Air Distribution in Rooms

Air Distribution in Rooms, 1st Edition

Ventilation for Health and Sustainable Environment

Air Distribution in Rooms, 1st Edition,H.B. Awbi,ISBN9780080430171

H Awbi   

Elsevier Science



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The air distribution in occupied spaces is a major issue of public concern. It is widely recognized that the quality of air and the nature of airflow can affect the health of occupants and the energy consumed in buildings and transport vehicles. ROOMVENT is the principal international conference in the field of air distribution. It was first initiated in 1987 by SCANVAC, the Scandinavian Federation of Heating, Ventilating and Sanitary Engineering Associations in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

The aim of the Conference is to bring together researchers from universities and research institutes, engineers from industry and government officials and policy makers, with the goal of experiencing the latest techniques for measuring and analyzing indoor air flow, the visualization of indoor air flow patterns, the evaluation of ventilation parameters and the most recent developments in computer simulation techniques of room airflow. It is hoped that the theme of ROOMVENT 2000 "Ventilation for Health and Sustainable Environment" will set the scene for room air distribution research and development for the new millennium.


For engineering and designers interested in room air distribution and ventilation.

H.B. Awbi

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Construction Management and Engineering, University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 219, Reading RG6 1AW, UK. E-mail: H.B.Awbi@reading.ac.uk

Air Distribution in Rooms, 1st Edition

Volume I. Preface. Programme and Organizing Comittee/International Scientific Committee. Co-sponsoring organizations. Keynote papers. Provide good air quality for people and improve their productivity (P.O. Fanger). The quality of buildings is equal to the indoor climate quality (U.N. Rengholt). Optimised indoor air quality and energy saving strategies for quality buildings in Mediterranean climates: compatible objectives with comfort and environment issues? (L. Malheiro da Silva). Sustainability, energy and cost - a tight rope act (J. Berry). Indoor Environment. Numerical calculation of angle factors between human body and rectangular planes (Y. Ozeki et al.). Simplified human body model for evaluating thermal radiant environment in a radiant
cooled space (T. Miyanaga et al.). Human thermal sensation to air movement frequency (Y. Xia et al.). Study on prediction of thermal comfort in unsteady and inhomogeneous thermal environment (Y. Nakamura et al.). Predicted comfort envelopes for office buildings with passive down-draught evaporative cooling (D. Martinez et al.). Simulation of particle deposition near ceiling induction outlets (H. Timmer, M. Zeller). Distribution of aerosols in turbulent airflows (F. Bitter et al.). Indoor particle pollution: effect of wall textures on particle deposition (M. Abadie et al.). CFD based airflow modelling to investigate the effectiveness of control methods intended to prevent the transmission of airborne organisms (M.J. Seymour et al.). Computational investigation of ventilation strategies to reduce exposure to NO2 and CO from gas cooking (D.I. Ross). Characterization of VOCs, Ozone, and PM10 emissions from office printers in an environmental chamber (S. Lam, S.C. Lee). Experimental and numerical prediction of indoor air quality (C. Teodosiu et al.). Indoor air quality assessment by a "breathing" thermal manikin (A. Melikov et al.). Thermal climate assessment in office environment - CFD calculations and thermal manikin measurements (H. Nilsson et al.). The air quality at the breathing zone with displacement ventilation (H.J. Xing et al.). Computational exposure and dose assessment analyses for transient turbulent flow and gaseous pollutant transport (S.
Hyun, C. Kleinstreuer). Horizontal cold air jets induced by a fan coil HVAC system and indoor comfort (E. Rutman et al.). Evaluation of thermal comfort and local discomfort conditions by numerical modelling of human and clothing thermal systems (E.Z.E. Conceição). Ventilation, indoor air quality and thermal comfort (I.A. Raja et al.). An assessment and remediation of mold in indoor environments (R. Kumar). Emissions of VOCs from building materials and the indoor air quality of a new naturally ventilated office building (C.W.F. Yu, D.R. Crump). Investigation of cabin air quality in commercial aircrafts (S-C. Lee et al.). Experimental evaluation of smoking lounges: a case study (F. Cumo et al.). CFD simulation of concentration of gaseous impurities in a typical Hong Kong industrial workshop (Z. Lin et al.). Siting of domestic carbon monoxide detectors (D.I. Ross). Protection of non-smoking persons against cigarette smoke by airflow (H. Krühne, K. Fitzner). Predictive Methods. Model experiments with low Reynolds number effects in a ventilated room (P.V. Nielsen et al.). Thermal stratification produced by plumes and jets in enclosed spaces (G.R. Hunt et al.). A study on the characteristics of airflow in a full scale room with a slot wall inlet beneath the ceiling (G. Zhang et al.). Spread of gravity currents within a multi room building (C. Blomqvist, M. Sandberg). A dynamic model for single-sided ventilation (B. Nordquist, L. Jensen). Simulation of air flow distribution in rooms by a systemic approach (S. Soares et al.). Modelling the spatio-temporal temperature distribution in an imperfectly mixed ventilated room (K. Janssens et al.). Some relations revisited in tracer gas analyses using numerical methods (S-H. Peng). Zonal models using loop equations and surface drag cell-to-cell flow relations (J.W. Axley). Improving speed and robustness of the COMIS solver (D.M. Lorenzetti, M.D.Sohn). Study of the effect of thermal stratification on heat transfer in multizone buildings (S. Burchiu et al.). Natural ventilation of an enclosed room by doorway exchange flows (J.C Phillips, A.W. Woods). A hybrid displacement-mixing ventilation regime in a naturally ventilated room (C. Gladstone, A.W. Woods). Validation of a new integrated design tool for naturally ventilated buildings (E.H. Mathews, D.C. Arndt). Effect of thermal mass on the airflow and ventilation in passive building design (P. Jones, K. Kippenberg). The use of solar air collectors for room ventilation: a study using two numerical approaches (A. Moret-Rodrigues et al.). Some examples of solution multiplicity in natural ventilation (Y. Li et al.). The potential of large eddy simulation techniques for modelling indoor air flows (S-H. Peng, L. Davidson). Comparison of different subgrid turbulence models and boundary conditions for large-eddy-simulations of room air flows (D. Müller, L. Davidson). Low-Reynolds number effects in ventilated rooms: a numerical study (L. Davidson et al.). Numerical study of airflow structure of a cross-ventilated model building (T. Kurabuchi et al.). Finite element calculation of natural ventilation (R. Gritzki et al.). A Particle Streak Tracking System (PST) to measure flow fields in ventilated rooms (D. Müller, U. Renz). Applications of laser velocimetry techniques for air flow analysis in pollutant transfer studies (C. Prévost et al.). Visualization and measurement of air temperature using infrared thermography (M. Cehlin et al.). Validation tests for a passive tracer gas technique (V. Dorer et al.). Pre-processor for ventilation measurement analysis (H. Lee, H.B. Awbi). Experimental study on indoor air quality: interest on a lateral plane of measurement (S. Laporthe et al.). The natural ventilation of a room with an areal source of heat and two openings (C. Gladstone, A.W. Woods). Optimization of the design of two test rooms by means of CFD (B. Bjerg et al.). Integration of heating mode into ventilated cooled beam (R. Kosonen et al.). Wavelet transform of turbulent velocity fluctuations (M. Prek). The influence of air infiltration on the thermal dynamic behaviour of buildings (D. Vytlacil). Numerical simulation of transient effects of window openings (G.V. Fracastoro et al.). Integrated modelling of fire, smoke and occupants evacuation of buildings (D. Tang, P. Thompson). Effect of evaporative cooling on attic radiant barriers (E.P. Russo et al.). Quantification of uncertainty in thermal building simulation - Part 1: Stochastic building model (H. Brohus et al.). Quantification of uncertainty in thermal building simulation - Part 2: Stochastic loads (H. Brohus et al.). Interactive simulation of room air temperature and absorption/emission of radiative heat with room moisture (Y. Kondo et al.). The effect of object positions on ventilation performance (Y-J. Cho, H.B. Awbi). Intelligent comfort control system (W.C. Lo, H.Y. Lai). Program for calculation of the thermodynamic parameters of moist air (Y. Dobryansky). Indoor and outdoor airflow simulation by a zero equation turbulence model (B. Zhao et al.). Improvement of CFD application in ventilated enclosures - a test case (C. Teodosiu et al.). Large eddy simulation approach for non-isothermal airflows in partitioned rooms (P. Joubert et al.). Coupled simulation of convection, radiation and HVAC control for attaining a given PMV value (T. Kim et al.). VOC distribution in a room based on CFD simulation coupled with emission/sorption analysis (S. Murakami et al.). Numerical modeling of three-dimensional ventilation duct flow (N. Jovicic et al.). Locating the separation point of nonisothermal wall jets using computer vision (C. Ghiaus et al.). Temperature and velocity measurements on a diffuser for displacement ventilation with whole field methods (E. Linden et al.). Measurements of air change rates in indoor spaces using step-down method of video image signals (M. Ohba, K. Irie). The determination of air change rate in naturally ventilated cattle barns (H.-J. Müller et al.). Air Distribution. Influence of outlet characteristics on free axial air jets (T.G. Malmström, Y. Zou). Flow and separation characteristics of horizontal cold air jets induced by a real HVAC system (E. Rutman et al.). A numerical analysis of a generic vortex diffuser by using zonal hybrid meshes (S.C. Hu et al.). Experimental validation of jet formulae for air supply diffusers (J. Srebric et al.). Experimental and numerical studies of an enclosed turbulent jet impinging a porous layer (M. Prakash et al.). Room airflows with low Reynolds number effects (C. Topp et al.). Simulation of diffusers in scale model experiments of airflow distribution in ventilated rooms (M. Hurnik et al.). Development of a ductless air supply system using low temperature air (Y. Hashimoto et al.). Air chilled suspended ceiling in combination with supply of ventilation air (H.M. Mathisen). Numerical study of a new ventilation tower system for fresh air supply in an air-conditioned room (K. Hiwatashi et al.). The impact of the "coanda effect" on the indoor air motion generated by a window-type air-conditioner (Y.C. Shih et al.). CFD-modelling of active displacement air distribution (H. Koskela). Prediction of two-phase flow of air and water in a closed-wet cooling tower for comfort cooling of buildings (S.B. Riffat, G. Gan). Radiant cooling system using large effective temperature difference - experimental system and test results (Y. Nakano et al.). Influence of ventilation system on the performance of cooling ceilings: application to chilled beams (J. Lebrun et al.). Modelling and investigation of the interactions between the environment and open refrigerated display cabinets in retail food stores (W. Xiang, S.A. Tassou). Flow pattern in ventilated rooms with large depth and width (Y. Zou, P.V. Nielsen). Investigating dispersion of an airborne contaminant in a large space: experiments and CFD predictions (A.J. Gadgil et al.). Experimental investigation of the velocity field and air flow pattern generated by cooling ceiling beams (J. Fredriksson et al.). Application of physical modelling techniques to optimise a close temperature control room (W.B. Booth, A. Topaltziki). The influence of positioning a portable air cleaner on its effectiveness (H. Chiang et al.). Diffusion of air with controlled velocity profile (G. Gottschalk). Reinforced extraction system: evaluation of optimized operating parameters using CFD (D. Gubler, A. Moser). Effect of sash height and operator on airflow in a fume hood (A.T. Kirkpatrick, R. Reither). Thermal and dynamic study of a new concept of HVAC system using an annular air jet (F. Penot, Ph. Meyer). An isothermal air curtain for isolation of smoking areas in restaurants (J.P. Rydock et al.). Jet assisted local exhaust ventilation - the effect of jet direction (G.R. Hunt et al.). Numerical modelling of closely spaced supply diffusers in a high air change rate application (T. Abbas et al.). Detailed measurements of airflow characteristics of circular ceiling diffusers (Y.K. Chuah et al.). Analysis of air velocity and temperature distribution in furnished rooms with underfloor air diffusers (M. De Carli et al.). Individual system of air intake in rooms with tight partitions (J.Z. Piotrowski). Characteristics of the energy economy of air curtains (Q. Li). Volume II. Preface. Programme and Organizing Committee/International Scientific Committee. Co-sponsoring Organizations. Ventilation Strategies. The effect of location of a convective heat source on displacement ventilation: CFD study (H-J. Park, D. Holland). Unidirectional displacement flow - stability and range of application limits (I. Gores, K. Fitzner). Comparison of experimental and numerical test results of the airflow in a room with displacement ventilation (Z. Trzeciakiewicz et al.). Evaluation of displacement ventilation for high-ceiling areas (A. Arens et al.). Implementation of displacement ventilation system by using a wall-mounted air conditioner (H.C. Hsu et al.). Particles and displacement ventilation (E. Mundt). Advances in natural ventilation design procedures (M.S. Orme). Windows - measurements of air flow capacity (P. Heiselberg et al.). Characterization of the airflow from a bottom hung window under natural ventilation (K. Svidt et al.). Hybrid ventilation of Canadian non-domestic buildings: a procedure for assessing IAQ, comfort and energy conservation (D. Bourgeois et al.). CFD and multi-zone modelling of fog formation risk in a naturally ventilated industrial building (Y. Li et al.). Effect of window bay on the downdraught from a well-insulated window (U. Larsson, B. Moshfegh). The neutral height in a room with displacement ventilation (H.J. Xing, H.B. Awbi). A general model (semi-empirical) to predict temperature efficiency of displacement ventilation systems (A-G. Li, H-Z. Zhao). On the combined application of thermal and CFD modelling in the design of naturally ventilated industrial halls (V. Dorer, A. Schälin). Room air distribution and cooling load of hybrid air-conditioning system utilizing natural ventilation in an office (S. Kato et al.). A tale of four cities: the potential for achieving thermal comfort using natural ventilation in high rise buildings in four Asian cities (E. Potangaroa, R. Aynsley). Experimental investigation of a solar chimney natural ventilation system (S. Spencer et al.). Predicting air flow distribution in a naturally ventilated room (M.M. Eftekhari et al.). Characteristics of buoyant flow from open windows in naturally ventilated rooms (P.V. Nielsen et al.). Experimental analysis of a hybrid ventilation system (H. Yoshino, J. Liu). System Efficiency. Study of the ventilation efficiency under some typical air flow conditions in a mechanically ventilated room (S. Castanet et al.). Correlation of air change efficiency with Archimedes number in a ventilated test room (G.V. Fracastoro et al.). Stochastic prediction of ventilation system performance (F. Haghighat et al.). A strategic approach for room air conditioning design (K. Hagström et al.). DAHU: diagnosis of air handling units (C-A. Roulet et al.). An experimental and numerical study of the relationship between ventilation efficiency and air supply/exhaust system of an office room (S-I. Akabayashi et al.). Novel ventilation cooling system for reducing air conditioning use in buildings (J.R. Turnpenny et al.). A simple design tool for determining the effectiveness of thermal mass and night ventilation as passive cooling design strategy (E. Shaviv et al.). Sizing of ventilation openings in buildings with passive downdraught evaporative cooling (M.J. Cook et al.). Chilled ceilings: an ecological cooling system using closed wet cooling towers (A. Oliveira et al.). Energy impact of ventilation rates (V. Leal et al.). An experimental and numerical study of the relationship between ventilation efficiency and air supply/exhaust system of an atrium space (R. Kuwahara et al.). The effect of recirculation on ventilation effectiveness parameters (J.R. Waters, M.W. Simons). Experimental measurement of industrial ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort (A.T. Kirkpatrick, K. Strobel). Containment testing of installed laboratory fume hoods (J.P. Rydock). A numerical study on pollutant removal effectiveness of a room (B. Collignan, J. Ribéron). Integrating solar radiation, building mass, thermal insulation, and air ventilation for energy conservation in buildings (H. Abaza et al.). Simulation of temperature and air flow in a second skin facade (F. Di Maio, A.H.C. van Paassen). Applications. On controlling indoor thermal and moisture content for an occupied building (X-S. Lü, M. Viljanen). Combined moisture, air and heat transport modelling methods for integration in building simulation codes (M. Woloszyn et al.). Field survey of indoor air chemical pollution for a detached house in Niigata Prefecture, Japan (J. Sakaguchi et al.). Indoor radon problem and ventilation strategies (I. Senitkova). On the use of air-conditioning plant room to house condensing units of split-type air-conditioners in residential buildings (T.T. Chow et al.). Indoor air quality and climate control parameters in office environment - CFD calculations and measurements (S. Holmberg et al.). Work environment thermal evaluation with underfloor air supply applied to a commercial building in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (B.C.C. Leite et al.). Ventilation studies in nine air-conditioned office buildings in Singapore (S.C. Sekhar et al.). Study on ventilation performance and indoor air quality of a portable classroom: field measurement and numerical simulation (J. Zeng et al.). Transient effect on thermal comfort sensation of college age subjects (M.B. Ullah, E.L.T Siong). A comparative study of different air distribution systems in a classroom (T. Karimipanah et al.). Indoor climate in linear atrium: a comparison between simulation results and field measurements (M. Belmaaziz et al.). Partial cooling in a naturally ventilated building in the tropics (R. Aynsley). A numerical investigation of airflow in designated refuge floor (W.Z. Lu et al.). Analysis of the contaminant distribution in a turbulent clean room through CFD simulation (J. Yang et al). Optimisation of the air flow performance of ventilated painting areas (J.R. Fontaine, J.C. Sérieys). Results from a validated CFD simulation of a supply air 'ventilated' window (R.G. Southall, M. McEvoy). Effect of aperture characteristics on the mean and turbulent heat and on mass flows within enclosures (A.F. Miguel, A.M. Silva). Efficiency of ventilation systems with heat recovery as a function of the air tightness of the building envelope (A.H. Binamu, R. Lindberg). A wind tunnel experiment of wind forced natural ventilation of a detached house (Y. Suyama et al.). Computational simulation of wind environment around high-rise buildings (Y. Liu et al.). Microclimatic study of Mediterranean urban spaces: case of Marseille (K. Lehtihet et al.). Optimal environments - CFD analysis of an igloo (D. Woolf). Field measurement results of the airtightness of 64 French dwellings (A. Litvak et al.). The effect of outdoor climate on human perception of thermal comfort in Ghadames, Libya (M.A. Ealiwa et al.). An expert system for post-occupancy evaluation in houses (H. Matsumoto, M. Kataoka). Wind-induced ventilation of light well in high-rise apartment building - influence of bottom opening condition on airflow rate (H. Kotani et al.). An approach to natural ventilation conditions in urban apartment block buildings in Greece based on their architectural and constructional characteristics (N. Papamanolis). Aspects concerning multifamilial buildings heating (F. Iordache et al.). A note on the thermal comfort in displacement ventilated classrooms (M. Mattsson). Evaluation of the indoor airflow and temperature distribution in an office with UFAC (S-H. Kim et al.). Quantitative evaluation of secondary barriers: a methodology applied to door openings in laboratories (L.M. Schulz). Numerical analysis of air distribution in a constant temperature room with a tall and big space (Tan Liangcai, Hu Xin). Thermal comfort analyses in large enclosures inside historical buildings (G. Mutani et al.). Indoor air quality at four ice skating rinks in Hong Kong (S. Lam, S-C. Lee). Case study: CFD modelling of HVAC in the Greenwich Millennium Dome (Y.L. Sinai et al.). Vehicular tunnel ventilation design and application of CFD (J.S.M Li, W.K. Chow). Ventilation for kitchens in a big hotel (H.H. Wu, W.K. Chow). Modelling of air distribution in large church buildings heated by direct gas fired heating systems (S.A. Tassou et al.). Modelling of the air and temperature distribution in church buildings heated by conventional hot water radiator systems (W. Xiang et al.). Computer simulation of the indoor environments with cooling and heating systems: The Great Hall in the Inchon International Airport Terminal (J. Yoon et al.). Features of natural and artificial air movement (Q.X. Jia et al.). Stability of mechanical exhaust and supply systems (F. Engdahl). Natural ventilation characteristics of courtyard buildings in Singapore (N.H. Wong et al.). Statistical prediction model of the outdoor/indoor air pollutant transfer (V. Iordache et al.).

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