Human Neuroanatomy

Human Neuroanatomy, 1st Edition

Human Neuroanatomy, 1st Edition,James R. Augustine,ISBN9780120682515


Academic Press



279 X 216

A thorough and comprehensive textbook of the human brain and spinal cord for medical and graduate students as well as residents in the clinical neurosciences.

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USD 104.00

Key Features

* Presents the complexities of the nervous system as simply and clearly as possible
* Written with a clarity and depth of coverage that makes the reading both instructional and enjoyable
* Includes numerous illustrations emphasizing important concepts


This textbook provides a thorough and comprehensive overview of the human brain and spinal cord for medical and graduate students as well as residents in the clinical neurosciences. Standing on the shoulders of training from outstanding scientist-teacher mentors and based on more than 30 years of experience teaching about the brain and spinal cord to medical and graduate students, this single authored text presents everything the reader would need as they begin their study of the nervous system. At the same time the experienced neuroscientist will find much useful and valuable information in these pages that is based almost exclusively on studies in experimental primates and observations in humans. Every effort has been made to present the complexities of the nervous system as simply and clearly as possible. The careful reader will discover a clarity and depth of coverage that makes the reading both instructional and enjoyable. Topics are presented logically and the text in an easy-to-read style. The accompanying line drawings emphasize important concepts in a clear and uncluttered manner.

Topics presented:

• Neurons, glial cells, degeneration, regeneration, axonal transport
• Review of the development of the human nervous system
• Overview of the anatomy of the spinal cord, brain stem and forebrain
• General sensory paths (pain, temperature, touch, pressure, proprioception)
• Special sensory systems (auditory, vestibular, visual, olfactory and gustatory)
• Eye movements and visual reflexes
• Comprehensive presentation of the regions involved in motor activity including the clinical manifestation of injuries to these motor areas
• Limbic system, hypothalamus and the autonomic nervous system
• Lobes of the brain, clinically important cortical areas and the results of lesions in these areas
• Blood supply to the spinal cord, brain stem, and brain including classical brain stem syndromes
• The meninges and the ventricular system
• Numerous helpful clinical correlations that emphasize the practical application of basic anatomical information.


Medical and graduate students, neuroscientists, and neurologists.

James R. Augustine

Affiliations and Expertise

University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USA

Human Neuroanatomy, 1st Edition

Contents Preface Chapter 1: Introduction to the Nervous System 1.1. Neurons 1.1.1. Neuronal Cell Body (Soma) 1.1.2. Axon Hillock 1.1.3. Neuronal Processes - Axons and Dendrites 1.2. Classification of Neurons 1.2.1. Neuronal Classification by Function 1.2.2. Neuronal Classification by Number of Processes 1.3. The Synapse 1.3.1. Components of a Synapse 1.3.2. Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators 1.3.3. Neuronal Plasticity 1.3.4. The Neuropil 1.4. Neuroglial Cells 1.4.1. Neuroglial Cells differ from Neurons 1.4.2. Identification of Neuroglia 1.4.3. Neuroglial Function 1.4.4. Neuroglial Cells and Aging 1.5. Axonal Transport 1.5.1. Functions of Axonal Transport 1.5.2. Defective Axonal Transport 1.6. Degeneration and Regeneration 1.6.1. Axon or Retrograde Reaction 1.6.2. Anterograde Degeneration 1.6.3. Retrograde Degeneration 1.6.4. Regeneration of Peripheral Nerves 1.6.5. Regeneration and Neurotrophic Factors 1.6.6. Regeneration in the Central Nervous System 1.7. Neural Transplantation Further Reading Chapter 2: Development of the Nervous System 2.1. First Week of Development (Fertilization, Free Blastocyst, Attaching Blastocyst) 2.1.1. Fertilization 2.1.2. From Two Cells to the Free Blastocyst 2.2. Second Week of Development (Implantation, Primitive Streak Appears, Three Layers of Cells) 2.2.1. Implantation and the Appearance of Two Distinct Layers of Cells 2.2.2. Primitive Streak and a Third Layer of Cells Appear 2.3. Third Week of Development (Neural Plate, Groove, and Folds, Three Main Divisions of the Brain) 2.3.1. Primitive Node and Notochordal Process Appear 2.3.2. Neural Plate, Groove, Folds and Neuromeres Appear 2.3.3. Three Main Divisions of the Brain Identifiable 2.3.4. Mesencephalic Flexure Appears 2.4. Fourth Week of Development (Neural Tube Forms and Closes, Neural Crest Formation Continues) 2.4.1. Formation of the Neural Tube 2.4.2. Rostral and Caudal Neuropores Remain Temporarily Open 2.4.3. Neural Crest Cells Emerge 2.4.4. Neural Canal - the Future Ventricular System 2.4.5. Neuropores Close and the Closed Neural Tube is Filled with Fluid 2.4.6. Cervical Flexure Present 2.5. Fifth Week of Development (Five Subdivisions of the Brain Identifiable) 2.5.1. Simple Tube Transforms into Complex Organ System 2.5.2. Five Subdivisions of the Brain Appear 2.5.3. Brain Vesicles vs. Brain Regions 2.6. Vulnerability of the Developing Nervous System 2.7. Congenital Malformations of the Nervous System 2.7.1. Spinal Dysraphism 2.7.2. Anencephaly Further Reading Chapter 3: The Spinal Cord 3.1. Embryological Considerations 3.1.1. Layers of the Developing Spinal Cord 3.1.2. Formation of Ventral Gray Columns and Ventral Roots 3.1.3. Formation of Dorsal Gray Columns 3.1.4. Dorsal and Ventral Horns vs. Dorsal and Ventral Gray Columns 3.1.5. Development of Neural Crest Cells 3.1.6. The Framework of the Adult Cord is Present at Birth 3.2. Gross Anatomy 3.2.1. Spinal Cord Weight and Length 3.2.2. Spinal Segments, Regions, and Enlargements 3.2.3. Spinal Segments in Each Region are of Unequal Length 3.2.4. Conus Medullaris, Filum Terminale, and Cauda Equina 3.2.5. Termination of the Adult Spinal Cord 3.2.6. Differential Rate of Growth: Vertebral Column vs. the Spinal Cord 3.2.7. Relationship between Spinal Segments and Vertebrae 3.3. Nuclear Groups - Gray Matter 3.3.1. General Arrangement of Spinal Cord Gray Matter 3.3.2. Gray Matter at Enlargement Levels 3.3.3. Spinal Laminae 3.3.4. Dorsal Horn 3.3.5. Lateral Horn 3.3.6. Ventral Horn 3.4. Functional Classes of Neurons 3.4.1. Four Classes of Neurons in the Spinal Cord 3.4.2. General Somatic vs. General Visceral Afferent Neurons 3.4.3. General Somatic vs. General Visceral Efferent Neurons 3.4.4. Some Ventral Root Axons are Sensory 3.5. Funiculi/Fasciculi/Tracts - White Matter 3.6. Spinal Reflexes 3.7. Spinal Meninges and Related Spaces 3.7.1. Spinal Dura Mater 3.7.2. Spinal Arachnoid 3.7.3. Spinal Pia Mater 3.8. Spinal Cord Injury 3.8.1. Transverse Hemisection of the Spinal Cord (Brown-Séquard Syndrome) 3.8.2. Syringomyelia 3.9. Blood Supply to the Spinal Cord Further Reading Chapter 4: The Brain Stem 4.1. External Features 4.1.1. Medulla Oblongata 4.1.2. Pons 4.1.3. Midbrain 4.2. Cerebellum and Fourth Ventricle 4.2.1. Cerebellum 4.2.2. Fourth Ventricle 4.3. Organization of Brain Stem Neuronal Columns 4.3.1. Functional Components of the Cranial Nerves 4.3.2. Efferent Columns 4.3.3. Afferent Columns 4.4. Internal Features 4.4.1. Endogenous Substances 4.4.2. Medulla Oblongata 4.4.3. Pons 4.4.4. Midbrain Further Reading Chapter 5: The Forebrain 5.1. Telencephalon 5.1.1. Telencephalon Medium 5.1.2. Cerebral Hemispheres 5.1.3. Basal Nuclei 5.1.4. Rhinencephalon 5.2. Diencephalon 5.2.1. Epithalamus 5.2.2. Thalamus 5.2.3. Subthalamus 5.2.4. Hypothalamus 5.3. Cerebral White Matter Further Reading 80 Chapter 6: Introduction to Ascending Sensory Paths 6.1. Receptors 6.2. Classification of Receptors by Modality 6.2.1. Mechanoreceptors 6.2.2. Thermoreceptors 6.2.3. Nociceptors 6.2.4. Chemoreceptors 6.2.5. Photoreceptors 6.2.6. Osmoreceptors 6.3. Sherrington’s Classification of Receptors 6.3.1. Exteroceptors 6.3.2. Interoceptors 6.3.3. Proprioceptors 6.4. Structural Classification of Receptors 6.4.1. Free Nerve Endings 6.4.2. Endings in Hair Follicles 6.4.3. Terminal Endings of Nerves 6.4.4. Neurotendinous Spindles 6.4.5. Neuromuscular Spindles 6.5. Reflex Circuits 6.5.1. The Monosynaptic Reflex 6.5.2. Complex Reflexes 6.6. General Sensory Paths 6.6.1. Classification of Sensory Paths by Function 6.7. Organization of General Sensory Paths 6.7.1. Receptors 6.7.2. Primary Neurons 6.7.3. Secondary Neurons 6.7.4. Thalamic Neurons 6.7.5. Cortical Neurons 6.7.6. Modulation of Sensory Paths Further Reading Chapter 7: Paths for Pain and Temperature 7.1. Path for Superficial Pain and Temperature from the Body 7.1.1. Modalities 7.1.2. Receptor 7.1.3. Primary Neurons 7.1.4. Secondary Neurons 7.1.5. Position of the Lateral Spinothalamic Tract in the Brain Stem 7.1.6. Thalamic Neurons 7.1.7. Cortical Neurons 7.1.8. Modulation of Painful and Thermal Impulses 7.2. Path for Visceral Pain from the Body 7.2.1. Modalities and Receptors 7.2.2. Primary Neurons 7.2.3. Secondary Neurons 7.2.4. Thalamic Neurons 7.2.5. Cortical Neurons 7.2.6. Suffering Accompanying Pain 7.2.7. Visceral Pain as Referred Pain 7.2.8. Transection of Fiber Bundles to Relieve Intractable Pain 7.3. The Trigeminal Nuclear Complex 7.3.1. Organization of the Trigeminal Nuclear Complex 7.3.2. Organization of Entering Trigeminal Sensory Fibers 7.4. Path for Superficial Pain and Thermal Extremes from the Head 7.4.1. Modalities and Receptors 7.4.2. Primary Neurons 7.4.3. Secondary Neurons 7.4.4. Thalamic Neurons 7.5. Path for Thermal Discrimination from the Head 7.5.1. Modality and Receptors 7.5.2. Primary Neurons 7.5.3. Secondary Neurons 7.5.4. Thalamic Neurons 7.5.5. Cortical Neurons 7.6. General Somatic Afferent Components of VII, IX and X 7.7. Trigeminal and Other Neuralgias 7.7.1. Causes of Trigeminal Neuralgia 1 7.7.2. Methods of Treatment for Trigeminal Neuralgia 7.8. Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia Further Reading Chapter 8: Paths for Touch, Pressure, Proprioception, and Vibration 8.1. Path for General Tactile Sensation from the Body 8.1.1. Modalities and Receptors 8.1.2. Primary Neurons 8.1.3. Secondary Neurons 8.1.4. Thalamic Neurons 8.2. Path for Tactile Discrimination, Pressure, Proprioception, and Vibration from the Body 1 8.2.1. Modalities and Receptors 8.2.2. Primary Neurons 8.2.3. Secondary Neurons 8.2.4. Thalamic Neurons 8.2.5. Cortical Neurons 8.2.6. Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Relief of Pain 8.3. Path for Tactile Discrimination from the Head 8.3.1. Modalities and Receptors 8.3.2. Primary Neurons 8.3.3. Secondary Neurons 8.3.4. Thalamic Neurons 8.3.5. Cortical Neurons 8.4. Path for General Tactile Sensation from the Head 8.4.1. Modalities and Receptors 8.4.2. Primary Neurons 8.4.3. Secondary Neurons and Their Central Processes 8.4.4. Thalamic Neurons 8.5. Path for Proprioception, Pressure, and Vibration from the Head 8.5.1. Modalities and Receptors 8.5.2. Primary Neurons 8.5.3. Secondary Neurons 8.5.4. Thalamic Neurons 8.5.5. Cortical Neurons 8.6. Trigeminal Motor Component 8.7. Certain Trigeminal Reflexes 8.7.1. Mandibular, Masseter, or ‘Jaw-Closing’ Reflex 8.7.2. Corneal Reflex Further Reading Chapter 9: The Reticular Formation 9.1. Structural Aspects 9.1.1. Reticular Nuclei in the Medulla 9.1.2. Reticular Nuclei in the Pons 9.1.3. Reticular Nuclei in the Midbrain 9.2. Ascending Reticular System 9.3. Descending Reticular System 9.4. Functional Aspects of the Reticular Formation 9.4.1. Consciousness 9.4.2. Homeostatic Regulation 9.4.3. Visceral Reflexes 9.4.4. Motor Function Further Reading 1 Chapter 10: The Auditory System 10.1. Gross Anatomy 10.1.1. External Ear 10.1.2. Middle Ear 10.1.3. Internal Ear 10.2. The Ascending Auditory Path 10.2.1. Modality and Receptors 10.2.2. Primary Neurons 10.2.3. Secondary Neurons 10.2.4. Tertiary Neurons 10.2.5. Inferior Collicular Neurons 10.2.6. Thalamic Neurons 10.2.7. Cortical Neurons 10.2.8. Comments 10.3. Descending Auditory Connections 10.3.1. Electrical Stimulation of Cochlear Efferents 10.3.2. Autonomic Fibers to the Cochlea 10.4. Injury to the Auditory Path 10.4.1. Congenital Loss of Hearing 10.4.2. Decoupling of Stereocilia 10.4.3. Tinnitus 10.4.4. Noise-Induced Loss of Hearing 10.4.5. Aging and the Loss of Hearing 10.4.6. Unilateral Loss of Hearing 10.4.7. Injury to the Inferior Colliculi 10.4.8. Unilateral Injury to the Medial Geniculate Body or Auditory Cortex 10.4.9. Bilateral Injury to the Primary Auditory Cortex 10.4.10. Auditory Seizures - Audenes 10.5. Cochlear Implants 10.6. Auditory Brain Stem Implants Further Reading Chapter 11: The Vestibular System 11.1 Gross Anatomy 11.1.1. Internal Ear 11.2. The Ascending Vestibular Path 11.2.1. Modalities and Receptors 11.2.2. Primary Neurons 11.2.3. Secondary Neurons 11.2.4. Thalamic Neurons 11.2.5. Cortical Neurons 11.3. Other Vestibular Connections 11.3.1. Primary Vestibulocerebellar Fibers 11.3.2. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to the Cerebellum 11.3.3. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to the Spinal Cord 11.3.4. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to Nuclei of the Extraocular Muscles 11.3.5. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to the Reticular Formation 11.3.6. Vestibular Projections to the Contralateral Vestibular Nuclei 11.4. The Efferent Component of the Vestibular System 11.5. Afferent Projections to the Vestibular Nuclei 11.6. Vertigo 11.6.1. Physiological Vertigo 11.6.2. Pathological Vertigo Further Reading Chapter 12: The Visual System 12.1. Retina 12.1.1. Pigment Layer 12.1.2. Neural Layer 12.1.3. Other Retinal Elements 12.1.4. Special Retinal Regions 12.1.5. Retinal Areas 12.1.6. Visual Fields 12.2. Visual Path 12.2.1. Receptors 12.2.2. Primary Retinal Neurons 12.2.3. Secondary Retinal Neurons 12.2.4. Optic Nerve [II] 12.2.5. Optic Chiasma - the Union of Both Intracranial Optic Nerves 208 12.2.6. Optic Tract 12.2.7. Thalamic Neurons 12.2.8. Optic Radiations 12.2.9. Cortical Neurons 12.3. Injuries to the Visual System 12.3.1. Retinal Injuries 12.3.2. Injury to the Optic Nerve 12.3.3. Chiasmal Injuries 12.3.4. Injuries to the Optic Tract 12.3.5. Injury to the Lateral Geniculate Body 12.3.6. Injuries to the Optic Radiations 12.3.7. Injuries to the Visual Cortex Further Reading Chapter 13: Ocular Movements and Visual Reflexes 13.1. Ocular Movements 13.1.1. Primary Position of the Eyes 13.2. Conjugate Ocular Movements 13.2.1. Miniature Ocular Movements 13.2.2. Saccades 13.2.3. Smooth Pursuit Movements 13.2.4. Vestibular Movements 13.3. Extraocular Muscles 13.4. Innervation of the Extraocular Muscles 13.4.1. Abducent Nucleus and Nerve 13.4.2. Trochlear Nucleus and Nerve 13.4.3. Oculomotor Nucleus and Nerve 13.5. Anatomical Basis of Conjugate Ocular Movements 13.6. Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus 13.7. Vestibular Connections Related to Ocular Movements 13.7.1. Vestibular Connections Related to Horizontal Ocular Movements 13.7.2. Vestibular Nystagmus 13.7.3. Doll’s Ocular Movements 13.7.4. Vestibular Connections Related to Vertical Ocular Movements 13.8. Injury to the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus 13.9. Injury to the Vestibular Nuclei 13.10. The Reticular Formation and Ocular Movements 13.11. Congenital Nystagmus 13.12. Ocular Bobbing 13.13. Examination of the Vestibular System 13.14. Visual Reflexes 13.14.1. The Light Reflex 13.14.2. The Near Reflex 13.14.3. Pupillary Dilatation 13.14.4. The Lateral Tectotegmentospinal Tract 13.14.5. Pupillary Pain Reflex and the Spinotectal Tract 13.14.6. The Afferent Pupillary Defect (Marcus Gunn Pupillary Sign) Further Reading Chapter 14: The Thalamus 14.1. Introduction 14.2. Nuclear Groups of the Thalamus 14.2.1. Anterior Nuclei and the Lateral Dorsal Nucleus 14.2.2. Intralaminar Nuclei 14.2.3. Medial Nuclei 14.2.4. Median Nuclei 14.2.5. Metathalamic Body and Nuclei 14.2.6. Posterior Nuclear Complex 14.2.7. Pulvinar Nuclei and Lateral Posterior Nucleus 14.2.8. Reticular Nucleus 14.2.9. Ventral Nuclei 14.3. Injuries to the Thalamus 14.4. Mapping the Human Thalamus 14.5. Stimulation of the Human Thalamus 14.6. The Thalamus as a Neurosurgical Target Further Reading Chapter 15: The Motor System: Part 1 - Lower Motoneurons and the Pyramidal System 15.1. Regions Involved in Motor Activity 15.2. Lower Motoneurons 15.2.1. Terms Related to Motor Activity 15.2.2. Lower Motoneurons in the Spinal Cord 15.2.3. Activation of Motoneurons 15.2.4. Lower Motoneurons in the Brain Stem 15.2.5. Injury to Lower Motoneurons 15.2.6. Examples of Lower Motoneuron Disorders 15.3. Pyramidal System 15.3.1. Corticospinal Component 15.3.2. Corticobulbar Component 15.3.3. Clinical Neuroanatomical Correlation Further Reading Chapter 16: The Motor System: Part 2 - The Extrapyramidal System and Cerebellum 16.1. Extrapyramidal System 16.1.1. Extrapyramidal Motor Cortex 16.1.2. Basal Nuclei 16.1.3. Afferents to the Basal Nuclei 16.1.4. Cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamocortical Circuits 16.1.5. Multisynaptic Descending Paths 16.1.6. Common Discharge Paths 16.1.7. Somatotopic Organization of the Basal Nuclei 16.2. Cerebellum 16.2.1. External Features of the Cerebellum 16.2.2. Cerebellar Cortex 16.2.3. Deep Cerebellar Nuclei 16.2.4. Cerebellar White Matter 16.3. Input to the Cerebellum through the Peduncles 16.3.1. Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle 16.3.2. Middle Cerebellar Peduncle 16.3.3. Superior Cerebellar Peduncle 6.4. Input to the Cerebellum 16.4.1. Incoming Fibers to the Cerebellum 16.5. Cerebellar Output 16.5.1. Output from the Fastigial Nuclei 16.5.2. Output from the Globose and Emboliform Nuclei 16.5.3. Output from the Dentate Nuclei 16.6. Cerebellar Circuitry 16.7. Common Discharge Paths 16.8. Cerebellar Functions 16.8.1. Motor Functions of the Cerebellum 16.8.2. Nonmotor Functions of the Cerebellum 16.8.3. Studies Involving the Human Cerebellum 16.8.4. Localization in the Cerebellum 16.9. Manifestations of Injuries to the Motor System 16.9.1. Injury to the Premotor Cortex 16.9.2. Injuries to the Basal Nuclei 16.9.3. Injury to the Subthalamic Nucleus 16.9.4. Injury to the Cerebellum 16.9.5. Localization of Cerebellar Damage 16.10. Decorticate Versus Decerebrate Rigidity 16.10.1. Decerebrate Rigidity 16.10.2. Decorticate Rigidity 16.11. Epilogue Further Reading Chapter 17: The Olfactory and Gustatory Systems 17.1. The Olfactory System 17.1.1. Receptors 17.1.2. Primary Neurons 17.1.3. Olfactory Fila and the Olfactory Nerve 17.1.4. Olfactory Bulb - Secondary Olfactory Neurons 17.1.5. Olfactory Stalk 17.1.6. Medial Stria 17.1.7. Lateral Stria 17.1.8. Thalamic Neurons 17.1.9. Cortical Neurons 17.1.10. Efferent Olfactory Connections 17.1.11. Injuries to the Olfactory System 17.2. The Gustatory System 17.2.1. Receptors 17.2.2. Primary Neurons 17.2.3. Secondary Neurons 17.2.4. The Ascending Gustatory Path 17.2.5. Thalamic Neurons 17.2.6. Cortical Neurons 17.2.7. Injuries to the Gustatory System Further Reading Chapter 18: The Limbic System 18.1. Historical Aspects 18.2. Anatomy of the Limbic System 18.2.1. Olfactory System 18.2.2. Septal Area 18.2.3. Mamillary Bodies of the Hypothalamus 18.2.4. Anterior Nuclei of the Thalamus 18.2.5. The Hippocampal Formation 18.2.6. The Amygdaloid Body 18.2.7. Cingulate Gyrus and Cingulum 18.2.8. Cortical Areas 18.3. Cyclic Paths of the Limbic System 18.4. Synaptic Organization of Human Limbic System 18.5. Descending Limbic Paths 18.6. Functional Aspects of the Human Limbic System 18.6.1. Emotion 18.6.2. Memory 18.7. Limbic System Disorders 18.8. Injuries to Limbic Constituents 18.8.1. Septal Area 18.8.2. Hippocampal Formation 18.8.3. Amygdaloid Body 18.8.4. Seizures Involving the Limbic System 18.9. Psychosurgery of the Limbic System 18.9.1. Drug Resistant Epilepsy 18.9.2. Violent, Aggressive, or Restless Behaviors 18.9.3. Schizophrenia 18.9.4. Intractable Pain 18.9.5. Psychiatric Disorders and Abnormal Behavior Further Reading Chapter 19: The Hypothalamus 19.1. Hypothalamic Regions 19.2. Hypothalamic Zones 19.3. Hypothalamic Nuclei 19.3.1. Anterior Hypothalamic Region 19.3.2. Dorsal Hypothalamic Region 19.3.3. Intermediate Hypothalamic Region 19.3.4. Lateral Hypothalamic Area 19.3.5. Posterior Hypothalamic Region 19.3.6. Posterior Nucleus of the Hypothalamus 19.4. Fiber Connections 19.4.1. Medial Forebrain Bundle 19.4.2. Stria Terminalis 19.4.3. Fornix 19.4.4. Diencephalic Periventricular System (DPS) 19.4.5. Dorsal Longitudinal Fasciculus 19.4.6. Anterior and Posterior Hypothalamotegmental Tracts 3 19.4.7. Pallidohypothalamic Tract 19.4.8. Mamillothalamic Tract 19.4.9. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal Tract 19.4.10. Vascular Connections 19.5. Functions of the Hypothalamus 19.5.1. Water Balance - Water Intake and Loss 19.5.2. Eating - Food Intake 19.5.3. Temperature Regulation 19.5.4. Autonomic Regulation 19.5.5. Emotional Expression 19.5.6. Wakefulness and Sleep (Biological Rhythms) 19.5.7. Control of the Endocrine System 19.5.8. Reproduction Further Reading Chapter 20: The Autonomic Nervous System 20.1 Historical Aspects 20.2. Structural Aspects 20.2.1. Location of Autonomic Neurons of Origin 20.2.2. Manner of Distribution of Autonomic Fibers 20.2.3. Termination of Autonomic Fibers 20.3. Comparison of the Somatic Efferents and Visceral Efferents 20.4. General Visceral Afferents 20.5. Regulation of the Autonomic Nervous System 20.6. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System Further Reading Chapter 21: General Features of the Cerebral Hemispheres 21.1. Facts and Figures 21.2. Cortical Neurons 21.3. Cortical Layers 21.4. Cortical Columns (Microarchitecture) 21.5. Functional Aspects of the Cerebral Cortex 21.6. Cerebral Dominance, Lateralization, and Asymmetry 21.7. Frontal Lobe 21.7.1. Primary Motor Cortex 21.7.2. Premotor Cortex 21.7.3. Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) 21.7.4. Cingulate Motor Areas 21.7.5. Frontal Eye Fields 21.7.6. Motor Speech Region 21.7.7. Prefrontal Cortex 21.8. Parietal Lobe 21.8.1. Primary Somatosensory Cortex (SI) 21.8.2. Secondary Somatosensory Cortex 21.8.3. Superior Parietal Lobule 21.8.4. Inferior Parietal Lobule: Language Areas 21.8.5. Primary Vestibular Cortex (2v) 21.8.6. Mirror Representation of Others’ Actions 21.8.7. Preoccipital Areas Involved in Following Ocular Movements 21.9. Occipital Lobe 21.9.1. Primary Visual Cortex (V1) 21.9.2. Secondary Visual Cortex 21.10. Temporal Lobe 21.10.1. Primary Auditory Cortex (AI) 21.10.2. Wernicke’s Region 21.10.3. Temporal Vestibular Cortex 21.10.4. Midtemporal Areas Related to Memory 21.10.5. Anomia 21.10.6. Prosopagnosia 21.10.7. Psychomotor Seizures 21.11. Insular Lobe 21.12. Aphasia 21.12.1. Historic Aspects of Aphasia 21.12.2. Broca’s Aphasia 21.12.3. Wernicke’s Aphasia 21.12.4. Conductive Aphasia 21.12.5. Global Aphasia 21.13. Alexia 21.14. Apraxia 21.15. Gerstmann’s Syndrome 21.16. Agnosia 21.17. Dyslexia Further Reading Chapter 22: Blood Supply to the Central Nervous System 22.1. Cerebral Circulation 22.2. Aortic Arch, Brachiocephalic Trunk, and Subclavian Vessels 22.3. Vertebral-Basilar Arterial System 22.3.1. Branches of the Vertebral Arteries 22.4. Blood Supply to the Spinal Cord 22.4.1. Extramedullary Vessels 22.4.2. Intramedullary Vessels 22.4.3. Spinal Veins 22.5. Blood Supply to the Brain Stem and Cerebellum 22.5.1. Extrinsic or Superficial Branches 22.5.2. Branches of the Basilar Arteries 22.5.3. Intrinsic or Penetrating Branches 22.5.4. Classical Brain Stem Syndromes 22.6. Common Carotid Artery 22.6.1. External Carotid Artery 22.6.2. Internal Carotid Artery: Cervical, Petrous, and Cavernous Parts 22.7. Blood Supply to the Cerebral Hemispheres 22.7.1. Internal Carotid Artery: Cerebral Part 22.7.2. Branches of the Internal Carotid Artery 22.7.3. Posterior Cerebral Artery and its Cerebral Supply 22.8. Cerebral Arterial Circle 22.8.1. Types of Arteries Supplying the Brain 22.9. Embryological Considerations 22.10. Vascular Injuries 22.10.1. Brain Stem Vascular Injuries 22.10.2. Visualization of Brain Vessels Further Reading393 Chapter 23: The Meninges, Ventricular System and Cerebrospinal Fluid 23.1. The Cranial Meninges and Related Spaces 23.1.1. Cranial Dura Mater 23.1.2. Cranial Arachnoid 23.1.3. Cranial Pia Mater 23.1.4. Dural Projections 23.1.5. Intracranial Herniations 23.2. Ventricular System 23.2.1. Introduction 23.2.2. Lateral Ventricles 23.2.3. Third Ventricle 23.2.4. Aqueduct of Midbrain 23.2.5. Fourth Ventricle 23.3. Cerebrospinal Fluid Further Reading References Index

Quotes and reviews

"The book is well done, well written and beautifully illustrated. I have looked at every page, and admired the many illustrations. The precision of the neuroanatomical details should be a wake-up call to all the "generalities" fostered by those who tout "Neuroscience." I hope the book does well!"
--Isabel Lockard, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Cell Biology and Anatomy, the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA

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