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Integrative Plant Anatomy
 
 

Integrative Plant Anatomy, 1st Edition

 
Integrative Plant Anatomy, 1st Edition,William Dickison,ISBN9780122151705
 
 
 

  

Academic Press

9780122151705

9780080508917

533

254 X 175

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Key Features


@bul:* Presents both the classical and modern approaches to the subject
* Teaches the importance of the subject to other disciplines such as the nonbiological sciences, the arts, and other fields of human endeavor
* Written and organized to be useful to students and instructors, but also to be accessible and appealing to a general audience
* Bridges the gap between conventional textbooks and comprehensive reference works
* Includes key terms and extensive additional readings
* Richly illustrated with line drawings and photographs

Description

From this modern and profusely illustrated book, the reader will learn not just the basics, which are amply reviewed, but also how plant anatomy is integrated with a wide variety of other disciplines, such as plant breeding, forensic analysis, medicine, food science, wood and fiber products, and the arts. The author presents the basic concepts and terminology of plant anatomy with a special emphasis on its significance and applications to other disciplines, and addresses the central role of anatomy by consolidating previously scattered information into a single volume. Integrative Plant Anatomy highlights the important contribution made by studying anatomy to the solutions of a number of present and future problems. It succeeds in integrating diverse areas of botany, as well as the non-biological sciences, the arts, and numerous other fields of human endeavor.

Readership

Professional botanists, academics, and agricultural and forestry professionals.

William Dickison

William C. Dickison is professor of biology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is the author of numerous articles on plant anatomy that have been published in journals ranging from the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society and the American Journal of Botany toSystematic Botany and the Botanical Gazette. With Richard A. White, he coedited Contemporary Problems in Plant Anatomy, which was published by Academic Press in 1984.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, U.S.A.

Integrative Plant Anatomy, 1st Edition

Copyright © 2001 Harcourt/Academic Press All rights reserved.
THIS MATERIAL may not be used, directly or indirectly, for any paid
service, such as document delivery, interlibrary loan, or any other
systematic supply or distribution of material. Copyright and other
notices or disclaimers may not be removed, modified or obscured.
Harcourt/Academic Press or Harcourt General, Inc. reserve the right to
withdraw on-line access to this content without notice at any time.

PREFACE xv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xvii
Part I.
ANATOMICAL FOUNDATION OF THE PLANT BODY:
AN OVERVIEW 1
1 Plant Growth, Development, and Cellular Organization 3
Plant Growth 3
Meristem Function 4
Cell Differentiation 6
Terms Used in the Description of Plant Cells 9
Embryology 10
The Plant Cell 13
The Cell Wall 14
The Cell Plate and Middle Lamella 15
The Primary Wall 15
Plasmodesmata 23
The Secondary Wall 24
Warty Layer 27
Wall Pits 28
Cell Membranes 30
Cytoplasmic Organelles 32
Vacuome 37
Starch 38
Nucleus 39
Nonprotoplasmic Mineral Desposition 40
Summary 44
Additional Reading 46
2 Origin and Structure of the Primary Plant Body 51
Structure and Function of the Angiosperm Vegetative Shoot Apex 51
Shoot Apex Organization 52
Chimeras 55
I
CONTENTS
vii
Structure and Function of the Root Apex 57
Differentiation of Primary Tissues 62
Leaf Initiation and Development 64
Classification of Tissues 66
Dermal Tissue System 67
Cuticle and Epicuticular Waxes 68
Specialized Epidermal Cells 70
Fundamental Tissue System 74
Parenchyma 74
Collenchyma 76
Sclerenchyma 79
Sclereids 80
Fibers 82
Laticiferous Tissue System 85
Vascular Tissue Systems 86
Xylem 89
Tracheids 90
Vessel Elements 90
Primary Xylem Tracheary Elements 92
Phloem 93
Sieve Tube Elements 94
Companion Cells 99
Sieve Cells 101
Differentiation of Primary Vascular Tissues 102
Primary Xylem Differentiation 103
Cytodifferentiation of Tracheary Cells 107
Primary Phloem Differentiation 110
Vascular Differentiation in Leaves 112
Summary 115
Additional Reading 116
3 Tissue Organization in Stems, Leaves, and Roots 121
Stems 121
Vascular Bundles 122
Stem Structure 126
Leaves 129
Lamina Structure 132
Leaf Venation 134
Gymnosperm Leaves 141
Roots 142
Origin of Lateral Roots 148
Mycorrhizae 150
Root and Bacteria Interactions 153
Summary 155
Additional Reading 157
viii CONTENTS
CONTENTS ix
4 Origin and Structure of the Secondary Plant Body 161
Vascular Cambium Formation 162
Structure and Function of the Vascular Cambium 166
Cell Division in the Cambium 170
Anomalous Secondary Growth 173
Secondary Xylem (Wood) 178
Secondary Phloem 185
Structure and Function of the Cork Cambium and Periderm 186
Secondary Growth in Monocotyledons 195
Periderm Formation in Monocotyledons 197
Summary 198
Additional Reading 201
Part II
EVOLUTIONARY, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND ECOLOGICAL
PLANT ANATOMY 203
5 Evolution and Systematics 205
Systematic Plant Anatomy 205
Variation in Anatomical Characters 206
Xylem Evolution 208
Use of Wood Anatomy in Systematics 216
Nodal Anatomy 219
Foliar Epidermis 221
Trichomes 225
Mineral Inclusions 227
Ultrastructure 229
Phylogenetic Systematics 229
Summary 233
Additional Reading 234
6 Macromorphology 237
Floral Morphology and Anatomy 238
Homology of Floral Appendages 240
Conservative and Vestigial Vascular Bundles 244
Nectaries of Salix 246
Pseudomonomerous Gynoecia 247
Inverted Vascular Bundles 250
The Inferior Ovary 250
Leaves and Stipules 252
Two-Bundled Structures in Monocotyledons 254
Summary 255
Additional Reading 256
II
x CONTENTS
7 Structure and Function 259
Vascular Tissues 260
Phloem Structure and Translocation 260
Minor Leaf Veins and Phloem Loading and Unloading 265
Kranz Anatomy and Photosynthesis 267
Xylem Structure and Water Movement 272
Water Conductance 277
Hydraulic Segmentation and Safety 282
Water Flow 284
Anatomical Responses to Mineral Deficiency 286
Summary 289
Additional Reading 290
8 Ecological Anatomy 295
Habitat and Plant Structure 295
Ecological Leaf Anatomy 297
Sun and Shade Leaves 298
Xeromorphic Leaves 301
Ericoid Leaves 302
Sclerophyllous Leaves 302
Succulent Leaves 303
Poikilohydric Plants 304
Halophytic Leaves 306
Alpine Plants 307
Epiphytic Plants 308
Hydromorphic Leaves 308
Ecological Wood Anatomy 312
Growth Rings 313
Hydraulic Architecture 315
Adaptive Radiation in Dilleniaceae 318
Roots 320
Xeromorphic Roots 320
Hydromorphic Roots 321
Flooded and Drought-Stressed Roots 322
Aerial Roots 322
Frost Hardiness 322
Anatomy and Pollution 324
Anatomy and Plant Resistance 325
Effects of Pollution on Wood 326
Gaseous Air Pollutants 327
Ozone Injury to Plants 328
Acid Rain 329
Carbon Dioxide 329
Ionizing Radiation 330
Ultraviolet B Radiation 331
CONTENTS xi
Insecticides and Herbicides 332
Summary 333
Additional Reading 334
Part III
ECONOMIC AND APPLIED PLANT ANATOMY 339
9 Genetics and Plant Breeding 341
Molecular Genetic Analysis 342
Anatomy as an Indicator of Hybridization 342
Gene Expression and Anatomical Traits 345
The Wilted Gene 345
Trichome Development 347
Corn Leaf Development 347
Cell Wall Genes 348
Floral Development 349
Anatomy, Heredity, and Plant Breeding 349
Wood Quality 350
Summary 352
Additional Reading 353
10 Defense Mechanisms and Structural Responses of Plants
to Diseases, Pests, and Mechanical Injury 357
The Nature of Plant Defenses 358
Responses of Plants to Wounding and Invasion by Microorganisms 359
Abscission 362
Tissue Regeneration 362
Grafting 368
Cytological Reactions to Invasion by Parasites 369
Structural Bases of Resistance 371
Trichomes 372
Laticifers 372
Dutch Elm Disease and Tyloses 373
Heartwood 375
Structural Aspects of Virus Movement in Plants 376
Summary 378
Additional Reading 380
11 Herbs, Spices, and Drugs 383
Classification of Secretory Structures 384
External Secretory Structures 385
III
xii CONTENTS
Internal Secretory Structures 386
Anatomy of Secretory Structures 387
Secretory Cells and Cavities 389
Anatomical and Pharmacognostic Studies on Herb, Spice, and Drug Plants 394
Cinnamon 394
Ginger 394
Peppermint 394
Cinchona 396
Cascara Sagrada 396
Nirbisi 396
Summary 396
Additional Reading 397
12 Fibers, Fiber Products, and Forage Fiber 399
Extraxylary Fibers 400
Xylary Fibers and Paper Manufacture 402
Reaction Wood 406
Compression Wood 407
Tension Wood and Gelatinous Fibers 408
Forage "Fiber" and Animal Nutrition 410
Grass Leaf Digestion 413
Legume Digestion 414
Summary 416
Additional Reading 417
13 Forensic Science and Animal Food Habits 421
Plant Anatomy as Forensic Evidence 422
Plant Cell Identification 423
Application of Anatomical Evidence in Criminal and Civil Law 425
Animal Food Habits 431
Summary 433
Additional Reading 434
14 Archaeology, Anthropology, and Climatology 437
Wood Anatomy and the Environment 438
Dendrochronology 439
Methods of Dendrochronology 441
Dendrochronology Case Studies 444
Dendroclimatology 446
Tree Rings and Other Environmental Factors 447
Diets and Artifacts of Prehistoric Peoples 448
Summary 450
Additional Reading 451
CONTENTS xiii
15 Properties and Utilization of Wood 453
Features and Appearance of Sawed or Split Lumber 454
Physical Properties of Wood 459
Specific Gravity and Density 459
Wood and Water 460
Permeability 463
Sapwood and Heartwood 465
Mechanical Properties of Wood 465
Stiffness and Strength 467
Hardness and Toughness 468
Application of Wood Anatomy to the Field of Biomedical Research 469
Summary 470
Additional Reading 471
16 The Arts and Antiques 473
Identification and Deterioration of Plant Tissues and Cells Used in
Object Construction 474
Deterioration 475
Dendrochronological Dating 476
Green-Stained Wood 480
Identification of Antique Upholstery Filling and Wooden Furniture 484
Antique Musical Instruments 485
Musical Instruments and Wood Technical Properties 485
Stringed Instruments 485
Wind Instruments 489
Summary 489
Additional Reading 492
GENERAL ANATOMICAL REFERENCES 495
PLANT ANATOMY AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB 499
GLOSSARY 503
INDEX 517

Quotes and reviews

@qu:"This is an ambitious and scholarly text, and Dr. Dickison should be congratulated for his efforts."
@source:—Thomas L. Rost, University of California at Davis
@qu:"I commend the author for his fresh and novel approach to the study of plant anatomy. Presently, there is no textbook available that interrelates plant anatomy with systematics, physiology, ecology, genetics, anthropology, and the other fields of study covered in the manuscript; this approach has merit and addresses a need as far as plant anatomy and its applications are concerned."
@source:—Terence W. Lucansky, University of Florida
@qu:"The author is completely successful in fulfilling his objective of conveying the importance of plant anatomy as a field of endeavor with widespread applications to other fields. Dickison's approach is refreshingly different and likely to have great appeal to the novice.... For example, the manuscript was easy to read, unlike most [plant] anatomy books, because of minimal use of technical jargon."
@source:—Dale M.J. Mueller, Texas A&M University
 
 
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