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Microbial Forensics
 
 

Microbial Forensics, 1st Edition

 
Microbial Forensics, 1st Edition,Bruce Budowle,Steven Schutzer,Roger Breeze,ISBN9780120884834
 
 
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Budowle   &   Schutzer   &   Breeze   

Academic Press

9780120884834 New edition

9780080454887

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Key Features

* Provides the real science beyond that displayed on TV and in the movies
* Covers not only microbes but also the biology, chemistry, physics & computer science that is used for identification.
* Of relevance Internationally to military, intelligence, law enforcement, agricultural, legal and environmental fields

Description

Microbial Forensics describes the new and growing field of Microbial Forensics- the science that will help bring to justice criminals and terrorists who use biological material to cause harm. This book describes the foundation of the field of microbial forensics and will serve as a basic primer to initiate those scientists and officials that have an interest in the topic. It covers a variety of areas from forensic science, to microbiology, to epidemiology, to bioinformatics, and to legal issues.

Readership

Microbiologists, forensic scientists, virologists, government laboratories,pharmaceutical companies and public health specialists

Bruce Budowle

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Investigative Genetics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX

Steven Schutzer

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ

Roger Breeze

Affiliations and Expertise

Centaur Science Group, Washington, DC

Microbial Forensics, 1st Edition


Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

1 Microbial Forensics

Introduction

The Threat

History

Forensic Science

Defining the Microbial Forensics Program

Carrying Out a Successful Microbial Forensics Program

SWGMGF

Epidemiology (A First Step in a Microbial Forensic Analysis)

Microbial Forensic Tools

Bioinformatics and Genetics

Forensic Case Examples

Education

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

2 Infectious Diseases: Not Just a Health Matter Anymore

Introduction

Infectious Disease: The Classic Health Viewpoint

Infectious Disease: The Offensive Biological Weapons Viewpoint

Infectious Disease: New Players and New Threats

Infectious Disease: What Are the Threats

Infectious Disease: Biosafety and Biosecurity

References

3 The Fundamentals of Human Virology

Introduction

An Overview of the DNA Viruses

An Overview of the RNA Viruses

Positive-sense RNA Viruses

Negative-sense Single-Stranded RNA Viruses

Segmented RNA Viruses and the Retroviridae

The Application of Molecular Forensics and Epidemiology to Viral Infections

References

4 Keeping Track of Viruses

Introduction

What Is a Virus? Basic Virology

Virus Lifecycle

Virus Classification

Generation of Viral Diversity

Introduction to Viral Kinetics and Outcome

How Do You Identify a Virus

Examples of Naturally Emerging Viruses

Viral Forensics

Engineering Novel Viruses

Determining the Source of an Engineered Virus

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

5 Bacterial Pathogens

DNA Regions of Value for Forensic Identification of Bacterial Pathogens

Bacterial Pathogens of Concern

References

6 Biology and Detection of Fungal Pathogens of Humans and Plants

Introduction

Classification, Nomenclature, and Taxonomy of Fungi

Growth Habit and Reproduction

Pathogenicity

Epidemiology

Detection and Identification

References

7 Forensic Aspects of Biologic Toxins

Introduction 131

Botulinum Neurotoxin and Botulism

Ricin

Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

Clostridia perfringens Epsilon Toxin

Summary

References

8 Epidemiologic Investigation for Public Health, Biodefense, and Forensic Microbiology

Introduction

Dynamics of Disease Transmission

Outbreak Investigation

Deliberate Introduction of a Biological Agent

Molecular Strain Typing

Summary

References

9 Molecular Epidemiology and Forensics of RNA Viruses

Challenges Posed by RNA Viruses

A Case Study: Foot-and-Mouth Disease in the United Kingdom, 2001

What Needs To Be Done

References

10 Investigation of Suspicious Disease Outbreaks

Natural and Deliberate Disease

Importance of Disease Surveillance

Global Disease Reporting Systems

U.S. Disease Surveillance and Reporting Systems

Epidemiologic Investigation

Composition of an Outbreak Investigation Team

Epidemiologic Analysis

Evaluation of Clinical Findings

Investigation of Animal Disease Outbreaks

Investigation of Crop Disease Outbreaks

Specimen Collection

Environmental Sampling

Sample Handling

Specimen Storage

Laboratory Analysis

Serology

Evaluation of the Etiologic Agent

Analysis of Meteorological and Climatic Conditions

Economic Analysis

Media Reports

Available Documents

Evaluation of Scientific Literature

Training or Work Experience

Equipment or Potential Means of Delivery

Summary

References

11 Forensic Handling of Biological Threat Samples in the Lab

Introduction

Use of Test Plans to Implement Operational Strategies

Biological and Physical Integrity of a Sample

Legal Concerns for Sample Handling and Data Records

Safety Issues

Sample Shipping Regulations

CDC/NIH Regulations

References

12 Forensic Genetic Analysis of Microorganisms: Overview of Some Important Technical Concepts and Selected Genetic Typing Methods

Introduction

Useful Definitions and Concepts

Taxonomy and Epidemiology

Genetic Considerations

Restriction Endonucleases and Polymerase Chain Reaction

Of Dendrograms and Phylogenetic Trees

Molecular Genetic Techniques for Strain Typing

Multilocus Sequence Typing

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing

PCR-Based Genetic Typing

Viruses and Fungi

Conclusions

References

13 Non-DNA Methods for Biological Signatures

Introduction

Intrinsic Molecular Properties: Fingerprints

A Multidisciplinary Approach to Biological Signatures

Overview of Characterization Techniques

Individual Methods in Detail

Results: Analysis of Bacillus globigii Spore Samples

Discussion and Future Directions

References

14 Microbial Forensics Host Factors

General Concepts

Utility of Serologic Analysis of People Exposed to Anthrax:

Strengths and Limitations

Considerations and Concerns Raised by Analysis of Other Infections

Possible Scenarios of Bioterrorism Attacks: Distinguishing

Victims from Perpetrators

References

15 Bioinformatics Methods for Microbial Detection and Forensic Diagnostic Design

A Working Definition of Bioinformatics

An Overview of Microbial Diagnostics

Detection Diagnostics

Nucleic Acid Detection Diagnostics

Chemistries for Nucleic Acid Detection

Protein Detection Diagnostics

Monoclonal Antibody

High-Affinity Ligands

Forensic Diagnostics

Large-Scale, Chip-Based Techniques

Protein Forensic Diagnostics

Genome Sequencing and Analysis Techniques

Basecalling and Accuracy

Draft versus Finished

Strategies for Bacterial and Viral Sequencing

Assembly

Annotation

Tools for Annotation

Annotation for Diagnostics versus Traditional Genomic Annotation

Comparative Genomics

Pairwise Comparison and Alignment

Multisequence and Multigenome Alignment

Common Substring Comparison

Comparative Genomic Tools

Protein Structure

Tools for Protein Structure Modeling

Tools for Protein Structure Analysis

Visualization

Other Forensic Techniques

Protein Mass Spectrometer Analysis

Image Analysis

Examples

Anthracis Analysis

Nucleic Acid Signature Pipeline

Determination of Target Pathogen Consensus Sequence

Fast, Scalable Sequence Comparison Programs to Locate Unique Sequence

Primer and Probe Selection and Acceptance

Protein Signature Pipeline

Acknowledgments

References

16 Population Genetics of Bacteria in a Forensic Context

Introduction

DNA Forensics of Humans and Bacteria

Case Study of Bacillus anthracis

Conclusions

Recommendations

Acknowledgments

References

17 Quality Management in Forensics Laboratories

Laboratory Quality Management

A Few Definitions Are in Order at This Point

Laboratory Accreditation

Validation of Laboratory Tests

Proficiency Testing

Quality Control Testing

Quality Assurance Monitoring

Competency Assessment of Laboratory Employees

Procedure Manuals

Laboratory Reports

Laboratory Records

Laboratory Security

Conclusions

Bibliography

18 Admissibility Standards for Scientific Evidence

Legal Admissibility

Background to the Daubert Decision

Analysis of the Daubert Decision

The DNA Admissibility Litigation

Fingerprint Admissibility Litigation Under Daubert

Observations

References

Appendix

Quality Assurance Guidelines for Laboratories Performing Microbial Forensic Work

Subject Index


Quotes and reviews

"The editors have gathered an impressive array of experts and present 18 chapters that give the reader both an overview of microbial forensics and fairly intricate details regarding different aspects of the field. ...contains a good amount of interesting information regarding the application of forensic science to biological crimes and bioterrorist events."
- CLINICAL INFECTIONS DISEASES (January 2005)
 
 
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