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Engine Testing
 
 

Engine Testing, 4th Edition

The Design, Building, Modification and Use of Powertrain Test Facilities

 
Engine Testing, 4th Edition,A. J. Martyr,M A PLINT,ISBN9780080969497
 
 
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Butterworth-Heinemann

9780080969497

9780080969503

600

229 X 152

The unrivalled testing reference—a must-have for anyone involved in designing and testing combustion and hybrid engines

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Key Features

  • One of few books dedicated to engine testing and a true, recognized market-leader on the subject
  • Covers all key aspects of this large topic, including test-cell design and setup, data management, and dynamometer selection and use, with new chapters on hybrid testing, OBD (on-board diagnostics) and sensor signals from modern engines
  • Brings together otherwise scattered information on the theory and practice of engine testing into one up-to-date reference for automotive engineers who must refer to such knowledge on a daily basis

Description

Engine Testing is a unique, well-organized and comprehensive collection of the different aspects of engine and vehicle testing equipment and infrastructure for anyone involved in facility design and management, physical testing and the maintenance, upgrading and trouble shooting of testing equipment. Designed so that its chapters can all stand alone to be read in sequence or out of order as needed, Engine Testing is also an ideal resource for automotive engineers required to perform testing functions whose jobs do not involve engine testing on a regular basis. This recognized standard reference for the subject is now enhanced with new chapters on hybrid testing, OBD (on-board diagnostics) and sensor signals from modern engines.

Readership

Automotive engineers assigned to install and manage test equipment although it is not their main job; Test facility managers, engine and component designers, test engineers, lab technicians, and emission technicians; Graduate students and researchers involved in engine testing.

A. J. Martyr

A.J. Martyr has held senior technical positions with several of the major test plant manufacturers and consultancy firms over the last 40 years. He is now Honorary Visiting Professor of Powertrain Engineering at Bradford University. M.A.Plint died in November 1998, four days after the publication of the second edition and after a long and distinguished career in engineering and authoriship.

Affiliations and Expertise

Test industry expert with 40+ years' experience, most recently with AVL, UK

M A PLINT

Affiliations and Expertise

Former Lead Test Engineer, AVL Engine Instrumentation and Test Systems, UK

Engine Testing, 4th Edition

Foreword to the Fourth Edition

About the Authors

Introduction

Chapter 1. Test Facility Specification, System Integration, and Project Organization

Introduction: The Role of the Test Facility

Part 1. The Specification of Test Powertrain Facilities

Part 2. Multidisciplinary Project Organization and Roles

Summary

Chapter 2. Quality and H&S Legislation and Management, Type Approval, Test Correlation, and Reporting of Results

Test Facility Efficiency and Quality Certification

Management Roles

Work Scheduling

Health & Safety (H&S) Legislation, Management, and Risk Assessment

Common Hazards in All Powertrain Facilities

Risk Analysis

Management and Supervision of University Test Facilities

Use and Maintenance of Test Cell Log Books

Test Execution, Analysis, and Reporting

Determination of Cause and Effect

Key Life Testing

Vehicle and Vehicle Systems Type Approval, Homologation, and Confirmation of Production

Cell-to-Cell Correlation

End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) Directive

Power Test Codes and Correction Factors

Statistical Design of Experiments

Useful Websites and Regulations

Further Reading

Chapter 3. The Test Cell as a Thermodynamic System

Introduction

The Energy Balance of the Engine

Diversity Factor and the Final Specification of a Facility Energy Balance

Common or Individual Services in Multi-Cell Laboratories?

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 4. Powertrain Test Facility Design and Construction

Part 1. Cell Types, Sizes, and Layout

Part 2. Cell Contents and Fittings

Part 3. Test Cell Roles and their Special Features

Part 4. Fire Safety and Fire Suppression in Test Facilities: European Atex Codes Applied to Engine Test Cells

Useful Websites

Chapter 5. Electrical Design Requirements of Test Facilities

Introduction

The Electrical Engineer’s Design Role

General Characteristics of the Electrical Installation

Physical Environment

Electrical Signal and Measurement Interference

Earthing System Design

The Layout of Cabling

Integration of AC Dynamometer Systems

Supply Interconnection of Disturbing and Sensitive Devices

Power Cable Material and Bend Radii

Electrical Power Supply Specification

Electrical Cabinet Ventilation

European Safety Standards and CE Marking

Safety Interaction Matrix

Useful Texts on EMC Suitable for Electrical Engineers Involved with Test Facility Design

Chapter 6. Ventilation and Air-Conditioning in Powertrain Test Facilities

Part 1. Test Cell Ventilation Strategies

Part 2. Design of Ventilation Ducts and Distribution Systems

Part 3. Combustion Air (Ca) Treatment and Climatic Cells

Summary

Notation

Further Reading

Chapter 7. Test Cell Cooling Water and Exhaust Gas Systems

Part 1. Cooling Water Supply Systems

Part 2. Exhaust Gas Systems

Part 3. Turbocharger Testing

Chapter 8. Fuel and Oil Storage, Supply and Treatment

Introduction

Bulk Fuel Storage and Supply Systems

Decommissioning of Underground Fuel Tanks

Auditing of Fuel Use

Fuel Pipes

Storage and Treatment of Residual Fuels

Storage of Biofuels

Reference Fuel Drums

Natural Gas (NG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Fuel Supply to the Test Cell

In-Cell Fuel Systems

Engine Fuel Pressure Control

Engine Fuel Temperature Control

Engine Oil Cooling Systems

Properties of Gasoline and “Shelf Life”

Properties of Diesel Fuels

Fuel Dyes and Coloring

Safety Principles in Handling and Storing Volatile Fuels

Further Reading

Chapter 9. Vibration and Noise

Part 1: Vibration and its Isolation

Part 2: Noise and its Attenuation in Test Facilities

Useful texts

Further Reading

Chapter 10. Dynamometers

Introduction

Trunnion-Mounted (Cradle2) Dynamometers

Measurement of Torque Using In-Line Shafts or Torque Flanges

Calibration and the Assessment of Errors in Torque Measurement

Torque Measurement Under Accelerating and Decelerating Conditions

Measurement of Rotational Speed

One, Two, or Four Quadrant?

Dynamometer Torque/Speed and Power/Speed Characteristics

Pushing the Limits of Dynamometer Performance

Water Quantity Required to Absorb a Given Power in Water Brakes

Engine Cranking and Starting

Choice of Dynamometer

Classification of Dynamometer Types and their Working Principles

Chapter 11. Rigging the Engine and Shaft Selection

Part 1. Rigging of Electrical and Fluid Services Plus Engine Mountings

Part 2. Selection of a Suitable Dynamometer Connecting Shaft

Part 3. Flywheels and Engine Starting Systems

Notation

Further Reading

Chapter 12. Test Cell Safety, Control, and Data Acquisition

Part 1. Machinery and Control System Safety: Stopping, Starting, and Control in the Test Cell

Part 2. Open- and Closed-Loop Control of Engine and Dynamometer

Part 3. Test Control Software, Choosing Supplier, and Sequence Editing

Part 4. Data Acquisition and the Transducer Chain

Further Reading

Chapter 13. Data Handling, the Use of Modeling, and Post-Test Processing

Part 1. Data Collection and Transmission

Part 2. Management of Data: Some General Principles

Chapter 14. Measurement of Fuel, Combustion Air, and Oil Consumption

Introduction

Part 1. Measurement Instruments for Liquid Fuel Consumption

Part 2. Measurement of Air Consumption and Gas Flows

Notation Used in Air Consumption Calculations

Further Reading

Chapter 15. The Combustion Process and Combustion Analysis

Introduction

Single-Cylinder Research and “Optical” Engines

Fundamental Influences on Combustion

Total and Instantaneous Energy Release

Cyclic Energy Release—Mean Effective Pressure (Indicated, Gross, and Pumping)

Instantaneous Energy Release

Computerized Engine Indicating Technology and Methodology

Basic Circuit and Operation of Pressure Measurement Chain

Ground Loops in Indication Equipment

“Exact” Determination of True Top Dead Center Position

Combustion Analysis Roles in IC Engines for Hybrid Vehicles

Integration of Combustion Analysis Equipment within the Test Cell

High-End Engine Calibration Cells

Occasional use of Combustion Analysis in Test Cells

Engine Indicating Pressure Transducers (EIPTS)

Fuel Rail Pressure and “Shot Volume” Measurement

Speed/Crank Angle Sensors

Calculation for Combustion Analysis Test Results

Notation

Further Reading

Chapter 16. Engine Exhaust Emissions

Emission Legislation, Certification, and Test Processes

Auxiliary Engine-Driven Units, Fitted or Omitted for the Emissions Test

Legislation Classifications

After-Market Emission Legislation

Fuel Standards

Basic Chemistry of Internal Combustion Engine Emissions

Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

Emissions from Diesel Engines

Principles of Particulate Emissions Measurement

Principles of Measurement and Analysis of Gaseous Emissions

Exhaust “After-Treatment” Catalysts and Filters, Operation and Testing

Testing of Post-Combustion Exhaust Systems and Devices

Integration and Management of Exhaust Emission Instrumentation

Calibration, Span Gases, Storing Gas Distribution System

Gas Analyzers and “Emission Benches”

Constant-Volume Sampling (CVS) Systems

Health and Safety Implications and Interlocks for CVS Systems

Temperature Soak Areas for Legislative Testing

The European Exhaust Emissions Test Procedure (Passenger Cars)

The US Federal Light-Duty Exhaust Emission Test Procedure (FTP-75)

Heavy-Duty Test Procedures

Exhaust Emissions of Marine Propulsion Diesel Engines

ISO 8178 and Testing Emissions of Non-Road Vehicle Engines

Vehicle Evaporative Emissions

Implications of Choice of Site on Low-Level Emissions Testing

Abbreviations

References

Further Reading

Useful Addresses

Chapter 17. Chassis or Rolling-Road Dynamometers

Introduction

Genesis of the Rolling-Road Dynamometer

The Road Load Equation

Calibration, Coast-Down, and Inertia Simulation

Brake System Testers

Tire-Testing Dynamometers

Rolling Roads for In-Service Tuning and Assessment

Rolling Roads for End-of-Line (EOL) Production Testing

Chassis Dynamometers for Emissions Testing

The Emission Dynamometer Cell and Environs

Mileage Accumulation Facilities

NVH and EMC Chassis Dynamometers

Special Features of Chassis Dynamometers in Climatic Cells

Flat-Track Chassis Dynamometers

Independent Wheel Dynamometers

Articulated Chassis Dynamometers

Robot Drivers or Shifters

The Installation of Chassis Dynamometers

Chassis Dynamometer Cellar or Pit Design and Construction Details

Design and Installation of Variable-Geometry (4 × 4) Dynamometers

Drive Cabinet Housing

Offloading and Positioning Chassis Dynamometer Units

Tire Burst Detectors

Loading and Emergency Brakes

Vehicle Restraints

Guarding and Safety

Roll Surface Treatment

Road Shells and Bump Strips

Driver’s Aids

Fire Suppression

The Effect of Roll Diameter on Tire Contact Conditions

Limitations of the Chassis Dynamometer

Solar Heat Load Testing in Chassis Dynamometer Environmental Cells

Chapter 18. Anechoic Test Cells

Introduction

Part 1. NVH Testing and Acoustic Test Facilities

Part 2. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Test Facilities

Further Reading

Chapter 19. The Pursuit and Definition of Accuracy

Introduction and Terms

Analog Versus Digital

Example: Measurement of Exhaust Temperature of a Diesel Engine

Some General Principles

Definition of Terms Relating to Accuracy

Statements Regarding Accuracy: A Critical Examination

Instrumental Accuracy: Manufacturers’ Claims

Uncertainty

Traceability

Combination of Errors

The Number of Significant Figures to be Quoted

Absolute and Relative Accuracy

The Cost of Accuracy: A Final Consideration

Further Reading

Chapter 20. Tribology, Fuel, and Lubrication Testing

Introduction

Calorific Value of Fuels

Gaseous Fuels

Lubricant Classification and Certification

Tribology

Oil Characteristics

Fuel Contamination of Lubrication Oil

Reference Fuels and Lubricants

Designated Engines and Test Regimes in Fuel and Lube Testing

Biofuels (see chapter 7 concerning storage of biofuels)

Further Reading

Chapter 21. Thermal Efficiency, Measurement of Heat, and Mechanical Losses

Introduction

Ideal Standard Cycles: Effect of Compression Ratio

The Energy Balance of an Internal Combustion Engine

Measurement of Mechanical Losses in Engines

Summary

Notation

APPENDIX 1. Martyr’s Laws of Engineering Project Management

Index

 
 
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