Subsea Pipelines and Risers

Subsea Pipelines and Risers, 1st Edition

Subsea Pipelines and Risers, 1st Edition,Yong Bai,Qiang Bai,ISBN9780080445663

Bai   &   Bai   

Elsevier Science




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• Updated edition of a best-selling title
• Author brings 25 years experience to the work
• Addresses the key issues of economy and environment

Marine pipelines for the transportation of oil and gas have become a safe and reliable way to exploit the valuable resources below the world’s seas and oceans. The design of these pipelines is a relatively new technology and continues to evolve in its quest to reduce costs and minimise the effect on the environment.

With over 25years experience, Professor Yong Bai has been able to assimilate the essence of the applied mechanics aspects of offshore pipeline system design in a form of value to students and designers alike. It represents an excellent source of up to date practices and knowledge to help equip those who wish to be part of the exciting future of this industry.


Structural and civil engineers, students and researchers.

Yong Bai

Dr. Yong Bai obtained a Ph.D. in Offshore Structures at Hiroshima University, Japan in 1989. He is currently President of Offshore Pipelines and Risers (OPR Inc., a design/consulting firm in the field of subsea pipelines, risers and floating systems. In the 1990's, he had been a technical leader for several Asgard Transport pipeline and flowline projects at JP Kenny as Manager of the advanced engienering department. Yong was previously a lead riser engineer at Shell and assisted in offshore rules development at the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) as Manager of the offshore technology department. While a professor, he wrote several books and served as a course leader on the design of subsea pipelines and irsers as well as design of floating systems. He also serves at Zhejiang University in China as professor.

Affiliations and Expertise

President of Offshore Pipelines & Risers (OPR) Inc.

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Qiang Bai

Dr. Qiang Bai obtained a doctorate for Mechanical Engineering at Kyushu University, Japan in 1995. He has more than 20 years of experience in subsea/offshore engineering including research and engineering execution. He has worked at Kyushu University in Japan, UCLA, OPE, JP Kenny, and Technip. His experience includes various aspects of flow assurance and the design and installation of subsea structures, pipelines and riser systems.

Affiliations and Expertise

Offshore Pipelines & Risers (OPR) Inc.

View additional works by Qiang Bai

Subsea Pipelines and Risers, 1st Edition

Table of contents Foreword Foreword to "Pipelines and Risers" Book Preface Part I: Mechanical Design Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Design Stages and Process 1.3 Design Through Analysis (DTA) 1.4 Pipeline Design Analysis 1.5 Pipeline Simulator 1.6 References Chapter 2 Wall-thickness and Material Grade Selection 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Material Grade Selection 2.3 Pressure Containment (hoop stress) Design 2.4 Equivalent Stress Criterion 2.5 Hydrostatic Collapse 2.6 Wall Thickness and Length Design for Buckle Arrestors 2.7 Buckle Arrestor Spacing Design 2.8 References Chapter 3 Buckling/Collapse of Deepwater Metallic Pipes 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Pipe Capacity under Single Load 3.3 Pipe Capacity under Couple Load 3.4 Pipes under Pressure Axial Force and Bending 3.5 Finite Element Model 3.6 References Chapter 4 Limit-state based Strength Design 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Out of Roundness Serviceability Limit 4.3 Bursting 4.4 Local Buckling/Collapse 4.5 Fracture 4.6 Fatigue 4.7 Ratcheting 4.8 Dynamic Strength Criteria 4.9 Accumulated Plastic Strain 4.10 Strain Concentration at Field Joints Due to Coatings 4.11 References Part II: Pipeline Design Chapter 5 Soil and Pipe Interaction 5.1 Introduction 83 5.2 Pipe Penetration in Soil 83 5.3 Modeling Friction and Breakout Forces 5.4 References Chapter 6 Hydrodynamics around Pipes 6.1 Wave Simulators 6.2 Choice of Wave Theory 6.3 Mathematical Formulations Used in the Wave Simulators 6.4 Steady Currents 6.5 Hydrodynamic Forces 6.6 References Chapter 7 Finite Element Analysis of In-situ Behavior 7.1 Introduction 101 7.2 Description of the Finite Element Model 7.3 Steps in an Analysis and Choice of Analysis Procedure 7.4 Element Types Used in the Model 7.5 Non-linearity and Seabed Model 7.6 Validation of the Finite Element Model 7.7 Dynamic Buckling Analysis 7.8 Cyclic In-place Behaviour during Shutdown Operations 7.9 References Chapter 8 Expansion, Axial Creeping, Upheaval/Lateral Buckling 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Expansion 8.3 Axial Creeping of Flowlines Caused by Soil Ratcheting 8.4 Upheaval Buckling 8.5 Lateral Buckling 8.6 Interaction between Lateral and Upheaval Buckling 8.7 References Chapter 9 On-bottom Stability 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Force Balance: the Simplified Method 9.3 Acceptance Criteria 9.4 Special Purpose Program for Stability Analysis 9.5 Use of FE Analysis for Intervention Design 9.6 References Chapter 10 Vortex-induced Vibrations (VIV) and Fatigue 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Free-span VIV Analysis Procedure 10.3 Fatigue Design Criteria 10.4 Response Amplitude 10.5 Modal Analysis 10.6 Example Cases 10.7 References Chapter 11 Force Model and Wave Fatigue 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Fatigue Analysis 11.3 Force Model 11.4 Comparisons of Frequency Domain and Time Domain Approaches 11.5 Conclusions and Recommendations 11.6 References Chapter 12 Trawl Impact, Pullover and Hooking Loads 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Trawl Gears 12.3 Acceptance Criteria 12.4 Impact Response Analysis 12.5 Pullover Loads 12.6 Finite Element Model for Pullover Response Analyses 12.7 Case Study 12.8 References Chapter 13 Pipe-in-pipe and Bundle Systems 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Pipe-in-pipe System 13.3 Bundle System 13.4 References Chapter 14 Seismic Design 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Pipeline Seismic Design Guidelines 14.3 Conclusions 14.4 References Chapter 15 Corrosion Prevention 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Fundamentals of Cathodic Protection 15.3 Pipeline Coatings 15.4 CP Design Parameters 5.5 Galvanic Anodes System Design 15.6 References Chapter 16 Asgard Flowlines Design Examples 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Wall-thickness and Linepipe Material Selection 16.3 Limit State Strength Criteria 16.4 Installation and On-bottom Stability 16.5 Design for Global Buckling, Fishing Gear Loads and VIV 16.6 Asgard Transport Project 16.7 References Part III: Flow Assurance Chapter 17 Subsea System Engineering 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Typical Flow Assurance Process 17.3 System Design and Operability 17.4 References Chapter 18 Hydraulics 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Composition and Properties of Hydrocarbons 18.3 Emulsion 18.4 Phase Behavior 18.5 Hydrocarbon Flow 18.6 Slugging and Liquid Handling 18.7 Pressure Surge 18.8 Line Sizing 18.9 References Chapter 19 Heat Transfer and Thermal Insulation 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Heat Transfer Fundamentals 19.3 U-value 19.4 Steady State Heat Transfer 19.5 Transient Heat Transfer 19.6 Thermal Management Strategy and Insulation 19.7 References 19.8 Appendix: U-value and Cooldown Time Calculation Sheet Chapter 20 Hydrates 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Physics and Phase Behavior 20.3 Hydrate Prevention 20.4 Hydrate Remediation 20.5 Hydrate Control Design Philosophies 20.6 Recover of Thermodynamic Hydrate Inhibitors 20.7 References Chapter 21 Wax and Asphaltenes 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Wax 21.3 Wax Management 21.4 Wax Remediation 21.5 Asphaltenes 21.7 References Part IV: Riser Engineering Chapter 22 Design of Deepwater Risers 22.1 Description of a Riser System 22.2 Riser Analysis Tools 22.3 Steel Catenary Riser for Deepwater Environments 22.4 Stresses and Service Life of Flexible Pipes 22.5 Drilling and Workover Risers 22.6 Reference Chapter 23 Design Codes for Risers and Subsea Systems 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Design Criteria for Deepwater Metallic Risers 23.3 Limit State Design Criteria 23.4 Loads, Load Effects and Load Cases 23.5 Improving Design Codes and Guidelines 23.6 Regulations and Standards for Subsea Production Systems 23.7 References Chapter 24 VIV and Wave Fatigue of Risers 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Fatigue Causes 24.3 Riser VIV Analysis and Suppression 24.4 Riser Fatigue due to Vortex-induced Hull Motions (VIM) 24.5 Challenges and Solutions for Fatigue Analysis 24.6 Conclusions 24.7 References Chapter 25 Steel Catenary Risers 25.1 Introduction 25.2 SCR Technology Development History 25.3 Material Selection, Wall-thickness Sizing, Source Services and Clap Pipe 25.4 SCR Design Analysis 25.5 Welding Technology, S-N Curves and SCF for Welded Connections 25.6 UT Inspections and ECA Criteria 25.7 Flexjoints, Stressjoints and Pulltubes 25.8 Strength Design Challenges and Solutions 25.9 Fatigue Design Challenges and Solutions 25.10 Installation and Sensitivity Considerations 25.11 Integrity Monitoring and Management Systems 25.12 References Chapter 26 Top Tensioned Risers 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Top Tension Risers Systems 26.3 TTR Riser Components 26.4 Modelling and Analysis of Top Tensioned Risers 26.5 Integrated Marine Monitoring System 26.6 References Chapter 27 Steel Tube Umbilical & Control Systems 27.1 Introduction 27.2 Control Systems 27.3 Cross-sectional Design of the Umbilical 27.4 Steel Tube Design Capacity Verification 27.5 Extreme Wave Analysis 27.6 Manufacturing Fatigue Analysis 27.7 In-place Fatigue Analysis 27.8 Installation Analysis 27.9 Required On-seabed Length for Stability 27.10 References Chapter 28 Flexible Risers and Flowlines 28.1 Introduction 28.2 Flexible Pipe Cross Section 28.3 End Fitting and Annulus Venting Design 28.4 Flexible Riser Design 28.5 References Chapter 29 Hybrid Risers 29.1 Introduction 29.2 General Description of Hybrid Risers 29.3 Sizing of Hybrid Risers 29.4 Preliminary Analysis 29.5 Strength Analysis 29.6 Fatigue Analysis 29.7 Structural and Environmental Monitoring System 29.8 References Chapter 30 Drilling Risers 30.1 Introduction 30.2 Floating Drilling Equipments 30.3 Key Components of Subsea Production Systems 30.4 Riser Design Criteria 30.5 Drilling Riser Analysis Model 30.6 Drilling Riser Analysis Methodology 30.7 References Chapter 31 Integrity Management of Flexibles and Umbilicals 31.1 Introduction 31.2 Failure Statistics 31.3 Risk Management Methodology 31.4 Failure Drivers 31.5 Failure Modes 31.6 Integrity Management Strategy 31.7 Inspection Measures 31.8 Monitoring 31.9 Testing and Analysis Measures 31.10 Steel Tube Umbilical Risk Analysis and Integrity Management 31.11 References Part V: Welding and Installation Chapter 32 Use of High Strength Steel 32.1 Introduction 32.2 Review of Usage of High Strength Steel Linepipes 32.3 Potential Benefits and Disadvantages of High Strength Steel 32.4 Welding of High Strength Linepipe 32.5 Cathodic Protection 32.6 Fatigue and Fracture of High Strength Steel 32.7 Material Property Requirements 32.8 References Chapter 33 Welding and Defect Acceptance 33.1 Introduction 33.2 Weld Repair Analysis 33.3 Allowable Excavation Length Assessment 33.4 Conclusions 33.5 References Chapter 34 Installation Design 34.1 Introduction 34.2 Pipeline Installation Vessels 34.3 Software OFFPIPE and Code Requirements 34.4 Physical Background for Installation 34.5 Finite Element Analysis Procedure for Installation of In-line Valves 34.6 Two Medium Pipeline Design Concept 34.7 References Chapter 35 Route Optimization, Tie-in and Protection 35.1 Introduction 35.2 Pipeline Routing 35.3 Pipeline Tie-ins 35.4 Flowline Trenching/Burying 35.4.1 Jet Sled 35.5 Flowline Rockdumping 35.6 Equipment Dayrates 35.7 References Chapter 36 Pipeline Inspection, Maintenance and Repair 36.1 Operations 36.2 Inspection by Intelligent Pigging 36.3 Maintenance 36.4 Pipeline Repair Methods 36.5 Deepwater Pipeline Repair 36.6 References Part VI: Integrity Management Chapter 37 Reliability-based Strength Design of Pipelines 37.1 Introduction 37.2 Uncertainty Measures 37.3 Calibration of Safety Factors 37.4 Reliability-based Determination of Corrosion Allowance 37.5 References Chapter 38 Corroded Pipelines 38.1 Introduction 38.2 Corrosion Defect Predictions 38.3 Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe 38.4 New Remaining Strength Criteria for Corroded Pipe 38.5 Reliability-based Design 38.6 Re-qualification Example Applications 38.7 References Chapter 39 Residual Strength of Dented Pipes with Cracks 39.1 Introduction 39.2 Limit-state based Criteria for Dented Pipe 39.3 Fracture of Pipes with Longitudinal Cracks 39.4 Fracture of Pipes with Circumferential Cracks 39.5 Reliability-based Assessment 39.6 Design Examples 39.7 References Chapter 40 Integrity Management of Subsea Systems 40.1 Introduction 40.2 Acceptance Criteria 40.3 Identification of Initiating Events 40.4 Cause Analysis 40.5 Probability of Initiating Events 40.6 Causes of Risks 40.7 Failure Probability Estimation Based on Qualitative Review and Databases 40.8 Failure Probability Estimation Based on Structural Reliability Methods 40.9 Consequence Analysis 40.10 Example 1: Risk Analysis for a Subsea Gas Pipeline 40.11 Example 2: Dropped Object Risk Analysis 40.11.4 Results 40.12 Example 3: Example Use of RBIM to Reduce Operation Costs 40.13 References Chapter 41 LCC Modeling as a Decision Making Tool in Pipeline Design 41.1 Introduction 41.2 Initial Cost 41.3 Financial Risk 41.4 Time Value of Money 41.5 Fabrication Tolerance Example Using the Life-cycle Cost Model 41.6 On-Bottom Stability Example 41.7 References Subject Index
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