Microbial Forensics

Microbial Forensics, 1st Edition

Microbial Forensics, 1st Edition,Bruce Budowle,Steven Schutzer,Roger Breeze,ISBN9780120884834

Budowle   &   Schutzer   &   Breeze   

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Key Features

* Provides the real science beyond that displayed on TV and in the movies
* Covers not only microbes but also the biology, chemistry, physics & computer science that is used for identification.
* Of relevance Internationally to military, intelligence, law enforcement, agricultural, legal and environmental fields


Microbial Forensics describes the new and growing field of Microbial Forensics- the science that will help bring to justice criminals and terrorists who use biological material to cause harm. This book describes the foundation of the field of microbial forensics and will serve as a basic primer to initiate those scientists and officials that have an interest in the topic. It covers a variety of areas from forensic science, to microbiology, to epidemiology, to bioinformatics, and to legal issues.


Microbiologists, forensic scientists, virologists, government laboratories,pharmaceutical companies and public health specialists

Bruce Budowle

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Investigative Genetics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX

Steven Schutzer

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ

Roger Breeze

Affiliations and Expertise

Centaur Science Group, Washington, DC

Microbial Forensics, 1st Edition

Contributors Foreword Preface Acknowledgments 1 Microbial Forensics Introduction The Threat History Forensic Science Defining the Microbial Forensics Program Carrying Out a Successful Microbial Forensics Program SWGMGF Epidemiology (A First Step in a Microbial Forensic Analysis) Microbial Forensic Tools Bioinformatics and Genetics Forensic Case Examples Education Conclusion Acknowledgment References 2 Infectious Diseases: Not Just a Health Matter Anymore Introduction Infectious Disease: The Classic Health Viewpoint Infectious Disease: The Offensive Biological Weapons Viewpoint Infectious Disease: New Players and New Threats Infectious Disease: What Are the Threats Infectious Disease: Biosafety and Biosecurity References 3 The Fundamentals of Human Virology Introduction An Overview of the DNA Viruses An Overview of the RNA Viruses Positive-sense RNA Viruses Negative-sense Single-Stranded RNA Viruses Segmented RNA Viruses and the Retroviridae The Application of Molecular Forensics and Epidemiology to Viral Infections References 4 Keeping Track of Viruses Introduction What Is a Virus? Basic Virology Virus Lifecycle Virus Classification Generation of Viral Diversity Introduction to Viral Kinetics and Outcome How Do You Identify a Virus Examples of Naturally Emerging Viruses Viral Forensics Engineering Novel Viruses Determining the Source of an Engineered Virus Conclusion Acknowledgments References 5 Bacterial Pathogens DNA Regions of Value for Forensic Identification of Bacterial Pathogens Bacterial Pathogens of Concern References 6 Biology and Detection of Fungal Pathogens of Humans and Plants Introduction Classification, Nomenclature, and Taxonomy of Fungi Growth Habit and Reproduction Pathogenicity Epidemiology Detection and Identification References 7 Forensic Aspects of Biologic Toxins Introduction 131 Botulinum Neurotoxin and Botulism Ricin Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Clostridia perfringens Epsilon Toxin Summary References 8 Epidemiologic Investigation for Public Health, Biodefense, and Forensic Microbiology Introduction Dynamics of Disease Transmission Outbreak Investigation Deliberate Introduction of a Biological Agent Molecular Strain Typing Summary References 9 Molecular Epidemiology and Forensics of RNA Viruses Challenges Posed by RNA Viruses A Case Study: Foot-and-Mouth Disease in the United Kingdom, 2001 What Needs To Be Done References 10 Investigation of Suspicious Disease Outbreaks Natural and Deliberate Disease Importance of Disease Surveillance Global Disease Reporting Systems U.S. Disease Surveillance and Reporting Systems Epidemiologic Investigation Composition of an Outbreak Investigation Team Epidemiologic Analysis Evaluation of Clinical Findings Investigation of Animal Disease Outbreaks Investigation of Crop Disease Outbreaks Specimen Collection Environmental Sampling Sample Handling Specimen Storage Laboratory Analysis Serology Evaluation of the Etiologic Agent Analysis of Meteorological and Climatic Conditions Economic Analysis Media Reports Available Documents Evaluation of Scientific Literature Training or Work Experience Equipment or Potential Means of Delivery Summary References 11 Forensic Handling of Biological Threat Samples in the Lab Introduction Use of Test Plans to Implement Operational Strategies Biological and Physical Integrity of a Sample Legal Concerns for Sample Handling and Data Records Safety Issues Sample Shipping Regulations CDC/NIH Regulations References 12 Forensic Genetic Analysis of Microorganisms: Overview of Some Important Technical Concepts and Selected Genetic Typing Methods Introduction Useful Definitions and Concepts Taxonomy and Epidemiology Genetic Considerations Restriction Endonucleases and Polymerase Chain Reaction Of Dendrograms and Phylogenetic Trees Molecular Genetic Techniques for Strain Typing Multilocus Sequence Typing Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing PCR-Based Genetic Typing Viruses and Fungi Conclusions References 13 Non-DNA Methods for Biological Signatures Introduction Intrinsic Molecular Properties: Fingerprints A Multidisciplinary Approach to Biological Signatures Overview of Characterization Techniques Individual Methods in Detail Results: Analysis of Bacillus globigii Spore Samples Discussion and Future Directions References 14 Microbial Forensics Host Factors General Concepts Utility of Serologic Analysis of People Exposed to Anthrax: Strengths and Limitations Considerations and Concerns Raised by Analysis of Other Infections Possible Scenarios of Bioterrorism Attacks: Distinguishing Victims from Perpetrators References 15 Bioinformatics Methods for Microbial Detection and Forensic Diagnostic Design A Working Definition of Bioinformatics An Overview of Microbial Diagnostics Detection Diagnostics Nucleic Acid Detection Diagnostics Chemistries for Nucleic Acid Detection Protein Detection Diagnostics Monoclonal Antibody High-Affinity Ligands Forensic Diagnostics Large-Scale, Chip-Based Techniques Protein Forensic Diagnostics Genome Sequencing and Analysis Techniques Basecalling and Accuracy Draft versus Finished Strategies for Bacterial and Viral Sequencing Assembly Annotation Tools for Annotation Annotation for Diagnostics versus Traditional Genomic Annotation Comparative Genomics Pairwise Comparison and Alignment Multisequence and Multigenome Alignment Common Substring Comparison Comparative Genomic Tools Protein Structure Tools for Protein Structure Modeling Tools for Protein Structure Analysis Visualization Other Forensic Techniques Protein Mass Spectrometer Analysis Image Analysis Examples Anthracis Analysis Nucleic Acid Signature Pipeline Determination of Target Pathogen Consensus Sequence Fast, Scalable Sequence Comparison Programs to Locate Unique Sequence Primer and Probe Selection and Acceptance Protein Signature Pipeline Acknowledgments References 16 Population Genetics of Bacteria in a Forensic Context Introduction DNA Forensics of Humans and Bacteria Case Study of Bacillus anthracis Conclusions Recommendations Acknowledgments References 17 Quality Management in Forensics Laboratories Laboratory Quality Management A Few Definitions Are in Order at This Point Laboratory Accreditation Validation of Laboratory Tests Proficiency Testing Quality Control Testing Quality Assurance Monitoring Competency Assessment of Laboratory Employees Procedure Manuals Laboratory Reports Laboratory Records Laboratory Security Conclusions Bibliography 18 Admissibility Standards for Scientific Evidence Legal Admissibility Background to the Daubert Decision Analysis of the Daubert Decision The DNA Admissibility Litigation Fingerprint Admissibility Litigation Under Daubert Observations References Appendix Quality Assurance Guidelines for Laboratories Performing Microbial Forensic Work Subject Index

Quotes and reviews

"The editors have gathered an impressive array of experts and present 18 chapters that give the reader both an overview of microbial forensics and fairly intricate details regarding different aspects of the field. ...contains a good amount of interesting information regarding the application of forensic science to biological crimes and bioterrorist events."
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