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Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
 
 

Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, 2nd Edition

Physical and Numerical Aspects

 
Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, 2nd Edition,Benoit Cushman-Roisin,Jean-Marie Beckers,ISBN9780120887590
 
 
 

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9780120887590

9780080916781

875

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Key Features

  • Combines both physical and numerical aspects of geophysical fluid dynamics into a single affordable volume
  • Explores contemporary topics such as the Greenhouse Effect, global warming and the El Nino Southern Oscillation
  • Biographical and historical notes at the ends of chapters trace the intellectual development of the field
  • Recipient of the 2010 Wernaers Prize, awarded each year by the National Fund for Scientific Research of Belgium (FNR-FNRS).

Description

This book provides an introductory-level exploration of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD), the principles governing air and water flows on large terrestrial scales. Physical principles are illustrated with the aid of the simplest existing models, and the computer methods are shown in juxtaposition with the equations to which they apply. It explores contemporary topics of climate dynamics and equatorial dynamics, including the Greenhouse Effect, global warming, and the El Nino Southern Oscillation.

Readership

first-year graduate students and upper-level undergraduates in meteorology, oceanography, civil/environmental engineering, along with researchers and professionals in related fields who require a solid introduction to geophysical fluid dynamics

Benoit Cushman-Roisin

Affiliations and Expertise

Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, USA

Jean-Marie Beckers

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Liege, Belgium

Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, 2nd Edition

  • Edited by
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Preface of the First Edition
  • Part I: Fundamentals
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Objective
      • 1.2 Importance of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
      • 1.3 Distinguishing Attributes of Geophysical Flows
      • 1.4 Scales of Motions
      • 1.5 Importance of Rotation
      • 1.6 Importance of Stratification
      • 1.7 Distinction Between the Atmosphere and Oceans
      • 1.8 Data Acquisition
      • 1.9 The Emergence of Numerical Simulations
      • 1.10 Scales Analysis and Finite Differences
      • 1.11 Higher-Order Methods
      • 1.12 Aliasing
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Walsh Cottage, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 1962–present
      • UK Meteorological Office, Exeter, England 1854–present
    • Chapter 2. The Coriolis Force
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Rotating Framework of Reference
      • 2.2 Unimportance of the Centrifugal Force
      • 2.3 Free Motion on a Rotating Plane
      • 2.4 Analogy and Physical Interpretation
      • 2.5 Acceleration on a Three-Dimensional Rotating Planet
      • 2.6 Numerical Approach to Oscillatory Motions
      • 2.7 Numerical Convergence and Stability
      • 2.8 Predictor-Corrector Methods
      • 2.9 Higher-Order Schemes
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Pierre Simon Marquis de Laplace 1749–1827
      • Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis 1792–1843
    • Chapter 3. Equations of Fluid Motion
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Mass Budget
      • 3.2 Momentum Budget
      • 3.3 Equation of State
      • 3.4 Energy Budget
      • 3.5 Salt and Moisture Budgets
      • 3.6 Summary of Governing Equations
      • 3.7 Boussinesq Approximation
      • 3.8 Flux Formulation and Conservative Form
      • 3.9 Finite-Volume Discretization
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Joseph Valentin Boussinesq 1842–1929
      • Vilhelm Frimann Koren Bjerknes 1862–1951
    • Chapter 4. Equations Governing Geophysical Flows
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Reynolds-Averaged Equations
      • 4.2 Eddy Coefficients
      • 4.3 Scales of Motion
      • 4.4 Recapitulation of Equations Governing Geophysical Flows
      • 4.5 Important Dimensionless Numbers
      • 4.6 Boundary Conditions
      • 4.7 Numerical Implementation of Boundary Conditions
      • 4.8 Accuracy and Errors
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Osborne Reynolds 1842–1912
      • Carl-Gustaf Arvid Rossby 1898–1957
    • Chapter 5. Diffusive Processes
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Isotropic, Homogeneous Turbulence
      • 5.2 Turbulent Diffusion
      • 5.3 One-Dimensional Numerical Scheme
      • 5.4 Numerical Stability Analysis
      • 5.5 Other One-Dimensional Schemes
      • 5.6 Multi-Dimensional Numerical Schemes
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov 1903–1987
      • John Louis von Neumann 1903–1957
    • Chapter 6. Transport and Fate
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Combination of Advection and Diffusion
      • 6.2 Relative Importance of Advection: The Peclet Number
      • 6.3 Highly Advective Situations
      • 6.4 Centered and Upwind Advection Schemes
      • 6.5 Advection–Diffusion with Sources and Sinks
      • 6.6 Multidimensional Approach
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Richard Courant 1888–1972
      • Peter David Lax 1926–
  • Part II: Rotation Effects
    • Chapter 7. Geostrophic Flows and Vorticity Dynamics
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Geostrophy Homogeneous Geostrophic Flows
      • 7.2 Homogeneous Geostrophic Flows Over an Irregular Bottom
      • 7.3 Generalization to Nongeostrophic Flows
      • 7.4 Vorticity Dynamics
      • 7.5 Rigid-Lid Approximation
      • 7.6 Numerical Solution of the Rigid-Lid Pressure Equation
      • 7.7 Numerical Solution of the Streamfunction Equation
      • 7.8 Laplacian Inversion
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Geoffrey Ingram Taylor 1886–1975
      • James Cyrus McWilliams 1946–
    • Chapter 8. The Ekman Layer
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Shear Turbulence
      • 8.2 Friction and Rotation
      • 8.3 The Bottom Ekman Layer
      • 8.4 Generalization to Nonuniform Currents
      • 8.5 The Ekman Layer over Uneven Terrain
      • 8.6 The Surface Ekman Layer
      • 8.7 The Ekman Layer in Real Geophysical Flows
      • 8.8 Numerical Simulation of Shallow Flows
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Vagn Walfrid Ekman 1874–1954
      • Ludwig Prandtl 1875–1953
    • Chapter 9. Barotropic Waves
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Linear Wave Dynamics
      • 9.2 The Kelvin Wave
      • 9.3 Inertia-Gravity Waves (Poincaré Waves)
      • 9.4 Planetary Waves (Rossby Waves)
      • 9.5 Topographic Waves
      • 9.6 Analogy Between Planetary and Topographic Waves
      • 9.7 Arakawa’s Grids
      • 9.8 Numerical Simulation of Tides and Storm Surges
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • William Thomson, Lord Kelvin 1824–1907
      • Akio Arakawa 1927–2010
    • Chapter 10. Barotropic Instability
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 What Makes a Wave Grow Unstable?
      • 10.2 Waves on a Shear Flow
      • 10.3 Bounds on Wave Speeds and Growth Rates
      • 10.4 A Simple Example
      • 10.5 Nonlinearities
      • 10.6 Filtering
      • 10.7 Contour Dynamics
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Louis Norberg Howard 1929–
      • Norman Julius Zabusky 1929–
  • Part III: Stratification Effects
    • Chapter 11. Stratification
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Static Stability
      • 11.3 A Note on Atmospheric Stratification
      • 11.4 Convective Adjustment
      • 11.5 The Importance of Stratification: The froude Number
      • 11.6 Combination of Rotation and Stratification
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • David Brunt 1886–1965
      • Vilho Väisälä 1889–1969
    • Chapter 12. Layered Models
      • Abstract
      • 12.1 From Depth to Density
      • 12.2 Layered Models
      • 12.3 Potential Vorticity
      • 12.4 Two-Layer Models
      • 12.5 Wind-Induced Seiches in Lakes
      • 12.6 Energy Conservation
      • 12.7 Numerical Layered Models
      • 12.8 Lagrangian Approach
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Raymond Braislin Montgomery 1910–1988
      • James Joseph O’Brien 1935–
    • Chapter 13. Internal Waves
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 From Surface to Internal Waves
      • 13.2 Internal-Wave Theory
      • 13.3 Structure of an Internal Wave
      • 13.4 Vertical Modes and Eigenvalue Problems
      • 13.5 Lee Waves
      • 13.6 Nonlinear Effects
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Walter Heinrich Munk 1917–
      • Adrian Edmund Gill 1937–1986
    • Chapter 14. Turbulence in Stratified Fluids
      • Abstract
      • 14.1 Mixing of Stratified Fluids
      • 14.2 Instability of a Stratified Shear Flow: The Richardson Number
      • 14.3 Turbulence Closure: k-Models
      • 14.4 Other Closures: kent and kklm
      • 14.5 Mixed-Layer Modeling
      • 14.6 Patankar-Type Discretizations
      • 14.7 Wind Mixing and Penetrative Convection
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Lewis Fry Richardson 1881–1953
      • George Lincoln Mellor 1929–
  • Part IV: Combined Rotation and Stratification Effects
    • Chapter 15. Dynamics of Stratified Rotating Flows
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Thermal Wind
      • 15.2 Geostrophic Adjustment
      • 15.3 Energetics of Geostrophic Adjustment
      • 15.4 Coastal Upwelling
      • 15.5 Atmospheric Frontogenesis
      • 15.6 Numerical Handling of Large Gradients
      • 15.7 Nonlinear Advection Schemes
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • George Veronis 1926–
      • Kozo Yoshida 1922–1978
    • Chapter 16. Quasi-Geostrophic Dynamics
      • Abstract
      • 16.1 Simplifying Assumption
      • 16.2 Governing Equation
      • 16.3 Length and Timescale
      • 16.4 Energetics
      • 16.5 Planetary Waves in a Stratified Fluid
      • 16.6 Some Nonlinear Effects
      • 16.7 Quasi-Geostrophic Ocean Modeling
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Jule Gregory Charney 1917–1981
      • Allan Richard Robinson 1932–2009
    • Chapter 17. Instabilities of Rotating Stratified Flows
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Two Types of Instability
      • 17.2 Inertial Instability
      • 17.3 Baroclinic Instability—The Mechanism
      • 17.4 Linear Theory of Baroclinic Instability
      • 17.5 Heat Transport
      • 17.6 Bulk Criteria
      • 17.7 Finite-Amplitude Development
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Joseph Pedlosky 1938–
      • Peter Broomell Rhines 1942–
    • Chapter 18. Fronts, Jets and Vortices
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 Fronts and Jets
      • 18.2 Vortices
      • 18.3 Geostrophic Turbulence
      • 18.4 Simulations of Geostrophic Turbulence
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Melvin Ernest Stern 1929–2010
      • Peter Douglas Killworth 1946–2008
  • Part V: Special Topics
    • Chapter 19. Atmospheric General Circulation
      • Abstract
      • 19.1 Climate Versus Weather
      • 19.2 Planetary Heat Budget
      • 19.3 Direct and Indirect Convective Cells
      • 19.4 Atmospheric Circulation Models
      • 19.5 Brief Remarks on Weather Forecasting
      • 19.6 Cloud Parameterizations
      • 19.7 Spectral Methods
      • 19.8 Semi-Lagrangian Methods
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Edward Norton Lorenz 1917–2008
      • Joseph Smagorinsky 1924–2005
    • Chapter 20. Oceanic General Circulation
      • Abstract
      • 20.1 What Drives the Oceanic Circulation
      • 20.2 Large-Scale Ocean Dynamics (Sverdrup Dynamics)
      • 20.3 Western Boundary Currents
      • 20.4 Thermohaline Circulation
      • 20.5 Abyssal Circulation
      • 20.6 Oceanic Circulation Models
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Henry Melson Stommel 1920–1992
      • Kirk Bryan 1929–
    • Chapter 21. Equatorial Dynamics
      • Abstract
      • 21.1 Equatorial Beta Plane
      • 21.2 Linear Waves Theory
      • 21.3 El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
      • 21.4 ENSO Forecasting
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • S. George H. Philander 1942–
      • Paola Malanotte Rizzoli
    • Chapter 22. Data Assimilation
      • Abstract
      • 22.1 Need for Data Assimilation
      • 22.2 Nudging
      • 22.3 Optimal Interpolation
      • 22.4 Kalman Filtering
      • 22.5 Inverse Methods
      • 22.6 Operational Models
      • Analytical Problems
      • Numerical Exercises
      • Michael Ghil 1944–
      • Eugenia Kalnay 1942–
  • Part VI: Web site Information
    • Introduction
    • Appendix A. Elements of Fluid Mechanics
    • Appendix B. Wave Kinematics
    • Appendix C. Recapitulation of Numerical Schemes
  • References
  • Index

Quotes and reviews

"...clear, informative, and ambitious...a unique and well-respected approach to dynamic meteorology and physical oceanography...I would recommend this book to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and others for self-study or reference."--Pure and Applied Geophysics, Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition

"...clear, informative, and ambitious...a unique and well-respected approach to dynamic meteorology and physical oceanography...I would recommend this book to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and others for self-study or reference."--Pure and Applied Geophysics, Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition

"This book…is one of the best books introducing the subject matter. The physics underlying the different phenomena of interest to geophysical fluid dynamics is concisely explained…Several problems, questions and exercises are given at the end of each chapter. I highly recommend this to undergraduate students, however, graduate students will also benefit from the material presented."--Contemporary Physics, January 29, 2013
"…Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics is one of the best books introducing the subject matter. The physics underlying the different phenomena of interest to geophysical fluid dynamics is concisely explained…I highly recommend this to undergraduate students, however, graduate students will also benefit from the material presented."--Contemporary Physics, Volume 54, Issue 1

 
 
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