Reliability, Maintainability and Risk 8e

Reliability, Maintainability and Risk 8e, 1st Edition

Practical Methods for Engineers including Reliability Centred Maintenance and Safety-Related Systems

Reliability, Maintainability and Risk 8e, 1st Edition,David Smith,ISBN9780080969022






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A practical guide to the techniques that engineers need to understand and apply to reduce process design and operation defects and failures

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Key Features

  • 8th edition of this core reference for engineers who deal with the design or operation of any safety critical systems, processes or operations
  • Answers the question: how can a defect that costs less than $1000 dollars to identify at the process design stage be prevented from escalating to a $100,000 field defect, or a $1m+ catastrophe
  • Revised throughout, with new examples, and standards, including must have material on the new edition of global functional safety standard IEC 61508, which launches in 2010
  • Description

    Reliability, Maintainability and Risk: Practical Methods for Engineers, Eighth Edition, discusses tools and techniques for reliable and safe engineering, and for optimizing maintenance strategies. It emphasizes the importance of using reliability techniques to identify and eliminate potential failures early in the design cycle. The focus is on techniques known as RAMS (reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety-integrity). The book is organized into five parts. Part 1 on reliability parameters and costs traces the history of reliability and safety technology and presents a cost-effective approach to quality, reliability, and safety. Part 2 deals with the interpretation of failure rates, while Part 3 focuses on the prediction of reliability and risk. Part 4 discusses design and assurance techniques; review and testing techniques; reliability growth modeling; field data collection and feedback; predicting and demonstrating repair times; quantified reliability maintenance; and systematic failures. Part 5 deals with legal, management and safety issues, such as project management, product liability, and safety legislation.


    Chemical, Process, Plant, Oil & Gas and related systems safety engineers

    David Smith

    BSc, PhD, CEng, FIEE, FIQA, HonFSaRS, MIGasE.

    Dr. David J Smith BSc, PhD, CEng, FIEE, HonFSaRS, FIQA, MIGasE, has been directly concerned with reliability, safety and software quality for 30 years. He has written a number of books on the subject as well as numerous papers. His PhD thesis was on the subject of reliability prediction accuracy and common cause failure. He chairs the IGasE panel which develops its guidelines on safety-related systems (now in its third edition). He has also made contributions to IEC 61508.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Independent Consultant, Technis, Tonbridge, U.K.

    View additional works by David J. Smith

    Reliability, Maintainability and Risk 8e, 1st Edition

    Preface Acknowledgements Part 1 Understanding Reliability Parameters and Costs Chapter 1: The History of Reliability and Safety Technology 1.1 Failure Data 1.2 Hazardous Failures 1.3 Reliability and Risk Prediction 1.4 Achieving Reliability and Safety-Integrity 1.5 The RAMS Cycle 1.6 Contractual and Legal Pressures Chapter 2: Understanding Terms and Jargon 2.1 Defining Failure and Failure Modes 2.2 Failure Rate and Mean Time Between Failures 2.3 Interrelationships of Terms 2.4 The Bathtub Distribution 2.5 Down Time and Repair Time 2.6 Availability, Unavailability and Probability of Failure on Demand 2.7 Hazard and Risk-Related Terms 2.8 Choosing the Appropriate Parameter Chapter 3: A Cost-Effective Approach to Quality, Reliability and Safety 3.1 Reliability and Optimum Cost 3.2 Costs and Safety 3.3 The Cost of Quality Part 2 Interpreting Failure Rates Chapter 4: Realistic Failure Rates and Prediction Confidence 4.1 Data Accuracy 4.2 Sources of Data 4.3 Data Ranges 4.4 Confidence Limits of Prediction 4.5 Manufacturers’ Data 4.6 Overall Conclusions Chapter 5: Interpreting Data and Demonstrating Reliability 5.1 The Four Cases 5.2 Inference and Confidence Levels 5.3 The Chi-Square Test 5.4 Understanding the Method in More Detail 5.5 Double-Sided Confidence Limits 5.6 Reliability Demonstration 5.7 Sequential Testing 5.8 Setting Up Demonstration Tests Exercises Chapter 6: Variable Failure Rates and Probability Plotting 6.1 The Weibull Distribution 6.2 Using the Weibull Method 6.3 More Complex Cases of the Weibull Distribution 6.4 Continuous Processes Exercises Part 3 Predicting Reliability and Risk Chapter 7: Basic Reliability Prediction Theory 7.1 Why Predict RAMS? 7.2 Probability Theory 7.3 Reliability of Series Systems 7.4 Redundancy Rules 7.5 General Features of Redundancy Exercises Chapter 8: Methods of Modeling 8.1 Block Diagrams and Repairable Systems 8.2 Common Cause (Dependent) Failure 8.3 Fault Tree Analysis 8.4 Event Tree Diagrams Chapter 9: Quantifying the Reliability Models 9.1 The Reliability Prediction Method 9.2 Allowing for Diagnostic Intervals 9.3 FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) 9.4 Human Factors 9.5 Simulation 9.6 Comparing Predictions with Targets Exercises Chapter 10: Risk Assessment (QRA) 10.1 Frequency and Consequence 10.2 Perception of Risk, ALARP and Cost per Life Saved 10.3 Hazard Identification 10.4 Factors to Quantify Part 4 Achieving Reliability and Maintainability Chapter 11: Design and Assurance Techniques 11.1 Specifying and Allocating the Requirement 11.2 Stress Analysis 11.3 Environmental Stress Protection 11.4 Failure Mechanisms 11.5 Complexity and Parts 11.6 Burn-In and Screening 11.7 Maintenance Strategies Chapter 12: Design Review, Test and Reliability Growth 12.1 Review Techniques 12.2 Categories of Testing 12.3 Reliability Growth Modeling Exercises Chapter 13: Field Data Collection and Feedback 13.1 Reasons for Data Collection 13.2 Information and Difficulties 13.3 Times to Failure 13.4 Spreadsheets and Databases 13.5 Best Practice and Recommendations 13.6 Analysis and Presentation of Results 13.7 Manufacturers’ data 13.8 Anecdotal Data 13.9 Examples of Failure Report Forms Chapter 14: Factors Influencing Down Time 14.1 Key Design Areas 14.2 Maintenance Strategies and Handbooks Chapter 15: Predicting and Demonstrating Repair Times 15.1 Prediction Methods 15.2 Demonstration Plans Chapter 16: Quantified Reliability Centered Maintenance 16.1 What is QRCM? 16.2 The QRCM Decision Process 16.3 Optimum Replacement (Discard) 16.4 Optimum Spares 16.5 Optimum Proof Test 16.6 Condition Monitoring Chapter 17: Systematic Failures, Especially Software 17.1 Programable Devices 17.2 Software-related Failures 17.3 Software Failure Modeling 17.4 Software Quality Assurance (Life Cycle Activities) 17.5 Modern/Formal Methods 17.6 Software Checklists Part 5 Legal, Management and Safety Considerations Chapter 18: Project Management and Competence 18.1 Setting Objectives and Making Specifications 18.2 Planning, Feasibility and Allocation 18.3 Program Activities 18.4 Responsibilities and Competence 18.5 Functional Safety Capability 18.6 Standards and Guidance Documents Chapter 19: Contract Clauses and Their Pitfalls 19.1 Essential Areas 19.2 Other Areas 19.3 Pitfalls 19.4 Penalties 19.5 Subcontracted Reliability Assessments Examples Chapter 20: Product Liability and Safety Legislation 20.1 The General Situation 20.2 Strict Liability 20.3 The Consumer Protection Act 1987 20.4 Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 20.5 Insurance and Product Recall Chapter 21: Major Incident Legislation 21.1 History of Major Incidents 21.2 Development of major incident legislation 21.3 CIMAH safety reports 21.4 Offshore Safety Cases 21.5 Problem Areas 21.6 The COMAH Directive (1999 and 2005 Amendment) 21.7 Rail 21.8 Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Chapter 22: Integrity of Safety-Related Systems 22.1 Safety-Related or Safety-Critical? 22.2 Safety-Integrity Levels (SILs) 22.3 Programable electronic systems (PESs) 22.4 Current guidance 22.5 Framework for Certification Chapter 23: A Case Study: The Datamet Project 23.1 Introduction 23.2 The Datamet Concept 23.3 The Contract 23.4 Detailed Design 23.5 Syndicate Study 23.6 Hints Chapter 24: A case study: gas detection system 24.1 Safety-Integrity Target 24.2 Random Hardware Failures 24.3 ALARP 24.4 Architectures 24.5 Life-Cycle Activities 24.6 Functional Safety Capability Chapter 25: A Case Study: Pressure Control System 25.1 The Unprotected System 25.2 Protection System 25.3 Assumptions 25.4 Reliability Block Diagram 25.5 Failure Rate Data 25.6 Quantifying the Model 25.7 Proposed Design and Maintenance Modifications 25.8 Modeling Common Cause Failure (Pressure Transmitters) 25.9 Quantifying the Revised Model 25.10 ALARP 25.11 Architectural Constraints Appendix 1: Glossary A1.1 Terms Related to Failure A1.1.1 Failure A1.1.2 Failure Mode A1.1.3 Failure Mechanism A1.1.4 Failure Rate A1.1.5 Mean Time Between Failures and Mean Time to Fail A1.1.6 Common Cause Failure A1.1.7 Common Mode Failure A1.2 Reliability Terms A1.2.1 Reliability A1.2.2 Redundancy A1.2.3 Diversity A1.2.4 Failure Mode and Effect Analysis A1.2.5 Fault Tree Analysis A1.2.6 Cause Consequence Analysis (Event Trees) A1.2.7 Reliability Growth A1.2.8 Reliability Centered Maintenance A1.3 Maintainability Terms A1.3.1 Maintainability A1.3.2 Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) A1.3.3 Repair Rate A1.3.4 Repair Time A1.3.5 Down Time A1.3.6 Corrective Maintenance A1.3.7 Preventive Maintenance A1.3.8 Least Replaceable Assembly (LRA) A1.3.9 Second-Line Maintenance A1.4 Terms Associated with Software A1.4.1 Software A1.4.2 Programable Device A1.4.3 High-Level Language A1.4.4 Assembler A1.4.5 Compiler A1.4.6 Diagnostic Software A1.4.7 Simulation A1.4.8 Emulation A1.4.9 Load Test A1.4.10 Functional Test A1.4.11 Software Error A1.4.12 Bit Error Rate A1.4.13 Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) A1.4.14 Data Corruption A1.5 Terms Related to Safety A1.5.1 Hazard A1.5.2 Major Hazard A1.5.3 Hazard Analysis A1.5.4 HAZOP A1.5.5 LOPA A1.5.6 Risk A1.5.7 Consequence Analysis A1.5.8 Safe Failure Fraction A1.5.9 Safety-Integrity A1.5.10 Safety-Integrity level A1.6 General Terms A1.6.1 Availability (Steady State) A1.6.2 Unavailability (PFD) A1.6.3 Burn-In A1.6.4 Confidence Interval A1.6.5 Consumer’s Risk A1.6.6 Derating A1.6.7 Ergonomics A1.6.8 Mean A1.6.9 Median A1.6.10 PFD A1.6.11 Producer’s Risk A1.6.12 Quality A1.6.13 Random A1.6.14 FRACAS A1.6.15 RAMS Appendix 2: Percentage Points of the Chi-Square Distribution Appendix 3: Microelectronics Failure Rates Appendix 4: General Failure Rates Appendix 5: Failure mode percentages Appendix 6: Human Error Probabilities Appendix 7: Fatality rates Appendix 8: Answers to Exercises Chapter 2 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 9 Notes Chapter 12 Chapter 25 25.2: Protection System 25.4: Reliability Block Diagram 25.6: Quantifying the Model 25.7 Revised diagrams 25.10 ALARP 25.11 Architectural Constraints Appendix 9: Bibliography Appendix 10: Scoring Criteria for BETAPLUS Common Cause Model A10.1 Checklist and Scoring for Equipment Containing Programable Electronics A10.2 Checklist and Scoring for Non-Programable Equipment For Programable Electronics For Sensors and Actuators Appendix 11: Example of HAZOP A11.1 Equipment Details A11.2 HAZOP Worksheets A11.3 Potential Consequences Worksheet Appendix 12: HAZID Checklist Appendix 13: Markov Analysis of Redundant Systems Index
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