Engineering Materials 2

Engineering Materials 2, 4th Edition

An Introduction to Microstructures and Processing

Engineering Materials 2, 4th Edition,D R H Jones,Michael Ashby,ISBN9780080966687






235 X 191

The leading course text for advanced engineering materials courses on microstructure and materials processing, from Mike Ashby and Dai Jones, two of the world’s foremost authorities on materials selection in engineering design

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Key Features

  • Many new or revised applications-based case studies and examples
  • Treatment of phase diagrams integrated within the main text
  • Increased emphasis on the relationship between structure, processing and properties, in both conventional and innovative materials
  • Frequent worked examples – to consolidate, develop, and challenge
  • Many new photographs and links to Google Earth, websites, and video clips
  • Accompanying companion site with access to instructors’ resources, including a suite of interactive materials science tutorials, a solutions manual, and an image bank of figures from the book


Engineering Materials: An Introduction to Microstructures and Processing is a comprehensive introduction to microstructures and processing of materials for engineering students and other related courses. It is composed of chapters that are arranged into four sections: metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites, which are the distinct generic classes of materials. The materials are presented in an easy-to-read style, while establishing the main concepts and providing details on how processing, microstructures, and physicochemical characters are interrelated. The book emphasizes the relationship between structure, processing and properties, of both conventional and innovative materials. It provides detailed discussions of the different aspects of transformations, including interface kinetics, nucleation and growth, and constitutional undercooling. The book also presents new case studies and examples to illustrate, develop and consolidate the different topics. The text features new photographs and links to Google Earth, websites and video clips, and a companion site with access to instructors' resources: solution manual, image bank of figures from the book and a section of interactive materials science tutorials. The text aims to provide detailed discussions about engineering materials to senior-level and postgraduate students of mechanical engineering, manufacturing, materials science, engineering design, products design, aeronautical engineering, and other engineering sciences.


Senior level and postgraduate study in departments of mechanical engineering; materials sciences; manufacturing; engineering design; materials design; product design; aeronautical engineering; engineering sciences.

D R H Jones

Dr. Jones is co-author of Engineering Materials 1 and 2 and lead author for the 3rd and 4th editions. He was the founder editor of Elsevier's journal Engineering Failure Analysis, and founder chair of Elsevier's International Conference on Engineering Failure Analysis series. His research interests are in materials engineering, and along with serving as President of Christ's College at the University of Cambridge he now works internationally advising major companies and legal firms on failures of large steel structures.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Christ's College, Cambridge, UK

View additional works by D R H Jones

Michael Ashby

Royal Society Research Professor Emeritus at Cambridge University and Former Visiting Professor of Design at the Royal College of Art, London, UK Mike Ashby is sole or lead author of several of Elsevier’s top selling engineering textbooks, including Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, Materials and the Environment, and Materials: Engineering, Science, Processing and Design. He is also coauthor of the books Engineering Materials 1&2, and Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies and Design.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK

View additional works by Michael F. Ashby

Engineering Materials 2, 4th Edition

Preface to the Fourth Edition


General Introduction

To the Reader

To the Lecturer

Accompanying Resources

About the Authors of the Tutorials

Part A: Metals

Chapter 1. Metals

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Metals for a Model Steam Engine

1.3 Metals for Drinks Cans

1.4 Metals for Hip Joints

1.5 Data for Metals

Chapter 2. Metal Structures

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Crystal and Glass Structures

2.3 Structures of Solutions and Compounds

2.4 Phases

2.5 Grain and Phase Boundaries

2.6 Shapes of Grains and Phases

2.7 Summary—Constitution and Structure

Worked Example

Chapter 3. Phase Diagrams 1

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Source Books

3.3 Components, Phases, and Structures

Worked Example

Worked Example

3.4 One- and Two-Component Systems

Worked Example

3.5 Solutions to Examples

Chapter 4. Phase Diagrams 2

4.1 Eutectics, Eutectoids, and Peritectics

4.2 Test Examples

4.3 Solutions to Examples

Chapter 5. Case Studies in Phase Diagrams

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Choosing Soft Solders

5.3 Pure Silicon for Microchips

5.4 Making Bubble-Free Ice

Worked Example

Chapter 6. Driving Force for Structural Change

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Driving Forces

6.3 Reversibility

6.4 Stability, Instability, and Metastability

6.5 Driving Force for Solidification

6.6 Solid-State Phase Changes

6.7 Precipitate Coarsening

6.8 Grain Growth

6.9 Recrystallization

6.10 Sizes of Driving Forces

Worked Example

Chapter 7. Kinetics 1—Diffusive Transformations

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Solidification

7.3 Heat-Flow Effects

7.4 Solid-State Phase Changes

7.5 Diffusion-Controlled Kinetics

7.6 Shapes of Grains and Phases

Worked Example

Chapter 8. Kinetics 2—Nucleation

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Nucleation in Liquids

8.3 Heterogeneous Nucleation

8.4 Nucleation in Solids

8.5 Summary

8.6 Nucleation Everywhere

Worked Example

Chapter 9. Kinetics 3—Displacive Transformations

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Diffusive F.C.C. to B.C.C. Transformation in Pure Iron

9.3 Time–Temperature–Transformation Diagram

9.4 Displacive F.C.C. to B.C.C. Transformation

9.5 Details of Martensite Formation

9.6 Martensite Transformation in Steels

Worked Example

Chapter 10. Case Studies in Phase Transformations

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Making Rain

10.3 Fine-Grained Castings

10.4 Single Crystals for Semiconductors

10.5 Amorphous Metals

Worked Example

Chapter 11. Light Alloys

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Solid Solution Hardening

11.3 Age (Precipitation) Hardening

11.4 Work Hardening

Worked Example

Chapter 12. Steels 1—Carbon Steels

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Microstructures After Slow Cooling (Normalizing)

12.3 Mechanical Properties of Normalized Steels

12.4 Quenched-and-Tempered Steels

12.5 Notes on the TTT Diagram

Chapter 13. Steels 2—Alloy Steels

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Hardenability

13.3 Solution Hardening

13.4 Precipitation Hardening

13.5 Corrosion Resistance

13.6 Stainless Steels

13.7 Phases in Stainless Steels

13.8 Improving Stainless Steels

Worked Example

Chapter 14. Case Studies in Steels

14.1 Detective Work After a Boiler Explosion

14.2 Welding Steels Safely

14.3 The Case of the Broken Hammer

Chapter 15. Processing Metals 1

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Casting

15.3 Deformation Processing

15.4 Recrystallization

Worked Example

Chapter 16. Processing Metals 2

16.1 Machining

16.2 Joining

16.3 Heat Treating

16.4 Special Topics

Worked Example

Part B: Ceramics

Chapter 17. Ceramics

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Generic Ceramics

17.3 Ceramic Composites

17.4 Data for Ceramics

Chapter 18. Ceramic Structures

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Ionic and Covalent Ceramics

18.3 Simple Ionic Ceramics

18.4 Simple Covalent Ceramics

18.5 Silica and Silicates

18.6 Silicate Glasses

18.7 Ceramic Alloys

18.8 Microstructures of Ceramics

18.9 Vitreous Ceramics

18.10 Stone and Rock

18.11 Ceramic Composites

Worked Example

Chapter 19. Mechanical Properties of Ceramics

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Elastic Moduli

19.3 Strength, Hardness, and Lattice Resistance

19.4 Fracture Strength of Ceramics

19.5 Modulus of Rupture

19.6 Compression Test

19.7 Thermal Shock Resistance

19.8 Time Dependence of Strength

19.9 Creep of Ceramics

Chapter 20. Processing Ceramics

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Production of Engineering Ceramics

20.3 Forming Engineering Ceramics

20.4 Production and Forming of Glass

20.5 Processing Pottery, Porcelain, and Brick

20.6 Improving Ceramics

20.7 Joining Ceramics

Worked Example

Chapter 21. Cement and Concrete

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Chemistry of Cement

21.3 Structure of Portland Cement

21.4 Concrete

21.5 Strength of Cement and Concrete

21.6 High-Strength Cement

21.7 Reinforcing Cement and Concrete

Worked Example

Chapter 22. Case Studies in Ceramics

22.1 Hard as Flint

22.2 Slate—Natural Roofing Material

22.3 Glass Roof Beams

Worked Example

Part C: Polymers

Chapter 23. Polymers

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Generic Polymers

23.3 Material Data

Worked Example

Chapter 24. Polymer Structures

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Molecular Length

24.3 Molecular Architecture

24.4 Molecular Packing and Glass Transition

Worked Example

Chapter 25. Mechanical Properties of Polymers

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Stiffness—Time and Temperature Dependent Modulus

25.3 Strength—Cold Drawing and Crazing

Chapter 26. Processing Polymers

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Polymer Synthesis

26.3 Polymer Alloys

26.4 Forming Polymers

26.5 Joining Polymers

Worked Example

Chapter 27. Case Studies in Polymers

27.1 Fatal Bungee Jumping Accident

27.2 Polyethylene Gas Pipes

27.3 Ultrastrong Fibers for Yacht Rigging

Part D: Composites

Chapter 28. Properties of Composites and Foams

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Fiber Composites

28.3 Modulus

28.4 Tensile Strength

28.5 Toughness

28.6 Foams and Cellular solids

28.7 Properties of Foams

28.8 Materials that are Engineered

Chapter 29. Wood Structure and Properties

29.1 Introduction

29.2 Structure of Wood

29.3 Mechanical Properties of Wood

29.4 Elasticity

29.5 Tensile and Compressive Strength

29.6 Toughness

29.7 Wood Compared to Other Materials

Worked Example

Chapter 30. Case Studies in Composites

30.1 Materials for Violin Bodies

30.2 Failure of a GFRP Surgical Instrument

30.3 Cork—A Unique Natural Foam

Worked Example

Appendix. Symbols and Formulae

List of Principal Symbols

Summary of Principal Formulae



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