management: Biological Control of Plant Pathogens
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Concepts of Biocontrol Are Driven by an Ecological Balance
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plant Health Management: Crop Protection with Nematicides
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Historic Synopsis
        • Delivery of Nematicides
        • Outlook
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plant Health Management: Fungicides and Antibiotics
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Economic Impact of Plant Diseases and the Need to Control Them
        • The Control of Plant Pathogens
        • Challenges for Developing Chemical Agents for Plant Disease Control
        • History of Fungicides
        • Overview of the Main Classes and Uses of Modern Fungicides
        • Control of Bacterial Plant Pathogens
        • Fungicide Resistance and Its Management
        • The Future
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plant Health Management: Herbicides
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Selectivity of Herbicides
        • Herbicide Metabolism
        • Fate of Herbicides
        • Herbicide Resistance Action Committee Classification of Herbicides
        • Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Inhibitors (Group A)
        • Acetohydroxy Acid Synthase/Acetolactate Synthase Inhibitors (Group B)
        • Photosystem Inhibitors (Groups C and D)
        • Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Inhibitors (Group E)
        • Carotenoid Biosynthesis Inhibition (Group F1, F3, and F4)
        • 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Inhibitors (Group F2)
        • 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase Inhibitors (Group G)
        • Glutamine Synthetase Inhibitors (Group H)
        • Microtubule Assembly Inhibitors (Group K)
        • Cellulose Biosynthesis Inhibitors (Group L)
        • Inhibition of Fatty Acid (N) and Very Long Chain Fatty Acid Biosynthesis (K3)
        • Auxin Mimics (Group O)
        • Herbicide Resistance in Weeds
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plant Health Management: Pathogen Suppressive Soils
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Options for Management of Soilborne Plant Pathogens
        • Pathogen-Suppressive Soils Defined
        • General Suppression
        • Specific Suppression
        • Reverse Fortunes of the Apple Replant Disease
        • Concluding Comments
        • See also
        • References
      • Plant Health Management: Soil Fumigation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Biological, Environmental, and Human Impacts
        • Current and Future Status
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plant Health Management: Soil Solarization
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Principles of Soil Solarization
        • Soil Solarization for the Mangement of Soilborne Pests
        • Mechanisms of Pathogen and Disease Control and Plant-Growth Improvement
        • Integrated Management Aspects
        • Technological Aspects
        • Solar Heating of Soil and Pathogen Response to Heating: Principles and Modeling
        • Soil Solarization in Various Cropping Systems
        • Technology Transfer and Adoption of Soil Solarization
        • Other Uses of Solarization
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plant Virus Control by Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Control of Plant DNA Viruses by siRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing
        • Control of Plant RNA Viruses by siRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing
        • Control of Plant Viruses by amiRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing
        • Applications of the Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing in the Field
        • Broad-Range Resistance by Silencing Host Proteins
        • Suppressors of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing and Plant Virus Control
        • Range, Level, and Stability of Gene Silencing-Based Virus Resistance
        • Future Challenges
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Policy Frameworks for International Agricultural and Rural Development
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Broad Issues in Agricultural and Rural Policy
        • Policies for Basic Agricultural Resources: Land, Water, Financial Capital, and Technology
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Poultry and Avian Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Poultry Production: Economical Perspective and Public Health Impact of Diseases
        • Sustainable Production Systems in Poultry
        • Basic Understanding of Disease, Prevention, and Control
        • Viral Diseases
        • Bacterial Diseases
        • Fungal Diseases
        • Parasitic Diseases
        • Nutritional Disorders
        • Toxicants
        • Diagnosis
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Precision Agriculture: Irrigation
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Need and Benefits of Precision Irrigation Management
        • Methodology of Precision Irrigation
        • Precision Irrigation for Disease Management
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Production Economics
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • The Basic Theory of Production
        • Estimating Production Relationships
        • Use of the Basic Theory of Production
        • Issues in Economics
        • Reference
      • Public–Private Partnerships in Agroforestry
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Background
        • Agroforestry, Supply Chains, and Markets
        • Case Studies
        • Other Examples of PPPs Relevant to Agroforestry
        • Discussion
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • Q
      • Quantitative Methods in Agricultural Economics
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Econometric Estimation
        • Operations Research Techniques
        • Computable General Equilibrium
        • Using Quantitative Techniques
        • References
      • Quarantine and Biosecurity
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Quarantine versus Biosecurity
        • Bioterminology
        • Globalization and Biosecurity
        • Drivers Underpinning Biosecurity
        • The International Biosecurity Framework
        • National and Regional Biosecurity Frameworks
        • The Biosecurity Continuum
        • Preborder Biosecurity
        • Border Biosecurity
        • Postborder Biosecurity
        • Core Biological Disciplines
        • Concluding Remarks
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • R
      • Regulatory Challenges to Commercializing the Products of Ag Biotech
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Current US Regulations
        • Animal Biotechnology
        • International Perspective on Food Safety
        • Conclusions
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Regulatory Conventions and Institutions that Govern Global Agricultural Trade
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
        • The Three Sisters
        • Key Provisions
        • Challenges and Opportunities
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Root and Tuber Crops
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Potato
        • Sweet Potato
        • Cassava
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Rural Sociology
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The Roots of American Rural Sociology
        • The Major Foci of Rural Sociology
        • Rural Sociology and the Diffusion Era
        • The New Rural Sociology
        • The Sociology of Agricultural Science
        • Sociology of Agriculture and Food Studies
        • Summary
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • S
      • Safety of Street Food: Indonesia's Experience
        • Abstract
        • Safety of Street Food
        • Intervention to Improve Safety
        • Lessons Learned
        • See also
        • References
      • Sensory Science
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Sensory Measurement
        • Descriptive Profiling/Analysis
        • Affective Consumer Methods
        • Individual Differences
        • Issues of Good Sensory Practice
        • Conclusion
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Simulation Modeling: Applications in Cropping Systems
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Crop Agronomy
        • Natural Resources Management
        • Breeding
        • Climate Change
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Slum Livestock Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Livestock Production in Slums
        • Production Challenges in Slums
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Small Ruminants in Smallholder Integrated Production Systems
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Origins of Small Ruminants
        • Animal Population Densities
        • Smallholder Production Systems
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Social Justice: Preservation of Cultures in Traditional Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Cultural Capital and Traditional Agriculture
        • Early Colonization and Separation of Agriculture and Culture
        • Separating People from Their Land, Their Agriculture, and Their Culture
        • Deliberate Attempts to Destroy Culture
        • Current Separations of People from Land, Traditional Agriculture, and Culture
        • Land Grabs, Traditional Agriculture, and Culture
        • Conservation Land Grabs
        • Using Culture to Defend Traditional Agriculture
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Soil: Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Systems
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Basics of Soil Carbon Sequestration
        • Practices to Promote Soil Carbon Sequestration
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Soil: Conservation Practices
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Soil Erosion Mechanics
        • Conservation Practices – Wind Erosion
        • Conservation Practices – Water Erosion
        • Summary and Concluding Statements
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • References
      • Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Soil Fertility Management
        • Soil Characteristics Contributing to Nutrient Supply
        • Nutrient Cycling and Plant Nutritional Roles of Essential Elements
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Their Mitigation
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Nitrous Oxide
        • Methane
        • Reactive Nitrogen Oxides
        • Carbon Dioxide
        • Synthesis: System-Wide Global Warming Impact
        • Future Mitigation Potentials via Soil Management: Cropping Systems and Biofuels
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Soil: Nutrient Cycling
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Nutrient Cycling
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Spices and Aromatics
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.)
        • Small Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton)
        • Large Cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.)
        • Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.)
        • Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. Syn. Curcuma domestica Val.)
        • Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews, Syn. Vanilla fragrans Salisb.)
        • Tree Spices
        • Seed Spices
        • See also
        • References
      • Stem Cells
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Murine Embryonic Stem Cells Are the Gold Standard
        • Non-Murine Embryonic Stem Cells
        • Avian Pluripotential Cell Lines
        • Stem Cells as Vehicles for Creating Transgenic Animals
        • Induced Pluripotential stem Cells
        • Lineage-Specific Stem Cells
        • Stem Cells and Genetic Engineering
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sugar Crops
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Overview
        • Origin and History of Sugar Crops
        • Production Environments
        • The Sugar beet Crop
        • The Sugarcane Crop
        • Future Prospects for Sugar Crops
        • Conclusions
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Swine Diseases and Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Central Nervous System Diseases and Disorders
        • Gastrointestinal System Diseases and Disorders
        • Integument System Diseases and Disorders
        • Musculoskeletal System Diseases and Disorders
        • Reproductive System Diseases and Disorders
        • Respiratory System Diseases and Disorders
        • Diseases That Affect International Trade
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • T
      • Terroir: The Application of an Old Concept in Modern Viticulture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Definition of the Terroir Concept
        • History and Evolution of Terroir
        • The Reality of Terroir
        • Integration of Terroir with Modern Viticultural Practices
        • Impact of Climate Change on Terroir
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Transgenic Methodologies – Plants
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Genetic Manipulations Using Stable Transformation
        • Technical Framework for Transformation – Required Components
        • Technical Framework for Transformation – Enabling Breakthroughs
        • Transgene DNA Delivery
        • Selection of Transgenic Cells, Tissue, or Plants
        • Technical Limitations, Potential Solutions, and Future Transgenic Technology Directions
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tree Fruits and Nuts
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Fresh and Commodity Market Tree Crops in California: Definitions and General Trends
        • Handling and Marketing of Fresh Market and Commodity Crops
        • Opportunities for Small Farms
        • Availability of Research and Development Programs
        • Manual Labor Requirements, Harvest Technology, and Quality Standards
        • Noneconomic Impacts on Fruit and Nut Tree Industries: Climate Change
        • Parallel Trends in Tree Fruit and Nut Agricultural Regions Around the World
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • V
      • Vaccines and Vaccination Practices: Key to Sustainable Animal Production
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Pathogens
        • Relevant Immune Responses
        • Importance of Biosecurity
        • Genetic Resistance to Disease
        • Vaccines
        • Selected Examples of Vaccines in the Four Groups of Production Animals
        • Conclusions
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Virtual Water and Water Footprint of Food Production and Processing
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • The Origin of Water on Earth
        • Physical Properties of Water Related to Food Processing
        • The Virtual Water and the Water Footprint Concept with Regard to Food Production, Processing, and Distribution
        • The Water Footprint and Water Management
        • A Major Deficit of the Water Footprint
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • References
        • Relavant Websites
      • Vitamins and Food-Derived Biofactors
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Vitamins
        • Health Effects: General Properties and Primary Functions of Vitamins
        • Requirements, Sources, and Assimilation
        • Physiologically Important Metabolites and Biofactors in Foods
        • Concluding Comments
        • See also
        • References
    • W
      • Water: Advanced Irrigation Technologies
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Technological Advances in Irrigation Application Methods
        • Technological Advances in Irrigation Management
        • Other Advanced Irrigation Developments
        • Future Directions – Emerging Risks, Technical Challenges, and Future Developments
        • See also
        • References
      • Water Use: Recycling and Desalination for Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Agricultural Use of Saline Water and Recycling of Drainage Water
        • Wastewater Reclamation and Recycling
        • Desalination as an Alternative Source of Water for Agriculture
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Water: Water Quality and Challenges from Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Water Quality Effects of N, P, and Sediment
        • Sources of Nutrient and Sediment Loss: System and Regional Effects
        • Scope for Improvement
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Weather Forecasting Applications in Agriculture
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Types of Forecasts, Forecast Characteristics, and Formats
        • Agricultural Decision Problems and Forecasting Applications
        • Operational Aspects
        • Economic Value of Weather Forecasts
        • Access to Long-Range Forecasts in Developing Countries
        • Outlook
        • Further Readings
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • World Water Supply and Use: Challenges for the Future
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
        • Global Distribution of Water
        • Water Use
        • Virtual Water and Water Footprint
        • Climate
        • Water and Biofuel Production
        • Transboundary Water
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • Z
      • Zoonotic Helminths of Livestock
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The Basics of Helminth Life Cycles
        • Zoonotic Nematodes
        • Zoonotic Cestodes
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
  • Index
  • Authors

Quotes and reviews

"...an excellent resource for all libraries supporting programs in agricultural sciences, food sciences, environmental science, genetics, soil sciences, and sustainability…Summing up: Highly Recommended"--CHOICE Reviews Online, February 2015

 
 
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