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Marine Mammals, 2nd Edition

Evolutionary Biology

Marine Mammals, 2nd Edition,Annalisa Berta,James Sumich,Kit Kovacs,ISBN9780120885527

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Academic Press

9780120885527 New edition


254 X 175

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USD 88.95

Key Features

* Comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the biology of all marine mammals
* Provides a phylogenetic framework that integrates phylogeny with behavior and ecology
* Features chapter summaries, further readings, an appendix, glossary and an extensive bibliography
* Exciting new color photographs and additional distribution maps


Berta and Sumich have succeeded yet again in creating superior marine reading! This book is a succinct yet comprehensive text devoted to the systematics, evolution, morphology, ecology, physiology, and behavior of marine mammals. The first edition, considered the leading text in the field, is required reading for all marine biologists concerned with marine mammals. Revisions include updates of citations, expansion of nearly every chapter and full color photographs. This title continues the tradition by fully expanding and updating nearly all chapters.


Vertebrate zoologists, mammalogists, marine biologists, and those interested in the natural history, evolution, systematics, and behavior of marine mammals. Researchers, faculty, graduate students and advanced undergraduates interested in mammals, marine biology, and many related disciplines

Annalisa Berta

Annalisa Berta is Associate Chair and Professor of Biology at San Diego State University. She is an evolutionary biologist who has studied fossil and modern marine mammals for over 20 years. She is President of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology and Associate Editor of Marine Mammal Science.

Affiliations and Expertise

San Diego State University, California, U.S.A.

James Sumich

James L. Sumich is Professor Emeritus of Biology at Grossmont College. He has studied gray whales for nearly three decades and taught college courses on marine mammals for nearly as long. His research has focused on the ecological physiology of baleen whales, particularly the energetics of their seasonal fasting migrations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Grossmont College, El Cajon, California, U.S.A.

Kit Kovacs

Kit M. Kovacs is the Biodiversity Programme Leader for the Norwegian Polar Institute in Tromsø, Norway and Professor of Biology at University Studies on Svalbard (UNIS). She has worked with Arctic marine mammal ecology for the past 20 years, focusing on behavioral ecology and population biology. She is President of the Society for Marine Mammalogy and Associate Editor of the Canadian Journal of Zoology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromso, Norway

Marine Mammals, 2nd Edition


1. Introduction
1.1. Marine Mammals-""What Are They?""
1.2. Adaptations for Aquatic Life
1.3. Scope and Use of This Book
1.4. Time Scale
1.5. Early Observations of Marine Mammals
1.6. Emergence of Marine Mammal Science
1.7. Further Reading and Resources


2. Systematics and Classification
2.1. Introduction: Systematics-What Is It and Why Do It?
2.2. Some Basic Terminology and Concepts
2.3. How Do You Do Cladistics?
2.4. Testing Phylogenetic Hypotheses
2.5. Going Beyond the Phylogenetic Framework
2.6. Taxonomy and Classification
2.7. Summary and Conclusions
2.8. Further Reading

3. Pinniped Evolution and Systematics
3.1. Introduction
3.2 Origin and Evolution
3.3. Summary and Conclusions
3.4. Further Reading

4. Cetacean Evolution and Systematics
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Origin and Evolution
4.3. Summary and Conclusions
4.4. Further Reading

5. Sirenians and Other Marine Mammals:
Evolution and Systematics
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Origin and Evolution of Sirenians
5.3. The Extinct Sirenian Relatives-Desmostylia
5.4. The Extinct Marine Bear-Like Carnivoran, Kolponomos
5.5. The Extinct Aquatic Sloth, Thalassocnus natans
5.6. The Sea Otter, Enhydra lutris
5.7. The Polar Bear, Ursus maritimus
5.8. Summary and Conclusions
5.9. Further Reading

6. Evolutionary Biogeography
6.1. Introduction-What Is Biogeography and Why Is It Important?
6.2. Ecological Factors Affecting Distributions of Marine Mammals
6.3. Present Patterns of Distribution
6.4. Reconstructing Biogeographic Patterns
6.5. Past Patterns of Distribution
6.6. Summary and Conclusions
6.7. Further Reading


7. Integumentary and Sensory Systems
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Integumentary System
7.3. Nerves and Sense Organs
7.4. Summary and Conclusions
7.5. Further Reading

8. Musculoskeletal System and Locomotion
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Pinnipeds
8.3. Cetaceans
8.4. Sirenians
8.5. Sea Otter
8.6. Polar Bear
8.7. Summary and Conclusions
8.8. Further Reading

9. Energetics
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Metabolic Rates
9.3. Thermoregulation
9.4. Energetics of Locomotion
9.5. Osmoregulation
9.6. Summary and Conclusions
9.7. Further Reading

10. Respiration and Diving Physiology
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Problems of Deep and Prolonged Dives for Breath-Holders
10.3. Pulmonary and Circulatory Adaptations to Diving
10.4. Diving Response
10.5. Diving Behavior and Phylogenetic Patterns
10.6 Summary and Conclusions
10.7. Further Reading

11. Sound Production for Communication, Echolocation, and Prey Capture
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Sound Propagation in Air and Water
11.3. Anatomy and Physiology of Sound Production and Reception
11.4. Functions of Intentionally Produced Sounds
11.5. ATOC and Low Frequency Military Sonars
11.6. Summary and Conclusions
11.7. Further Reading

12. Diet, Foraging Structures, and Strategies
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Seasonal and Geographical Patterns of Prey Abundance
12.3. Adaptations for Foraging in Pinnipeds
12.4. Feeding Specializations of Cetaceans
12.5. Feeding Specializations of Sirenians
12.6. Feeding Specializations of Other Marine Mammals
12.7. Summary and Conclusions
12.8. Further Reading

13. Reproductive Structures, Strategies, and Patterns
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Reproductive System
13.3. Mating Systems
13.4. Lactation Strategies
13.5. Reproductive Patterns
13.6. Summary and Conclusions
13.7. Further Reading

14. Population Structure and Population Dynamics
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Abundance and Its Determination in Marine Mammals
14.3. Techniques for Monitoring Populations
14.4. Population Structure and Dynamics

14.6. Further Reading

15. Exploitation and Conservation
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Commercial Exploitation of Marine Mammals
15.3. Legal Framework for Marine Mammal Conservation and Protection
15.4. Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals
15.5. Environmental Contaminants
15.6. Single Beachings vs Mass Strandings
15.7. Ecotourism
15.8. Progress and the Future
15.9. Summary and Conclusions
15.10. Further Reading

Appendix: Classification of Marine Mammals



Quotes and reviews

""...successfully highlights the current state of knowledge on the diverse assemblage of mammals that utilise the marine environment. These
authors have combined their expertise to produce a comprehensive excellent textbook for advanced courses in marine mammalogy. Indeed, all scientists and students who study marine mammals should read it...the book’s major strength lies in the sections on the anatomy and physiology of marine mammals. The early chapters on evolution and systematics of the three primary groups of marine mammals (pinnipeds, cetaceans and sirenians) are highly detailed with respect to anatomical features...This book is an important resource and it should not be merely viewed as a classroom textbook. It contains a wealth of information. In addition to the biological aspects of marine mammals, the book also provides the history of exploitation and political attempts to manage and regulate hunting. Even though this review is presented in an unbiased manner, the conclusions are that current practices of overfishing may lead in the end to the demise of a number of species. Berta, Sumich and Kovacs present a hopeful plea that we can make future political decisions based on a sense of stewardship of the oceans and its inhabitants.""
- Frank E. Fish, Department of Biology, West Chester University in ANIMAL BIOLOGY

""...Berta et al have provided us with a crucial resource spanning many disparate research venues...Each chapter provides extensive references for further research. In the appendix are listed the living species (as discussed in the book) with information such as diagnosis, definition, distribution, fossil history and content. A glossary, a substantial index and several pages of color photos completes the rest of the book...certainly, this book is appropriate for any academic library supporting marine science, marine ecology, environmental science, evolutionary biology and similar programs.""
- Peggy Dominy in E-STREAMS

""This update to the original version of this basic book originally published in 1999 is highly welcome...the authors succeed again in presenting a book that is simultaneously challenging and easily readable for students. The strength of the book is its integrative presentation of adaptiveness to the marine environment (e.g. in terms of anatomy, physiology, behaviour and ecology, all in an explicit phylogenetic context) as opposed to isolated tales of evolutionary adaptations. As
such, the reader can always follow functional aspects of convergent evolution in the various non-related marine-mammal groups. Consequentially, the book starts with a (classical) introduction to phylogenetic systematics in general followed by specific chapters on pinniped, cetacean and sirenian evolution and systematics. Different and even highly contradicting views of the relationships of each group are clearly presented, and the authors do an excellent job (especially for students) of not trying to conceal these disagreements, but instead in leaving the discussion open. Part I finishes with an especially nice chapter on 'evolutionary biogeography'.

The bulk of the book deals with solutions in all the various systems to cope with the (for mammals) new marine environment. The changes in each of these systems, especially when viewed together, represent a powerful, outstanding and underused piece of evidence of evolution. Following the descriptions of loss, restructuring and 'inventing' of structures in almost all systems is a pleasure in itself, but even more so because of many instructive illustrations by Pieter Arend Folkens and Peter J. Adam.

We should thank the authors for the great effort they have made to gather all the diverse information available and to present it in a highly
comprehensive book, and one that can only be recommended to all readers interested in this challenging field.""

"" with the evolution of marine mammals in detail, and the remainder of the book is a good, solid guide to their complex biology. That said, Marine mammals: evolutionary biology will certainly be popular with students, because it is clearly and concisely written, and intelligently illustrated.""

""...the book does represent a good reference source that I will certainly use myself, and it will serve those who teach these themes extremely well. Berta et al. deserve to be congratulated for this comprehensive tome - it is a thorough, precise and clearly written reference that will serve admirably those interested in the evolution of marine mammals.""
- Corey J.A. Bradshaw, School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, in POLAR RESEARCH
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