Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy, 2nd Edition

Fundamentals and Recent Advances

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy, 2nd Edition,Valeri Afanas'ev,ISBN9780080999296






229 X 152

An updated edition of the first book on internal photoemission methods

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Key Features

  • First complete model description of the internal photoemission phenomena
  • Overview of the most reliable energy barrier determination procedures and trap characterization methods
  • Overview of the most recent results on band structure of high-permittivity insulating materials and their interfaces with semiconductors and metals


The second edition of Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy thoroughly updates this vital, practical guide to internal photoemission (IPE) phenomena and measurements. The book's discussion of fundamental physical and technical aspects of IPE spectroscopic applications is supplemented by an extended overview of recent experimental results in swiftly advancing research fields. These include the development of insulating materials for advanced SiMOS technology, metal gate materials, development of heterostructures based on high-mobility semiconductors, and more. Recent results concerning the band structure of important interfaces in novel materials are covered as well.

Internal photoemission involves the physics of charge carrier photoemission from one solid to another, and different spectroscopic applications of this phenomenon to solid state heterojunctions. This technique complements conventional external photoemission spectroscopy by analyzing interfaces separated from the sample surface by a layer of a different solid or liquid. Internal photoemission provides the most straightforward, reliable information regarding the energy spectrum of electron states at interfaces. At the same time, the method enables the analysis of heterostructures relevant to modern micro- and nano-electronic devices as well as new materials involved in their design and fabrication.

Valeri Afanas'ev

Professor V. Afanas’ev devoted more than 25 years of research to development of novel experimental methods for interface characterization. In particular, a number of techniques based on internal photoemission phenomena were shown to provide unique information regarding electron states in thin films of solids and at their interfaces. In recent years these methods were successfully applied to characterize novel semiconductor heterostructures for advanced micro- and nano-electronic devices.

Affiliations and Expertise

Laboratory of Semiconductor Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy, 2nd Edition




List of Abbreviations

List of Symbols

1. Preliminary Remarks and Historical Overview

1.1 General Concept of IPE

1.2 IPE and Materials Analysis Issues

1.3 Interfaces of Wide Bandgap Insulators

1.4 Metal–Semiconductor Barriers

1.5 Energy Barriers at Semiconductor Heterojunctions

1.6 Energy Barriers at Interfaces of Organic Solids and Molecular Layers

1.7 Energy Barriers at Interfaces of Solids with Electrolytes


2. Internal Versus External Photoemission

2.1 Common Steps in Internal and External Photoemission

2.2 IPE-Specific Features


3. Photoemission into Insulators: Physical Model

3.1 The Quantum Yield

3.2 Quantum Yield as a Function of Photon Energy

3.3 Quantum Yield as a Function of Electric Field

3.4 Conditions of IPE Observation

3.5 Experimental Approaches to IPE


4. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy Methods

4.1 IPE Threshold Spectroscopy

4.2 IPE Yield Spectroscopy

4.3 Spectroscopy of Carrier Scattering

4.4 Spectroscopy of Intrinsic PC

4.5 PI Spectroscopy


5. Injection Spectroscopy of Thin Layers of Solids

5.1 Basic Approaches in Injection Spectroscopy

5.2 Charge Injection Using IPE

5.3 Carrier Injection by Tunnelling

5.4 Excitation of Carriers in the Emitter Using the Electric Field

5.5 Electron–Hole Plasma Generation in the Collector

5.6 What Charge-Injection Technique to Chose?

5.7 Trapped Charge Monitoring and Characterization

5.8 Semiconductor Field-Effect Techniques of Charge Monitoring

5.9 Trapped Charge Probing by Electron IPE

5.10 Charge Probing Using Trap Depopulation

5.11 Monitoring the Injection-Induced Liberation of Hydrogen


6. Analysis of the Charge Trapping Kinetics

6.1 Charge Trapping in the Injection-Limited Current Regime

6.2 First-Order Trapping Kinetics: Single Trap Model

6.3 First-Order Trapping Kinetics: Multiple Trap Model

6.4 Effects of Detrapping

6.5 Carrier Recombination Effects

6.6 Trap Generation During Injection

6.7 Trapping Analysis in Practice

6.8 Strong Carrier Trapping Regime

6.9 Carrier Trapping Near the Injecting Interface

6.10 Inhibition of Trapping by Coulomb Repulsion

6.11 Carrier Redistribution by Coulomb Repulsion


7. Silicon–Insulator Interface Barriers

7.1 Electron States at the Si/SiO2 Interface

7.2 High-Permittivity Insulators on Semiconductors

7.3 Band Alignment at Interfaces of Silicon with High-Permittivity Insulators


8. Barriers at Interfaces of High-Mobility and Compound Semiconductors

8.1 Band Alignment at Interfaces of Group IV Semiconductors and Their Alloys with Insulating Oxides

8.2 Band Alignment at Interfaces of AIIIBV Semiconductors with Insulating Oxides

8.3 Band Alignment at Interfaces Between Oxide Semiconductors and Insulating Oxides


9. Electron Energy Barriers Between Conducting Materials and Insulating Oxides

9.1 Interface Barriers Between Elemental Metals and Oxide Insulators

9.2 Polycrystalline Si/Oxide Interfaces

9.3 Complex Metal Electrodes on Insulators

9.4 Modification of the Conductor/Insulator Barriers


10. Conclusions


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