In recent years the Japanese have funded a comprehensive study of carbon materials which incorporate other elements including boron, nitrogen and fluorine, hence the title of the project "Carbon Alloys".
Coined in 1992, the phrase "Carbon Alloys" can be applied to those materials mainly composed of carbon materials in multi-component systems. The carbon atoms of each component have a physical and/or chemical interactive relationship with other atoms or compounds. The carbon atoms of the components may have different hybrid bonding orbitals to create quite different carbon components.
Eiichi Yasuda and his team consider the definition of Carbon Alloys, present the results of the Carbon Alloys projects, describe typical Carbon Alloys and their uses, discuss recent techniques for their characterization, and finally, illustrate potential applications and future developments for Carbon Alloy science. The book contains over thirty chapters on these studies from as many researchers.
The most modern of techniques, particularly in the area of spectroscopy, were used as diagnostic tools, and many of these are applicable to pure carbons also. Porosity in carbons received considerable attention.
For Materials Scientists, Engineers, Chemists, Physicists.
Carbon Alloys, 1st Edition
(E. Yasuda, M. Inagaki).
Space Control in Carbon Alloys. Hybrid orbital control in carbon alloys (R. Saito).
Structural design and functions of carbon materials by alloying in atomic and molecular scales (M. Endo et al.).
Surface and hidden surface-controlled carbon alloys (K. Kaneko).
Control of interface and microstructure in carbon alloys (Y. Tanabe, E. Yasuda).
Typical Carbon Alloys and their Processing. Intercalation compounds (N. Akuzawa). Porous carbon (T. Kyotani). Polymer blend for designing of carbon materials (A. Oya).
The Latest Characterization Techniques. Computer simulation (S Tsuneyuki). Crystallite size and lattice constant measurements of carbon materials
by X-ray diffraction (M. Shiraishi, M. Inagaki). Studies on pore structure of carbon materials by small-angle X-ray
scattering (K. Nishikawa). XAFS analysis and application to carbon related materials and
catalysts (H. Yamashita). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and its application to carbon (N. Suzuki). Transmission electron microscopy (H. Saka). Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and its applications to characterization of carbon materials (H. Hirai). Visualization of the atomic-scale structure and reactivity of metal carbide surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy K. Fukui et al.). Infra red (IR) spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and
proton magnetic thermal analysis (PMRTA)(O. Ito et al.).
Raman spectroscopy as a characterization tool for carbon materials (M. Kakihana, M. Osada). Basics of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and its application to carbon alloys (T. Nishizawa). Gas adsorption (Y. Hanzawa, K. Kaneko). Electrochemical characterization of carbons and carbon alloys (T. Nakajima). Mechanical probe for micro-/nano-characterization (M. Sakai). Magnetism of nano-graphite (T. Enoki et al.).
Magnetoresistance and its application to carbon and carbon alloys (Y. Hishiyama).
Function Developments and Application Potentials. Application of advanced carbon material in Li-ion secondary battery (M. Endo, Y-A. Kim). Electrochemical functions (M. Miyake). Electric double layer capacitors (S. Shiraishi). Electron emission from carbon nanotubes (Y. Saito et al.). Gas separation with carbon membranes (K. Kusakabe, S. Morooka). Property control of carbon materials by fluorination (H. Touhara). Preparation of metal loaded porous carbons and their use as a highly active catalyst for NO reduction (K. Miura, H. Nakagawa). Formation of seaweed bed using carbon fibers (M. Shiraishi). C/C composite materials and their properties (T. Oku). Superhard materials (O. Takai).
Quotes and reviews
@from:Professor Peter A. Thrower, Editor-in-Chief, CARBON
@qu:"Carbon Alloys" is a very ambitious project and some considerable advances have been made. As the same materials were studied in several laboratories by different techniques the reports are particularly valuable. The book is recommended.
@from:Professor Brian Rand, School of Materials, University of Leeds, UK
@qu:In this remarkable book the results of a major innovative Japanese national programme on new forms and applications of carbon are presented. Carbon is a unique material and the research results here take the subject forward in many new directions. Carbon alloys are defined as carbon in multi-component systems the components having carbon in different states of hybridisation or in relationship with other compounds. The studies range from carbon nanotubes and the exploitation of nanospace to carbon-carbon composites and super-hard materials. It will be required reading for all involved in carbon science and Materials scientists generally.