Composite Structures, 1st Edition

Safety Management

Composite Structures, 1st Edition,Dr. Bjorn Backman,ISBN9780080548098


Elsevier Science




240 X 165

This is a book on safety that relies on probabilities in the description, but does not make the pursuit impractical; instead it follows the FAA in adopting the long- and short-term safety objectives of composite structure and presents an integrated approach that makes Design, Manufacturing, Maintenance, Operation and Requirements a formulation toward the joint goal of Efficiency and Safety.

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Key Features

The book

- eliminates an unacceptable 'gap' in the world of safety

- represents a 'new' approach to designing, manufacturing, maintaining, operating and regulating composite airplane structures

- for professionals in the aerospace structural development arena whether in indusrty, academia or government


This book extends the focus to all the entities that participate in the successful quest for safety and demonstrates how design, manufacturing, maintenance, (inspection), operation, and requirements (regulations) all are part of successful, safe innovation and necessary to assure safe flight through the life of the vehicle. It addresses the notion that safety is a function of time and that vigilant risk management is only successful if it includes all participating entities.

It is a companion to the author's first volume, Composite Structure: Design, Safety and Innovation, published by Elsevier in June 2005.


Composite Safety specialists in industry, government and academia, aeronautical and aerospace engineers, engineers and scientists in structures, materials science, safety, quality control, testing, design, development and applied research, and advanced graduate students.

Dr. Bjorn Backman

Affiliations and Expertise

Structure and Materials Structured Research, Camano Island, WA, USA

Composite Structures, 1st Edition


Chapter 1
1.1. Elements of Structural Safety
1.2. Interaction between Elements
1.3. Effects on Safety and the Influence of Residual Strength
1.4. Essential Conclusions of Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Structural Integrity and Safety Threats
2.1. Integrity and Manufacturing
2.2. Integrity and Maintenance
2.3. Integrity and Operation
2.4. Integrity and Rerquirements
2.5. Integrity Summary
2.6. Essential Conclusions of Chapter 2
2.7. The Process Quality of the Elements of Safety
Chapter 3
Elements of Safety and Design Data
3.1. Mishaps in Manufacturing
3.2. Quality Assurance
3.3. Quality Control
3.4. Errors in Maintenance
3.5. Failures in Operation
3.6. Requirement Transgressions
3.7. Effects of Different Elements of Safety
3.8. Essential Conclusions of Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Effects on the Safe State
4.1. Manufacturing and Processing Discrepancies
4.2. Mechanical Flaws and Damage
4.3. “Added”, Spurious, Internal Loads
4.4. Summary of Effects
4.5. Installation and Assembly Problems
4.6. Maintenance Defects
4.7. Operational Mishaps
4.8. Requirement Formulation
4.9. Monitoring, Interpreting, Reporting and Updating
4.10. Essential Conclusions of Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Process Defects Affecting Quality of Structures
5.1. Defects of Manufacturing
5.2. Defects in Maintenance
5.3. Operational Defects
5.4. Defects in Requirements Formulation
5.5. Targets for Monitoring
5.6. Essential Conclusions for Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Design Criteria Development
6.1. Foundation of Safety-based Criteria
6.2. Fail-Safety, Structural Design and Safe Manufacturing
6.3. Reduced Structural Properties and Unsafe Manufacturing
6.4. Essential Conclusions of Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Scenarios and Structural Integrity
7.1 Critical Scenarios
7.2 Essential Conclusion in Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Safety and Structural Integrity
8.1. Ultimate Integrity; the basic Corner Stone
8.2. Process Quality and Monitoring
8.3. Defect Targets and Relations
8.4. Purpose and Approach of Structural Integrity and Process Quality
Chapter 9
Structural Service Monitoring
9.1. Monitoring Example
9.2. Priority Targets for Monitoring
9.3, Structural Defects
9.4. Essential Conclusions of Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Structural Integrity, Safety and Design
10.1. Structural Safety and Criteria
10.2. Essential Conclusions of Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Design Mission, Criticality and Integrity
11.1. Damage Tolerance Integrity and Criticality
11.2. Criticality and Process Defects
11.3. Criticality and Repair Processes
11.4. Criticality and Damage Tolerance Related Processes
11.5. Mechanical Damage Threats
11.6. Essential Conclusions of Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Risk and Uncertainty
12.1 Markers for Monitoring Action
12.2 Situations after Scheduled Inspection
12.3 Wide-spread Defects
12.4 Initial Damage Regions and Process Definition
12.5 Essential Conclusions of Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Elements of Safety and their Characteristics
13.1. Element of Structural Design
13.2. Element of Manufacturing
13.3. Element of Maintenance
13.4. Element of Requirement Formulation
13.5. Safety Targets
Chapter 14
Generalized Safe States
14.1. Fail-Safe Integrity
14.2. Integrity Description
14.3 Safety Management Strategy
14.4 Uncertainty and Monitoring
14.5 Essential Conclusions of Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Scenarios and Safety
15.1. Manufacturing Process Defects
15.2. Increase in Internal loads due to Manufacturing Defects
15.3. Maintenance Defects
15.4. Defects in Operation
15.5. Defects in Requirements Formulation
Chapter 16
Design Mission and Philosophy
16.1. Maneuver Critical Designs
16.2. Gust Critical Design
16.3. Wide-spread Defects
16.4. Structural Integrity and Composites
16.5. Safety Strategy and Objectives
16.6. Design Data and Integrity
16.7. Essential Conclusions in Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Strategy and Objectives for Design
17.1. Ultimate Integrity
17.2. State of Damage for Ultimate Conditions
17.3. Fail-Safe Integrity
17.4. Discrete Source Damage Integrity
17.5. Essential Conclusions in Chapter 17
Chapter 18
Elements of Safety and Engineering Practices
18.1. Safety Background
18.2. Initial Formulation and Updating
18.3. The “World of Composites”
Chapter 19
Improvement in Structural Safety of Composites
19.1. Wide-spread Defects
19.2. Discrete Source Damage Integrity
19.3. Unsafe States and Safety Improvements
19.4. Essential Conclusions in Chapter 19
Chapter 20
Process Quality and Integrity of Requirements Formulation
20.1. Process for Regulations
Chapter 21
Safety Management and Process Quality
21.1. Manufacturing Process Safety Management Requirements
21.2. General Process Defects and Effects
21.3. Maintenance Defects in Safety Management
21.4. Operational Defects
21.5. Defective Requirements
21.6. Defect and Effect Review
21.7. Structural Safety
Chapter 22
Unsafe State
22.1. Unsafe Elements of Safety
22.2. Total Probability of an Unsafe State
Chapter 23
Summary of Safety Management
23.1. Design Process and Practices
23.2. Discrete Source Damage Design
23.3. Tire-Burst
23.4. Fail-Safe Back-up to Reduced Damage Tolerance due to Manufacturing Defects
23.5. Hail-stone Impact in Flight
23.6. Process Development
Chapter 24
Philosophy: Design to Explicit Safety Constraints
24.1. Probability of Failure
24.2. Design Process
24.3. Requirements Formulation
24.4. In-Service Monitoring
24.5. Process Development
Appendix 1: Failure due to Lost Limit Integrity
Appendix 2: Sizing to Safety Considerations - Damage Tolerance Critical Structure
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