* reviews the wide range of ionization and isotope methods used in inorganic mass spectrometry today
* features tutorials describing the key principles and instrumentation relevant to each method
* evaluates practical applications for the analysis of environmental, biological, biomedical, nutritional, geological, nuclear, microelectronic and extra-terrestrial materials
* includes more than 3400 references, 100 tables and 500 figures of which more than 200 are in color
Volume 5: Elemental and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
This volume focuses on (1) the plethora of mostly atomic ionization techniques that have been coupled to MS for elemental analysis, the measurement of isotope ratios, and even the determination of inorganic compounds and (2) the precise measurement of isotope ratios of organic elements as small gas molecules by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Chapter 1 contains a description of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) MS, its requirements for sample preparation and introduction. The chapter also covers argon ICP, ion extraction, various mass analyzers, and the numerous application areas including environmental, geochemical, biomedical, nuclear, semiconductor, and speciation. Other atomic sources include the microwave plasma, which can be used as either an atomic ionization source or as a soft molecular ionization source, flames, spark sources, and glow discharges, including the types of mass spectrometers and separation approaches to which interfaces can be made.
Chapter 2 discusses the application of electrospray ionization (EI) MS, also described in Volume 6, to inorganic analysis. Secondary ion and neutral MS (Chapter 3) can be used to determine trace elements in solids, particularly on their surface, with high spatial resolution. Atmospheric aerosols can also be studied using laser(s) for desorption and ionization of analytes in solids (Chapter 4). Thermal ionization MS, where sample atoms or molecules are ionized as they evaporate from the surface of a hot filament, is the focus of Chapter 5. Special applications are in Chapter 6, which covers accelerator MS, and Chapter 7, where large calutrons can be contrasted to the small analyzers that are taken aboard spacecraft, for example.
Chapter 8 focuses on IRMS for precise isotope ratio measurements. The highest level of precision can only be accomplished through use of a mass spectrometer specifically esigned for the purpose of making differential measurements. A key advance is direct conversion of organic compounds into small gas molecules for measurement, leading to important uses ranging from geology to biomedical sciences.
Advanced research scientists, mass spectrometrists, spectroscopists, analytical chemists and those working in related fields
The Encyclopedia of Mass Spectrometry, 1st Edition
Sample Preparation Techniques in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry; Sample Introduction: Nebulization; Sample introduction: Laser ablation; Sample introduction: Electrothermal vaporization; Sample introduction: Capillary electrophoresis; Sample introduction: Gas chromatography; Sample introduction: Liquid chromatography; Sample Introduction: Vapour Generation; Sample introduction: Flow injection; Inductively Coupled Plasma as an Ion Source for Mass Spectrometry; Ion extraction from inductively coupled plasma; Mass analyzers (quadrupole, time-of-flight & sector); Reduction of polyatomic interferences in ICP-MS by collision/reaction cell (CRC-ICP-MS) techniques; Interferences: Polyatomic ions with double-focusing sector field; Interferences: Non-spectroscopic interferences; Application of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to Environmental Analysis; Application of ICP-MS for Elemental Analysis of geochemical samples; Applications: Semiconductor materials; Applications: Determination of long-lived radionuclides in nuclear, environmental and medical materials by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS; Applications: Speciation - biomolecules; Applications: Speciation - small molecules; ELEMENTAL SPECIATION IN BIOPOLYMERS BY ICP-MS; Applications: High precision isotope ratio measurements using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; Microwave plasma mass spectrometry; Diagnostic studies of flames by mass spectrometry; Glow discharge basics; Ion source geometries and mass analyzers in glow discharge mass spectrometry; Glow discharge applications: Conductors and semiconductors; Glow discharge applications: Radiofrequency glow discharges for insulators; Glow discharge applications: Nuclear; Control of fragmentation; Spark Source Mass Spectrometry (Spectrography); Electrospray ionization of metal species; Characterization of inorganic species in solution; Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry - SIMS; Sputtering and ionization basics; SIMS imaging; Imaging ion optics in SIMS; SIMS depth profiling; Secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS); Subcellular imaging of cells and tissues with dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry; Semi-conductors and microelectronics; Local analysis and imaging by mass spectrometry in nanotechnology; Earth sciences, isotope ratios, sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe; Secondary ion mass spectrometry of environmental particles; Characterization of environmental microparticles; Atmospheric aerosols; Elemental analysis of solids by laser ionization; Speciation analysis in solids by laser mass spectrometry; Laser ionization cluster sources and their applications; Positive Thermal Ions; Negative thermal ions; Geochemical; Nuclear; Nutritional and biomedical; Source and detector instrumentation; Analyzer instrumentation; Environmental applications of accelerator mass spectrometry; Biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry; AMS and extraterrestrial applications; Accelerator mass spectrometry for radiocarbon research; Accelerator mass spectrometry in geophysics and geochemistry; Calutrons and isotope separation; Space exploration; Atmospheric studies by mass spectrometry; Forensic applications of inorganic mass spectrometry; Knudsen cell, high temperature mass spectrometry; Electron impact mass spectrometry of volatile metal chelates; The principles and characteristics of the IRMS instrument; Methods to prepare water as H2 for IRMS measurement of 2H; Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry with an elemental analyzer: Oxidative approaches for carbon and nitrogen isotopes; Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry with an elemental analyzer: Reductive approaches for hydrogen and oxygen isotopes; Gas Chromatography-Combustion-IRMS (GC-C-IRMS) for Carbon and Nitrogen; Gas Chromatography-Pyrolysis-IRMS (GC-P-IRMS) for Hydrogen and Oxygen; Liquid chromatography (LC) IRMS; Isotope reference materials; Measurement of sulfur isotopes; Variations of abundances of carbon isotopes in nature; Variations of abundances of nitrogen isotopes in nature; Variations of abundances of oxygen isotopes in nature; Variations of abundances of hydrogen isotopes in nature; Thermal ionization MS; ICP-MS; Isotope ratio measurements of atmospheric gases; Use of stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to detect food adulteration and authenticate origin; Use of isotope effects in forensic analysis of microorganisms; Stable isotope analyses in the study of fish trophodynamics and aquatic food webs; Use of stable isotopes to study climate; Noble gas isotope ratio measurements in space; GC-C-IRMS of 13C; Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry Applied to Measuring Nitrogen-15 in Biomedicine; Doubly labeled water method to measure free living energy expenditure; Stable isotopes to model water dynamics in living cells; IRMS to detect doping in sports; In vivo calcium metabolism; In vivo trace metal metabolism: iron; In vivo trace metal metabolism: zinc