Safety Critical Systems Handbook, 1st Edition


Safety Critical Systems Handbook, 1st Edition,David Smith,Kenneth Simpson,ISBN9780080967813






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Shows engineers and safety professionals how to design and assess safety critical plant and process systems to the 2010 revision of the IEC 61508 and 61511 functional safety standards

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Key Features

  • The only comprehensive guide to IEC 61508, updated to cover the 2010 amendments, that will ensure engineers are compliant with the latest process safety systems design and operation standards
  • Helps readers understand the process required to apply safety critical systems standards
  • Real-world approach helps users to interpret the standard, with case studies and best practice design examples throughout


Safety Critical Systems Handbook: A Straightfoward Guide to Functional Safety, IEC 61508 (2010 Edition) and Related Standards, Including Process IEC 61511 and Machinery IEC 62061 AND ISO 13849, Third Edition, offers a practical guide to the functional safety standard IEC 61508. The book is organized into three parts. Part A discusses the concept of functional safety and the need to express targets by means of safety integrity levels. It places functional safety in context, along with risk assessment, likelihood of fatality, and the cost of conformance. It also explains the life-cycle approach, together with the basic outline of IEC 61508 (known as BS EN 61508 in the UK). Part B discusses functional safety standards for the process, oil, and gas industries; the machinery sector; and other industries such as rail, automotive, avionics, and medical electrical equipment. Part C presents case studies in the form of exercises and examples. These studies cover SIL targeting for a pressure let-down system, burner control system assessment, SIL targeting, a hypothetical proposal for a rail-train braking system, and hydroelectric dam and tidal gates.


Chemical, Process, Plant, Oil & Gas and related systems safety engineers

David Smith


Dr. David J Smith BSc, PhD, CEng, FIEE, HonFSaRS, FIQA, MIGasE, has been directly concerned with reliability, safety and software quality for 30 years. He has written a number of books on the subject as well as numerous papers. His PhD thesis was on the subject of reliability prediction accuracy and common cause failure. He chairs the IGasE panel which develops its guidelines on safety-related systems (now in its third edition). He has also made contributions to IEC 61508.

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent Consultant, Technis, Tonbridge, U.K.

View additional works by David J. Smith

Kenneth Simpson

MPhil, FIEE, FInstMC, MIGasE.

Kenneth G. L. Simpson, MPhil, FIEE, FInstMC, MIGasE, has been associated with safety-related systems design and also with their assessment for 25 years. He is a member of the IEC61508 drafting committee and also of the I Gas E panel which writes the gas industry guidance. Following a career in aerospace, Ken has spent 20 years in the control system industry and is a Director of Silvertech International plc, a leading designer of safety and control systems. He has written a number of papers on the topic and gives frequent talks.

Affiliations and Expertise

Managing Director of Silvertech, U.K. Member of the IEC 61508 committee structure.

Safety Critical Systems Handbook, 1st Edition

A quick overview The 2010 version of IEC 61508 Acknowledgements Part A: The Concept of Safety Integrity 1 Chapter 1 The Meaning and Context of Safety Integrity Targets 1.1 Risk and the Need for Safety Targets 1.2 Quantitative and Qualitative Safety Targets 1.3 The Life-cycle Approach 1.4 Steps in the Assessment Process 1.5 Costs 1.6 The Seven Parts of IEC 61508 Chapter 2 Meeting IEC 61508 Part 1 2.1 Establishing Integrity Targets 2.2 ALARP (“As low as Reasonably Practicable 2.3 Functional Safety Management and Competence IEC 61508 Part 1 Chapter 3 Meeting IEC 61508 Part 2 3.1 Organizing and Managing the Life-cycle 3.2 Requirements Involving the Specification 3.3 Requirements for Design and Development 3.4 Integration and Test (Referred to as Verification 3.5 Operations and Maintenance 3.6 Validation (Meaning Overall Acceptance Test and the Close Out-of Actions) 3.7 Safety Manuals 3.8 Modifications 3.9 Acquired Sub-systems 3.10 “Proven in Use” (Referred to as Route 2s in the Standard 3.11 ASICs and CPU Chips 3.12 Conformance Demonstration Template IEC 61508 Part 2 Chapter 4 Meeting IEC 61508 Part 3 4.1 Organizing and Managing the Software Engineering 4.2 Requirements Involving the Specification 4.3 Requirements for Design and Development 4.4 Integration and Test (Referred to as Verification 4.5 Validation (Meaning Overall Acceptance Test and Close Out of Actions 4.6 Safety Manuals 4.7 Modifications 4.8 Alternative Techniques and Procedures 4.9 Data Driven Systems 4.10 Some Technical Comments 4.11 Conformance Demonstration Template IEC 61508 Part 3 Chapter 5 Reliability Modeling Techniques 5.1 Failure Rate and Unavailability 5.2 Creating a Reliability Model 5.3 Taking Account of Auto-test 5.4 Human Factors Chapter 6 Failure Rate and Mode Data 6.1 Data Accuracy 6.2 Sources of Data 6.3 Data Ranges and Confidence Levels 6.4 Conclusions Now try the exercise and the example, which are Chapters 11 and 12. Chapter 7 Demonstrating and Certifying Conformance 7.1 Demonstrating Conformance 7.2 The Current Framework for Certification 7.3 Self Certification (Including Some Independent Assessment 7.4 Preparing for Assessment 7.5 Summary Part B: Specific Industry Sectors Chapter 8 Second-tier Documents e Process, Oil and Gas Industries 8.1 IEC International Standard 61511: Functional Safety - Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector 8.2 Institution of Gas Engineers and Managers IGEM/SR/15: Programmable Equipment in Safety-related Applications e 5th Edition 2010 8.3 Guide to the Application of IEC 61511 to Safety Instrumented Systems in the UK Process Industries 8.4 ANSI/ISA-84.00.01 (2004) e Functional Safety, Instrumented Systems for the Process Sector 8.5 Recommended Guidelines for the Application of IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 in the Petroleum Activities on the Norwegian Continental Shelf OLF-070 Chapter 9 Machinery Sector 9.1 EN ISO 14121 9.2 EN ISO 13849 9.3 BS EN 62061 Chapter 10 Other Industry Sectors 10.1 Rail 10.2 UK MOD Documents 10.3 Earth Moving Machinery 10.4 C Coding Standard (MISRA e Motor Industries Research Association) e Development Guidelines for Vehicle Based Programmable Systems 10.5 Automotive 10.6 IEC International Standard 61513: Nuclear Power Plants - Instrumentation and Control for Systems Important to Safety - General Requirements for Systems 10.7 Avionics 10.8 Medical e IEC 60601 Medical Electrical Equipment, General Requirements for Basic Safety and Essential Performance 10.9 Stage and Theatrical Equipment 10.10 Electrical Power Drives 10.11 Documents which are now Withdrawn Part C: Case Studies in the Form of Exercises and Examples Chapter 11 Pressure Control System (Exercise) 11.1 The Unprotected System 11.2 Protection System 11.3 Assumptions 11.4 Reliability Block Diagram 11.5 Failure Rate Data 11.6 Quantifying the Model 11.7 Proposed Design and Maintenance Modifications 11.8 Modeling Common Cause Failure (Pressure Transmitters) 11.9 Quantifying the Revised Model 11.10 ALARP 11.11 Architectural Constraints Chapter 12 Burner Control Assessment (Example) Executive Summary & Recommendations 12.1 Objectives 12.2 Integrity Requirements 12.3 Assumptions 12.4 Results 12.5 Failure Rate Data 12.6 References Annex I Fault tree details Chapter 13 SIL targeting e some practical examples 13.1 A Problem Involving EUC/SRS Independence 13.2 A hand-held Alarm Intercom, Involving Human error in the Mitigation 13.3 Maximum Tolerable Failure Rate Involving Alternative Propagations to Fatality 13.4 Hot/cold Water Mixer Integrity 13.5 Scenario Involving High Temperature Gas to a Vessel 13.6 Example using the LOPA Technique Chapter 14 Hypothetical Rail Train Braking System (Example) 14.1 The Systems 14.2 The SIL Targets 14.3 Assumptions 14.4 Failure Rate Data 14.5 Reliability Models Chapter 15 Rotorcraft Accidents and Risk Assessment 15.1 Helicopter Incidents 15.2 Floatation Equipment Risk Assessment Chapter 16 Hydro-electric Dam and Tidal Gates 16.1 Flood-gate Control System 16.2 Spurious opening of either of two tidal lock gates involving a trapped vessel Appendix 1 Functional Safety Management Appendix 2 Assessment Schedule (Checklist) Appendix 3 Betaplus CCF Model, Scoring Criteria Appendix 4 Assessing Safe Failure Fraction and Diagnostic Coverage Appendix 5 Answers to Examples Appendix 6 References Appendix 7 Quality and Safety Plan Appendix 8 Some Terms and Jargon of IEC 61508 Index
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