Treatise on Geomorphology, 1st Edition

 
Treatise on Geomorphology, 1st Edition,John Shroder,ISBN9780123747396
 
 
 

J Shroder   

Academic Press

9780123747396

9780080885223

6386

276 X 216

The Treatise on Geomorphology provides an authoritative 14-volume synthesis of the state of the discipline by many top-flight geomorphologists from across the world, as well as highlighting productive research directions, which educators, researchers and  students will find useful.  The Treatise on Geomorphology will be a first place to turn for background when starting any new geomorphology project.

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Key Features

  • Geomorphology has advanced greatly in the last 10 years to become a very interdisciplinary field. Undergraduate students looking for term paper topics, to graduate students starting a literature review for their thesis work, and professionals seeking a concise summary of a particular topic will find the answers they need in this broad reference work which has been designed and written to accommodate their diverse backgrounds and levels of understanding.

  • Editor-in-Chief, Prof. J. F. Shroder of the University of Nebraska at Omaha, is past president of the QG&G section of the Geological Society of America and present Trustee of the GSA Foundation, while being well respected in the geomorphology research community and having won numerous awards in the field. A host of noted international geomorphologists have contributed state-of-the-art chapters to the work.  Readers can be guaranteed that every chapter in this extensive work has been critically reviewed for consistency and accuracy by the World expert Volume Editors and by the Editor-in-Chief himself.

  • No other reference work exists in the area of Geomorphology that offers the breadth and depth of information contained in this 14-volume masterpiece. From the foundations and history of geomorphology through to geomorphological innovations and computer modelling, and the past and future states of landform science, no "stone" has been left unturned!

Description

The changing focus and approach of geomorphic research suggests that the time is opportune for a summary of the state of discipline.

The number of peer-reviewed papers published in geomorphic journals has grown steadily for more than two decades and, more importantly, the diversity of authors with respect to geographic location and disciplinary background (geography, geology, ecology, civil engineering, computer science, geographic information science, and others) has expanded dramatically. As more good minds are drawn to geomorphology, and the breadth of the peer-reviewed literature grows, an effective summary of contemporary geomorphic knowledge becomes increasingly difficult.

The fourteen volumes of this Treatise on Geomorphology will provide an important reference for users from undergraduate students looking for term paper topics, to graduate students starting a literature review for their thesis work, and professionals seeking a concise summary of a particular topic. Information on the historical development of diverse topics within geomorphology provides context for ongoing research; discussion of research strategies, equipment, and field methods, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations reflect the multiple approaches to understanding Earth’s surfaces; and summaries of outstanding research questions highlight future challenges and suggest productive new avenues for research. Our future ability to adapt to geomorphic changes in the critical zone very much hinges upon how well landform scientists comprehend the dynamics of Earth’s diverse surfaces. This Treatise on Geomorphology provides a useful synthesis of the state of the discipline, as well as highlighting productive research directions, that Educators and students/researchers will find useful.

Readership

The text of the articles will be written at a level that allows undergraduate students to understand the material, while providing active researchers with a ready reference resource for information in the field. The work will be targeted towards those working in all aspects of the geomorphological sciences, including governmental agencies, corporations involved in environmental work, geoscience researchers, forensic scientists, and university professors.

John Shroder

John (Jack) F. Shroder graduated from Union College’s Geology Program in 1961, received a Masters degree at the University of Massachusetts - Amherst in 1963, and a doctorate at the University of Utah in 1967. His first academic job was two years at the University of Malawi in Africa, before he joined the faculty at the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) in 1969, where he remained for most of the next four decades. In the late 1970s he also spent several years on an NSF grant and a Fulbright at Kabul University in Afghanistan and then in 1983-84 he had another Fulbright to Peshawar University in Pakistan. These experiences led to many years of research in the Hindu Kush and western Himalaya which continued through a host of grants and the thick and thin of the interminable war years and terrorist threats over there. Finally in the post 9/11 world, the difficulties of dealing with the increasing terrorism and avoidance of problems in the field forced a cessation of further work in those difficult countries. Also the declining US economy led to so many other problems at UNO that in summer of 2011, Dr. Shroder stopped teaching his required geology major courses and attempted to retire to his and his wife Susie’s new house in Crested Butte, Colorado. This lasted barely a month before UNO pressured him to return at a vastly reduced part-time salary to once again cover his geomorphology class for the fall semester, 2011. But in the interim, Jack had begun a new editing career for the Elsevier publishing company so that he was spending more of his time producing new volumes of work in geomorphology and hazards analysis. With 30 volumes written or edited by 2012, and 9 more deep into the planning stages, the future of such work for him in his retirement years seems certain. These books go together with the more than 150 other scientific papers he is continuing to publish. Dr. Shroder is a Fellow of the Geological Society of America and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The Board of Trustees of the Foundation of the Geological Society of America also asked Jack to join them for the next six years as well, so his deep interests in geology will be maintained. The Association of American Geographers has given Dr. Shroder distinguished career awards twice, once for their Mountain Specialty Group in 2001, and again for their Geomorphology Specialty Group in 2010.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Nebraska at Omaha, NE, USA

View additional works by John F. Shroder

Treatise on Geomorphology, 1st Edition

Editor-In-Chief

Volume Editors

Preface

Foreword

Permission Acknowledgments

Volume 1: The Foundations of Geomorphology

Introduction

1.1 Introduction to the Foundations of Geomorphology

1.1.1 Introduction to Geomorphology

1.1.2 Establishment of the Discipline

1.1.3 Cycle and Process: Early and Middle Twentieth-Century Trends

1.1.4 Climate and Humans: Late Twentieth and Early Twenty-First-Century Trends

1.1.5 Historical and Conceptual Foundations

References

The History of Geomorphology

1.2 The Scientific Roots of Geomorphology before 1830

Glossary

1.2.1 Introduction

1.2.2 The Distant Past

1.2.3 Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, 1600–1830

1.2.4 Roots in Historical Earth Science, 1600–1830

1.2.5 Roots in Classical Mechanics, 1600–1830

1.2.6 Prospects for Geomorphology after 1830

1.2.7 Conclusion

References

1.3 Major Themes in British and European Geomorphology in the Nineteenth Century

Glossary

1.3.1 Introduction

1.3.2 The Glacial Theory: A Preposterous Notion

1.3.3 Beyond the Ice Sheets: The Seeds of Climatic Geomorphology and Climate Change

1.3.4 River Valleys and the Power of Fluvial Denudation

1.3.5 The Decay of Rocks

1.3.6 Mountain-Building

1.3.7 Conclusion

References

1.4 Geomorphology and Nineteenth-Century Explorations of the American West

Glossary

1.4.1 Introduction

1.4.2 Pre-Nineteenth Century

1.4.3 Lewis and Clark

1.4.4 Fur Trappers and Traders

1.4.5 Army Topographers

1.4.6 Geographical and Geological Field Surveys

1.4.7 G.K. Gilbert

1.4.8 Concluding Comments

References

1.5 Geomorphology in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

Glossary

1.5.1 Introduction

1.5.2 William Morris Davis and a Paradigm for Geomorphology

1.5.3 Davisian Reasoning

1.5.4 Articulation of the Davisian Paradigm

1.5.5 Tectonic Considerations in Relation to Davisian Theory

1.5.6 Local Opposition to Davis

1.5.7 Davisian Doctrines Applied Overseas: Some Examples

1.5.8 German Opposition to Davisian Ideas: Walther Penck’s Alternative

1.5.9 Germany and America: Differences of Opinion

1.5.10 Lester King in Africa: Davis Rewritten

1.5.11 Periglacial Geomorphology

1.5.12 The Beginnings of Quantitative and Experimental Geomorphology

1.5.13 Stream Patterns and Drainage Development

1.5.14 Landforms Produced by Etching

1.5.15 The Movement of Sand and Soil by Wind: Bagnold’s Investigations

1.5.16 Conclusion

References

1.6 The Mid-Twentieth Century Revolution in Geomorphology

Glossary

1.6.1 Introduction

1.6.2 The Quantitative Revolution

1.6.3 The Process Revolution

1.6.4 Theoretical Reappraisals

1.6.5 The Plate-Tectonic Revolution

1.6.6 The Climate-Change Revolution

1.6.7 The Revolution in Geochronology

1.6.8 Conclusion

References

1.7 Geomorphology in the Late Twentieth Century

Glossary

1.7.1 Introduction

1.7.2 New Technologies in Geomorphology

1.7.3 Process Geomorphology

1.7.4 Landscape Development and Tectonic Geomorphology

1.7.5 Chaos, Self-Organized Criticality, and Non-linear Dynamic Systems

1.7.6 Connecting to Ecology: Biogeomorphology

1.7.7 Conclusions

References

Changing Concepts and Paradigms

1.8 Philosophy and Theory in Geomorphology

1.8.1 Introduction

1.8.2 Distinguishing between Philosophy and Theory

1.8.3 Approaching Geomorphology

1.8.4 The Two Geomorphologies Problem

1.8.5 The Geomorphic Frame of Systems Analysis

References

1.9 Spatial and Temporal Scales in Geomorphology

Abbreviations

1.9.1 Introduction

1.9.2 Changing Foci of Time and Space

1.9.3 Conceptualizing Time and Space in Geomorphology

1.9.4 Spacetime Scales: Where and How Do We Go From Here?

1.9.5 Conclusion

References

1.10 Tectonism, Climate, and Geomorphology

Glossary

1.10.1 Introduction

1.10.2 Tectonism and Tectonic Change

1.10.3 Weather, Climate, and Climate Change

1.10.4 Tectonism, Climate, and Geomorphology: Spatial Considerations

1.10.5 Tectonism, Climate, and Geomorphology: Temporal Changes since 300 Ma

1.10.6 Geomorphic Feedbacks to Climate and Tectonism

1.10.7 Conclusion

References

1.11 Process in Geomorphology

Glossary

1.11.1 Introduction

1.11.2 Conceptions of Process at the Inception of Geomorphology

1.11.3 Evolving Conceptions of Process in Geomorphology

1.11.4 Strahler and the Foundation of the Process Paradigm

1.11.5 Systems and Process

1.11.6 The Mechanics and Mathematics of Process

1.11.7 Elaboration of the Process Paradigm

1.11.8 Philosophical Perspectives on Process

1.11.9 Conclusion

References

1.12 Denudation, Planation, and Cyclicity: Myths, Models, and Reality

Glossary

1.12.1 Introduction

1.12.2 Denudation: Foundations of the Concept before 1830

1.12.3 Planation: A Prolonged Debate, 1830–1960

1.12.4 Cyclicity in Geomorphology

1.12.5 The Quest for Reality

1.12.6 Conclusion

References

1.13 Sediments and Sediment Transport

Glossary

1.13.1 Introduction

1.13.2 Key Concepts

1.13.3 The Properties of Sediment

1.13.4 Initiation of Sediment Motion

1.13.5 Sediment Transport

1.13.6 Conclusions

References

1.14 Systems and Complexity in Geomorphology

Glossary

1.14.1 The Complexity of Landscapes

1.14.2 Early Work on Systems and Complexity

1.14.3 Systems and Complexity in Geomorphology

1.14.4 Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

1.15 Geomorphology and Late Cenozoic Climate Change

Glossary

1.15.1 Introduction

1.15.2 Climatic Geomorphology

1.15.3 Late Cenozoic Climates and Climate Change

1.15.4 Marine Archives

1.15.5 Ice-Core Archives

1.15.6 Lake Archives

1.15.7 Aeolian Archives

1.15.8 Relevance of Climate Archives to Geomorphology

1.15.9 Conclusion

References

Investigative Traditions and Changing Technologies

1.16 The Field, the First, and Latest Court of Appeal: An Australian Cratonic Landscape and its Wider Relevance

1.16.1 Introduction

1.16.2 Bornhardts and Associated Features

1.16.3 Domical Bornhardts and the Origin and Age of Sheet Fractures

1.16.4 Other Aspects of Bornhardts

1.16.5 Flared Slopes and their Significance

1.16.6 Age Considerations

1.16.7 Conclusions

References

1.17 Laboratory and Experimental Geomorphology: Examples from Fluvial and Aeolian Systems

Glossary

1.17.1 Philosophical Basis

1.17.2 Origin and Evolution of Hardware Modeling of Fluvial and Aeolian Systems

1.17.3 Advantages of Hardware Models over Field Experiments

1.17.4 Challenges in Scaling Laboratory Experiments

1.17.5 The Nuts and Bolts of Hardware Simulation in Geomorphology

1.17.6 Transformative Concepts

1.17.7 The Future of Experimentation in Geomorphology

1.17.8 Concluding Remarks

References

1.18 Present Research Frontiers in Geomorphology

Glossary

1.18.1 Introduction

1.18.2 Research at the Interface of Geomorphology and Ecology

1.18.3 Integrative Thinking – Earth System Science and Landscape Evolution

1.18.4 Geospatial Data Applications

1.18.5 Dealing with Threats to Coastal Environments: Better Understanding of Coastal Processes and Geomorphology

1.18.6 Aeolian Research: New Impetus, New Technologies, and an Emerging Force

1.18.7 Dating Agencies: Advances in Methods and Data Handling

1.18.8 Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

1.19 Geomorphology for Future Societies

Glossary

1.19.1 Introduction

1.19.2 Geomorphology Past and Present

1.19.3 The Future I: Environmental Challenges to Society

1.19.4 The Future II: The Research Role of Geomorphology

1.19.5 The Future III: Applied Geomorphology

1.19.6 Conclusion

References

Volume 2: Quantitative Modeling of Geomorphology

2.1 Quantitative Modeling of Geomorphology

2.1.1 Introduction

2.1.2 Structure of this Volume

Acknowledgments

References

Fundamental Aspects

2.2 Nine Considerations for Constructing and Running Geomorphological Models

Glossary

2.2.1 Introduction

2.2.2 Model Construction

2.2.3 Running the Model

2.2.4 Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

2.3 Fundamental Principles and Techniques of Landscape Evolution Modeling

Glossary

2.3.1 Fundamental Processes and Equations

2.3.2 Solution Methods

2.3.3 Conclusions

References

2.4 A Community Approach to Modeling Earth- and Seascapes

Glossary

2.4.1 Background

2.4.2 Concept of a Community Modeling System

2.4.3 Open-Source and Readily Available Code

2.4.4 Community Modeling and the CSDMS Approach

2.4.5 Challenges

2.4.6 Summary

References

Relevant Websites

2.5 Which Models Are Good (Enough), and When?

2.5.1 Introduction

2.5.2 What Does It Mean for a Model to be Wrong?

2.5.3 What Makes a Model Rigorous?

Acknowledgment

References

Innovative Methods

2.6 Statistical Methods for Geomorphic Distribution Modeling

Glossary

2.6.1 Introduction

2.6.2 Modeling Steps

2.6.3 Review of Statistical Methods

2.6.4 SWOT Analysis of Statistical Modeling in Geomorphology

2.6.5 Future Challenges

References

2.7 Genetic Algorithms, Optimization, and Evolutionary Modeling

2.7.1 Introduction

2.7.2 Genetic Algorithms

2.7.3 GAs in Geomorphology

2.7.4 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

2.8 Nonlocal Transport Theories in Geomorphology: Mathematical Modeling of Broad Scales of Motion

Glossary

2.8.1 Introduction

2.8.2 Mathematical Background

2.8.3 Superdiffusion in Tracer Dispersal

2.8.4 Nonlocal Theories of Sediment Transport on Hillslopes

2.8.5 Nonlocal Landscape Evolution Models

2.8.6 Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

2.9 Cellular Automata in Geomorphology

Glossary

2.9.1 Introduction

2.9.2 Basis of the Automata Modeling System

2.9.3 Relationship to Other Geomorphology Modeling Systems

2.9.4 Development of Cellular Automata Use in Geomorphology

2.9.5 Advantages and Disadvantages

2.9.6 Issues in Implementation

2.9.7 The Place of Cellular Automata in the Scientific Nature of Geomorphology

References

Geomorphic Modeling from Soil to Landscape

2.10 Hillslope Soil Erosion Modeling

Glossary

2.10.1 The Basis of Soil Erosion Modeling

2.10.2 Why Model Soil Erosion?

2.10.3 Classification of Soil Erosion Models

2.10.4 Empirical Models

2.10.5 Process-Based Models

2.10.6 Scales of Model Application

2.10.7 Temporal Scales

2.10.8 Spatial Scales

2.10.9 The Scaling Question

2.10.10 Hillslope-Scale Soil Erosion Models

2.10.11 An Example of a Hillslope Erosion Model – The WEPP

2.10.12 Erosion Model Implementation and Assessment

2.10.13 Sensitivity Analysis

2.10.14 Model Evaluation

2.10.15 The Future of Hillslope Soil Erosion Modeling

References

Relevant Websites

2.11 Process-Based Sediment Transport Modeling

Glossary

2.11.1 Introduction

2.11.2 The Basis of a Process Sediment Transport Modeling System

2.11.3 The Concept of Mass and Momentum Equations in Sediment Transport Modeling

2.11.4 The Spatial Dimensionality of Different Process Sediment Transport Models

2.11.5 Using an Eulerian or Lagrangian Framework to Build a Sediment Transport Model

2.11.6 Discrete Particle Modeling

2.11.7 The Prescription of Boundary Conditions for Sediment Transport Models

2.11.8 The Assessment of a Sediment Transport Model: Considering the Concepts of Validation and Verification

2.11.9 Discussion

References

2.12 Morphodynamic Modeling of Rivers and Floodplains

2.12.1 Introduction

2.12.2 High Resolution Physics-Based River Models

2.12.3 Network Models of Meander Migration

2.12.4 Cellular Models of Braided Rivers

2.12.5 Models of River Long Profile Evolution

2.12.6 Floodplain Sedimentation Models

2.12.7 Coupled Models of Channel-Floodplain Evolution and Alluvial Architecture

2.12.8 Perspective

Acknowledgments

References

2.13 Quantitative Modeling of Landscape Evolution

Glossary

2.13.1 Introduction

2.13.2 Recent Reviews of Quantitative Landscape Evolution Modeling

2.13.3 Quantitative Models of Landscape Evolution: Concepts and Definitions

2.13.4 Landscape Evolution Model Studies

2.13.5 The Future of Landscape Evolution Modeling

References

2.14 Modeling Ecogeomorphic Systems

Glossary

2.14.1 Introduction

2.14.2 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Fluvial Channel Systems

2.14.3 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Catchments

2.14.4 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Semi-Arid Systems with Patterned Vegetation

2.14.5 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Tidal Wetlands

2.14.6 Ecogeomorphological Models of Vegetated Dune Evolution

2.14.7 Conclusions

References

Volume 3: Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphology

3.1 Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphology: Introduction and Overview

Glossary

3.1.1 Introduction

3.1.2 Geospatial Technology and Fieldwork

3.1.3 Remote Sensing and Geomorphology

3.1.4 GIS and Geomorphology

3.1.5 Conclusions

References

3.2 Ground, Aerial, and Satellite Photography for Geomorphology and Geomorphic Change

Glossary

3.2.1 Introduction

3.2.2 Data Acquisition

3.2.3 Image Interpretation

3.2.4 Conclusions

References

Relevant Websites

3.3 Microwave Remote Sensing and Surface Characterization

Glossary

3.3.1 Types of Microwave Sensors

3.3.2 Microwave Remote-Sensing Principles

3.3.3 Altimeters

3.3.4 Synthetic-Aperture Radars

3.3.5 Stereo SAR

3.3.6 Interferometric SAR

3.3.7 Summary

References

3.4 Remote Sensing of Land Cover Dynamics

3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 Remote Sensing of Land Cover

3.4.3 Case Studies

3.4.4 Land-Cover Change Modeling

3.4.5 Future Research Directions

References

3.5 Near-Surface Geophysics in Geomorphology

Abbrevations

3.5.1 Introduction

3.5.2 Gravity

3.5.3 Magnetics

3.5.4 Resistivity and EM Methods

3.5.5 Ground-Penetrating Radar

3.5.6 Seismic Methods

3.5.7 Combining Geophysical Methods

3.5.8 Discussion and Conclusions

References

3.6 Digital Terrain Modeling

Glossary

3.6.1 Introduction

3.6.2 Background

3.6.3 DTM Representation

3.6.4 Data Sources

3.6.5 Preprocessing

3.6.6 DTM Error Assessment

3.6.7 Geomorphological Applications

3.6.8 Conclusions

References

3.7 Geomorphometry

Glossary

3.7.1 Introduction

3.7.2 Digital Terrain Modeling

3.7.3 Land-Surface Parameters

3.7.4 Land-Surface Objects and Landforms

3.7.5 Conclusions

References

3.8 Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphological Mapping

Glossary

3.8.1 Introduction

3.8.2 Background

3.8.3 Glacial Landscapes and Landforms

3.8.4 Volcanic Terrain and Landforms

3.8.5 Landslide Mapping

3.8.6 Fluvial Landscapes and Landforms

3.8.7 Conclusion

References

3.9 GIS-Based Soil Erosion Modeling

Symbols

Glossary

3.9.1 Introduction

3.9.2 Background

3.9.3 Foundations in Erosion Modeling

3.9.4 Simplified Models of Erosion Processes

3.9.5 GIS Implementation

3.9.6 Case Studies

3.9.7 Conclusion and Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

3.10 Remote Sensing and GIS for Natural Hazards Assessment and Disaster Risk Management

Glossary

3.10.1 Introduction

3.10.2 Background

3.10.3 Hazard Assessment

3.10.4 Elements-At-Risk and Vulnerability

3.10.5 Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment

3.10.6 Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

3.11 Geovisualization

Glossary

3.11.1 Introduction

3.11.2 Background

3.11.3 Visual Processing

3.11.4 Visual Interaction

3.11.5 Visual Outputs

3.11.6 Conclusions

References

Volume 4: Weathering and Soils Geomorphology

4.1 Overview of Weathering and Soils Geomorphology

4.1.1 Previous Major Works in Weathering and Soils Geomorphology

4.1.2 What Constitutes Weathering Geomorphology?

4.1.3 Major Themes, Current Trends, and Overview of the Text

4.1.4 Conclusion

References

4.2 Synergistic Weathering Processes

Glossary

4.2.1 Introduction

4.2.2 Getting to the Heart of Weathering and Its Synergies

4.2.3 Scale Issues and Understanding Weathering Synergies

4.2.4 Concepts to Help Understand Weathering Synergies across Scales

4.2.5 Weathering Process Synergies

References

4.3 Pedogenesis with Respect to Geomorphology

Glossary

4.3.1 Introduction

4.3.2 Pedogenic Processes

4.3.3 Pedogenesis and Landscape Evolution

4.3.4 Soil Chronosequences

4.3.5 Soils as Indicators of Landscape Stability

4.3.6 Soils and Climate Change

4.3.7 Soil-Slope Relationships

4.3.8 Hillslope/Soil Process Interaction

4.3.9 Soils and Sedimentation

4.3.10 Conclusions

References

4.4 Nanoscale: Mineral Weathering Boundary

Glossary

4.4.1 Introduction to Nanoscale Weathering

4.4.2 Nanoscale Techniques for Geomorphologists

4.4.3 Applying Nanoscale Strategies to Contemporary Issues in Geomorphic Weathering

4.4.4 Conclusion

References

4.5 Rock Coatings

Glossary

4.5.1 Introduction to Rock Coatings

4.5.2 Interpreting Rock Coatings through a Landscape Geochemistry Approach

4.5.3 Importance of Rock Coatings in Geomorphology

4.5.4 Conclusion

References

4.6 Weathering Rinds: Formation Processes and Weathering Rates

Glossary

4.6.1 Introduction

4.6.2 Previous Research on Weathering Rinds

4.6.3 Temporal Changes in Rock Properties

4.6.4 Formation Processes of Weathering Rinds

4.6.5 A Porosity Concerned Model of Weathering Rind Development

4.6.6 Conclusions

References

4.7 Tafoni and Other Rock Basins

Glossary

4.7.1 Introduction

4.7.2 Morphological Classification and Rate of Development

4.7.3 Stages of Tafone Development

4.7.4 Stages of Gnamma Progression

4.7.5 Processes of Development

4.7.6 Summary

References

4.8 Weathering Mantles and Long-Term Landform Evolution

4.8.1 Introduction

4.8.2 Weathering Mantles and How They Form

4.8.3 Deep Weathering Through Geological Time

4.8.4 Etching and Stripping

4.8.5 Geomorphological Signatures of Etchsurfaces

4.8.6 Conclusions

References

4.9 Catenas and Soils

Glossary

4.9.1 Introduction

4.9.2 The Catena Concept

4.9.3 Elements and Characteristics of Catenas

4.9.4 Soil Variation on Catenas – Why?

4.9.5 Soil Drainage Classes along Catenas

4.9.6 The Edge Effect

4.9.7 Summary

References

4.10 Weathering and Hillslope Development

4.10.1 Introduction

4.10.2 Fundamentals

4.10.3 Weathering and Rock Slope Evolution

4.10.4 Deep Weathering and Landslides

4.10.5 Weathering and Slope Landforms

4.10.6 Conclusions

References

4.11 Weathering in the Tropics, and Related Extratropical Processes

Glossary

4.11.1 Overview

4.11.2 Weathering Processes and Their Relation to Tropical Conditions

4.11.3 Weathering-Related Landforms of the Tropics

4.11.4 Conclusion

References

4.12 Weathering in Arid Regions

Glossary

4.12.1 Introduction

4.12.2 Climate and Weathering – Presumed Connections and Observed Disparities

4.12.3 Nature and Complexity of Weathering Processes

4.12.4 The Desert Weathering System

4.12.5 Inheritance and the Concept of Palimpsest

4.12.6 Conclusion

References

4.13 Coastal Weathering

4.13.1 Introduction

4.13.2 Marine Salt in the Coastal Environment

4.13.3 Weathering Processes Facilitated by the Coastal Environment

4.13.4 Coastal Landforms Associated with Weathering

4.13.5 Conclusion

References

4.14 Chemical Weathering in Cold Climates

Glossary

4.14.1 Introduction

4.14.2 Chemical Weathering Processes

4.14.3 Bedrock Weathering

4.14.4 Rock Coatings

4.14.5 Soil Development in Cold Climates

4.14.6 Chemical Weathering in Glacial and Proglacial Environments

4.14.7 Chemical Denudation in Arctic and Alpine Environments

4.14.8 Conclusions

References

4.15 Mechanical Weathering in Cold Regions

Glossary

4.15.1 Introduction

4.15.2 Weathering Processes in Cold Regions

4.15.3 Landforms

4.15.4 Where are We at and Where are We Going?

References

4.16 Soil Chronosequences

Glossary

4.16.1 Introduction

4.16.2 Soil Characteristics Supporting Chronosequence Development

4.16.3 Issues Complicating the Development and Use of Chronosequences

4.16.4 Chronosequence Applications

4.16.5 Summary and Conclusion

References

4.17 Weathering and Sediment Genesis

Glossary

4.17.1 Weathering, Sediments, and the Rock Cycle

4.17.2 Processes: Disintegration and Chemical Alteration

4.17.3 Factors of Weathering Relevant to Sediment Production

4.17.4 Sediment Maturity and Weathering in Transport

4.17.5 Types of Sediment

4.17.6 The Role of Weathering in Cementing Sediment

4.17.7 Summary

References

Volume 5: Tectonic Geomorphology

5.1 Dedication to Dr. Kurt Lang Frankel

References

5.2 Tectonic Geomorphology: A Perspective

Glossary

5.2.1 Introduction

5.2.2 Development of Tectonic Geomorphology and Advances Related to the Discipline

5.2.3 Recent Research Foci (Subdisciplines)

5.2.4 Future Advances

Acknowledgments

References

5.3 Continental–Continental Collision Zone

Glossary

5.3.1 Introduction

5.3.2 Southern Alps of New Zealand

5.3.3 Africa–Europe Collision

5.3.4 Arabia–Eurasia Collision

5.3.5 India–Asia Collision

5.3.6 Ancient Orogens

5.3.7 Conclusion

References

5.4 Transform Plate Margins and Strike–slip Fault Systems

Glossary

5.4.1 Introduction

5.4.2 General Tectonic Setting

5.4.3 Advances in Studying Continental Transform Systems

5.4.4 Major Continental Transform Plate Boundaries and Strike–slip Fault Systems

5.4.5 Important Questions and Future Directions

5.4.6 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

5.5 Tectonic Geomorphology of Passive Margins and Continental Hinterlands

5.5.1 Introduction

5.5.2 Igneous and Tectonic Processes Associated with Rifting

5.5.3 Prerifting Continental Topography and Elevation

5.5.4 Postrifting Evolution of Marginal Escarpments

5.5.5 Evolution of Continental Hinterlands

5.5.6 Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Relevant Website

5.6 Plateau Uplift, Regional Warping, and Subsidence

Glossary

5.6.1 An Introduction to Surface and Deep Features of High Plateaus

5.6.2 Evidence for Plateau Uplift, Regional Warping, and Subsidence

5.6.3 Tectonic Mechanisms and Associated Surface Uplift Rates for Plateau Uplift, Regional Warping, and Subsidence

5.6.4 Plateau Uplift and Global Climate Change

5.6.5 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

5.7 Tectonic Geomorphology of Active Folding and Development of Transverse Drainages

Glossary

5.7.1 Introduction

5.7.2 Lateral Propagation of Reverse Faults and Related Folds

5.7.3 Geomorphic Evidence of Lateral Fold Propagation

5.7.4 Geomorphic Methods to Analyze Laterally Propagating Folds

5.7.5 Santa Ynez Mountains

5.7.6 Complex Lateral Propagation

5.7.7 Development of Transverse Drainage

5.7.8 Directivity of Earthquake Energy and Lateral Fold Propagation: A Hypothesis of Tectonic Extrusion

5.7.9 Conclusions

References

5.8 Volcanic Landforms and Hazards

Glossary

5.8.1 Introduction

5.8.2 Tectonic Settings

5.8.3 Variety of Volcanic Landforms

5.8.4 Evolving Volcanic Landforms

5.8.5 Ancient Volcanic Settings

5.8.6 Volcanic Hazards

5.8.7 Future Challenges in the Study of Volcanic Landforms and Hazards

Acknowledgments

References

5.9 Hot Spots and Large Igneous Provinces

Glossary

5.9.1 Introduction

5.9.2 Hot Spot Volcanic Chains

5.9.3 Hot Spot Volcanoes

5.9.4 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

5.10 Tectonic Geomorphology of Normal Fault Scarps

Symbols and abbreviations

Glossary

5.10.1 Introduction

5.10.2 Basin and Range Province

5.10.3 Slope Retreat Versus Recline

5.10.4 Modeling the Decay of Transport-Limited Scarps

5.10.5 Limitation of the Geometric Model for Normal Fault Scarp Decay

5.10.6 Summary

References

5.11 Landslides Generated by Earthquakes: Immediate and Long-Term Effects

Glossary

5.11.1 Introduction

5.11.2 Overview of Landslide Occurrence in Earthquakes

5.11.3 Geomorphic and Postearthquake Effects of Earthquake-Induced Landslides

5.11.4 Conclusions

References

5.12 Paleoseismology

Glossary

5.12.1 Introduction

5.12.2 Earthquake Recurrence Models

5.12.3 Recent Methodological Developments in Paleoseismology

5.12.4 On-Fault Paleoseismology

5.12.5 Off-Fault Paleoseismology

5.12.6 Contribution to Seismic Hazards

5.12.7 Challenges

Acknowledgments

References

5.13 Glacially Influenced Tectonic Geomorphology: The Impact of the Glacial Buzzsaw on Topography and Orogenic Systems

5.13.1 Introduction

5.13.2 Basics of Glacial Erosion

5.13.3 Glacial Erosion and Topography

5.13.4 Influence of Glaciers on Tectonics

5.13.5 Discussions and Conclusions

References

5.14 Tectonic Aneurysms and Mountain Building

Nomenclature

5.14.1 Introduction

5.14.2 Tectonic Aneurysm: Conceptual Model

5.14.3 Physics and Boundary Conditions of the Tectonic Aneurysm

5.14.4 Geodynamics of the Tectonic Aneurysm

5.14.5 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

5.15 The Influence of Middle and Lower Crustal Flow on the Landscape Evolution of Orogenic Plateaus: Insights from the Himalaya and Tibet

Abbreviations

Glossary

5.15.1 Introduction

5.15.2 Development and Geophysical Characteristics of the Tibetan Plateau

5.15.3 Gravitational Potential Energy Gradients and the Dynamics of Middle Crustal Flow

5.15.4 Geomorphology and Tectonics of the Tibetan Plateau

5.15.5 A Self-Consistent Model of the Cenozoic Topographic Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, Assuming Lower and Middle Crustal Flow

5.15.6 Feedbacks among Middle-Lower Crustal Flow, Landscape Evolution, and Climate

5.15.7 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

5.16 Polygenetic Landscapes

Abbreviations

Glossary

5.16.1 Introduction

5.16.2 Early Conceptual Models for Landscape Evolution

5.16.3 System and Equilibrium Models

5.16.4 Models for Feedback between Climate and Tectonics

5.16.5 Relief Production

5.16.6 Landscape Evolution and Scale

5.16.7 Mathematical and Computational Modeling

5.16.8 Conclusion

References

Volume 6: Karst Geomorphology

Introduction

6.1 New Developments of Karst Geomorphology Concepts

Glossary

6.1.1 Introduction

6.1.2 Processes of Carbonate Karst

6.1.3 Rates, Dates, and Evolution of Carbonate Karst

6.1.4 Surface Processes and Landforms in Carbonate Karst

6.1.5 Subsurface Processes and Landforms

6.1.6 Karst Variation over a Range of Environmental Settings

6.1.7 Noncarbonate Karst

6.1.8 Conclusion

References

Relevant Websites

6.2 Karst Landforms: Scope and Processes in the Early Twenty-First Century

Glossary

6.2.1 Introduction

6.2.2 Historical Background

6.2.3 The Geologic Substrate and Chemical Weathering Mechanisms

6.2.4 Types of Karst

6.2.5 Telogenetic Karst and Ancillary Processes

6.2.6 Coastal Karst/Eogenetic Karst

6.2.7 Hypogenetic Karst

6.2.8 Conclusions

References

Processes and Features of Carbonate Karst

6.3 Sources of Water Aggressiveness – The Driving Force of Karstification

Glossary

6.3.1 Introduction

6.3.2 Water Aggressiveness and Bedrock Contact

6.3.3 Sources of Aggressiveness

References

6.4 Karst Geomorphology: Sulfur Karst Processes

Glossary

6.4.1 Introduction

6.4.2 Redox Cycling of Sulfur

6.4.3 Epigenic Processes

6.4.4 Hypogenic/Artesian Processes

6.4.5 Summary

References

6.5 Biospeleogenesis

Glossary

6.5.1 Introduction

6.5.2 The Nature and Importance of Microorganisms

6.5.3 Redox Chemistry and Central Metabolism

6.5.4 Biospeleogenesis: Metabolism and the CO2 Factor

6.5.5 Established Biospeleogenesis: Sulfidic Systems

6.5.6 Postulated Respiratory Biospeleogenesis: Iron Systems

6.5.7 Morphological Implications of Postulated Iron Biospeleogenesis

6.5.8 Potential Metabolic Biospeleogenesis: Silicate Systems

6.5.9 Morphological Implications of Postulated Quartzite Biospeleogenesis

6.5.10 Conclusions

References

6.6 Karstification by Geothermal Waters

Glossary

6.6.1 Introduction

6.6.2 Zonation and Settings of Hydrothermal Karst in the Earth’s Crust

6.6.3 Diagnostics of Thermal Water Caves

6.6.4 Macromorphology of Hydrothermal Caves

6.6.5 Mesomorphology of Hydrothermal Caves

6.6.6 Micromorphology of Hydrothermal Caves

6.6.7 Conclusions

References

Rates, Dates, and Ancient Carbonate Karst

6.7 Denudation and Erosion Rates in Karst

6.7.1 Introduction

6.7.2 Solutional Erosion Rates in Carbonate Karst – Theoretical Considerations

6.7.3 Solutional Erosion Rates in Carbonate Karst – Field Measurements

6.7.4 Temporal Variations in Carbonate Solutional Erosion Rates

6.7.5 Spatial Variations in Carbonate Solutional Erosion Rates

6.7.6 Surface Lowering in Karst – Denudation Sensu Stricto

6.7.7 Conclusions

References

6.8 Reconstructing Landscape Evolution by Dating Speleogenetic Processes

Glossary

6.8.1 Introduction

6.8.2 Geochronologic Applications

6.8.3 Stable and Radiogenic Isotope Applications

6.8.4 Example Studies of Landscape Evolution from Chronology of Cave Sediments/Speleothems

References

6.9 Preservation and Burial of Ancient Karst

Glossary

6.9.1 Introduction

6.9.2 The End of Karstification

6.9.3 Examples of Extreme Preservation

6.9.4 Conditions and Mechanisms for Survival

6.9.5 Filling and Burial

6.9.6 Exhumation

6.9.7 Difficulties with Recognizing Exhumation

6.9.8 Implications of Preservation, Burial, and Exhumation

References

Surface Processes and Landforms in Carbonate Rocks

6.10 Classification of Closed Depressions in Carbonate Karst

Glossary

6.10.1 Introduction

6.10.2 Doline

6.10.3 Uvala

6.10.4 Polje

References

6.11 Poljes, Ponors and Their Catchments

6.11.1 Definition and Classification of Polje

6.11.2 Description of Some Poljes

6.11.3 Hydrology and Hydrogeology of Polje

6.11.4 Definition of a Ponor and Its Swallow Capacity

6.11.5 Catchment Area

6.11.6 Anthropogenic Influences on Polje

References

6.12 Microsculpturing of Solutional Rocky Landforms

Glossary

6.12.1 Introduction

6.12.2 Major Karren Forms

6.12.3 Karren Assemblages

6.12.4 Classification

6.12.5 The Future

References

Relevant Websites

6.13 Stone Forests and Their Rock Relief

Glossary

6.13.1 Introduction

6.13.2 Lunan Stone Forests – Shilin

6.13.3 Stone Forest with Flat Tops

6.13.4 Stone Forests That Developed on Vertical Beds

6.13.5 Subsoil Stone Forests

6.13.6 Conclusion

References

6.14 Surface Roughness of Karst Landscapes

Glossary

6.14.1 Introduction

6.14.2 Surface Roughness in Geomorphology

6.14.3 Surface Roughness in Karst

6.14.4 Roughness of Tropical Karst

6.14.5 Conclusion

References

Subsurface Processes and Landforms in Carbonate Rocks

6.15 Epikarst Processes

Glossary

6.15.1 Epikarst: Definition and Main Characteristics

6.15.2 Behavior of Epikarst

6.15.3 Role of the Epikarst in the Development and Functioning of Karst Aquifers

6.15.4 Conclusion

References

6.16 Rock Features and Morphogenesis in Epigenic Caves

6.16.1 Rock Features and Rock Relief

6.16.2 Rock Features in Scientific Literature

6.16.3 Morphogenesis of Cave-Rock Features

6.16.4 Most Characteristic Cave-Rock Features

6.16.5 Conclusion

References

6.17 The Vertical Dimension of Karst: Controls of Vertical Cave Pattern

Glossary

6.17.1 Introduction

6.17.2 Influence of Karst Hydrology on the Distribution of Caves

6.17.3 Concepts and Modeling of Cave Origin

6.17.4 Cave Levels: Records of Base-Level Position and Geomorphic Evolution

6.17.5 Controls on Vertical Cave Patterns

6.17.6 Conclusions

References

6.18 Large Epigenic Caves in High-Relief Areas

Glossary

6.18.1 Introduction

6.18.2 General Characteristics of Caves in High-Relief Areas

6.18.3 Why Is It Important to Study Caves in High-Relief Areas?

6.18.4 The Relative Chronology

6.18.5 Examples of Caves

6.18.6 Conclusions

References

6.19 Hypogene Speleogenesis

Glossary

6.19.1 Introduction

6.19.2 Basic Concept and Definitions

6.19.3 Hypogene Speleogenesis in the Framework of Hierarchical Flow Systems

6.19.4 Evolution of Hydrogeologic Settings

6.19.5 Dissolution Processes in Hypogene Speleogenesis

6.19.6 Distribution of Hypogene Speleogenesis

6.19.7 Hydrogeologic Control of Hypogene Speleogenesis

6.19.8 Solution Porosity Patterns Produced by Hypogene Speleogenesis

6.19.9 Mesomorphology Features of Hypogene Caves

6.19.10 Hypogene Speleogenesis and Paleokarst

6.19.11 Summary

References

6.20 Sulfuric Acid Caves: Morphology and Evolution

Glossary

6.20.1 Introduction

6.20.2 Chemical and Hydrologic Processes in Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis

6.20.3 Examples of Sulfuric Acid Caves

6.20.4 Morphology of Sulfuric Acid Caves

6.20.5 Evolution of Sulfuric Acid Caves

6.20.6 Evidence for Sulfuric Acid Processes in Paleokarst

6.20.7 Conclusions

References

6.21 Glacial Processes in Caves

Glossary

6.21.1 Introduction

6.21.2 Perennial Cave Ice Accumulation in Temperate Karst Areas

6.21.3 Seasonal Frost

6.21.4 Cryogenic Cave Calcite

6.21.5 Records of Paleoglacial Processes in Caves

6.21.6 Discussion

References

6.22 Morphology of Speleothems in Primary (Lava-) and Secondary Caves

Glossary

Prelude Lava Speleothems

Prelude Carbonate Speleothems

6.22.1 Introduction: Speleothems

6.22.2 History of Speleothem Research

6.22.3 Formation of Caves

6.22.4 Speleothems

6.22.5 Conclusions

Acknowledgment

References

Relevant Websites

6.23 Micromorphology of Cave Sediments

Glossary

6.23.1 Introduction

6.23.2 The Micromorphological Method

6.23.3 Processes Identified by Micromorphological Analysis

6.23.4 Micromorphology of Cave Sediments and Environmental Change

References

6.24 Cave Sediments as Geologic Tiltmeters

Glossary

6.24.1 Introduction

6.24.2 Cave Sediments as Geologic Tiltmeters

6.24.3 Review of Existing Literature

6.24.4 Potential Future Applications

References

6.25 Atmospheric Processes in Caves

Glossary

6.25.1 Introduction

6.25.2 Relative Humidity, Evaporation, and Condensation

6.25.3 Gas Composition of Cave Air

6.25.4 Condensation Corrosion

6.25.5 Particulates

6.25.6 Anthropogenic Impacts

6.25.7 Conclusions

References

Karst Variation Over a Range of Environmental Settings

6.26 Variations of Karst Geomorphology over Geoclimatic Gradients

Glossary

6.26.1 Introduction: The Methodologies

6.26.2 Climatic Gradients on KFC in Mainland China

6.26.3 The Geological Modification

6.26.4 Plate Margins and Rifts

6.26.5 Global Perspectives

References

6.27 Tower Karst and Cone Karst

Glossary

6.27.1 Introduction

6.27.2 Basic Types of Tower Karst and Cone Karst

6.27.3 Tower Karst and Cone Karst around the World

6.27.4 Controls on the Development of Fengcong-Fenglin Karst

6.27.5 Processes in Fengcong-Fenglin Karst Development

6.27.6 Stability and Age of Fengcong-Fenglin Karst

6.27.7 Genetic Relationship of Fenglin Karst and Fengcong Karst

References

6.28 Seawater and Biokarst Effects on Coastal Limestones

Glossary

6.28.1 Introduction

6.28.2 Historical Perspective

6.28.3 Coastal Karst

6.28.4 Seawater Effects

6.28.5 Biokarst Effects

6.28.6 Resulting Morphologies

6.28.7 Conclusions

References

6.29 Flank Margin Caves in Carbonate Islands and the Effects of Sea Level

Glossary

6.29.1 Introduction

6.29.2 The Bahamas and Flank Margin Caves

6.29.3 Syngenetic and Syndepositional Caves

6.29.4 Tectonics and Increasing Carbonate Island Complexity

6.29.5 Eogenetic Lithological Controls of Flank Margin Caves

6.29.6 Diagenetically Mature Carbonate Coasts

6.29.7 Coastal Conundrum: Differentiating Coastal Pseudokarst Caves from Karst Caves

6.29.8 Flank Margin Caves Relative to Other Cave Types

6.29.9 The Consequences of Coastal Cave Location

6.29.10 Summary

References

6.30 Glacier Ice-Contact Speleogenesis in Marble Stripe Karst

Abbreviations

6.30.1 Introduction

6.30.2 Glaciology and Glacier Hydrology

6.30.3 Ice-contact Carbonate Dissolution Kinetics

6.30.4 Field Evidence

6.30.5 Conclusions

References

6.31 Karst in Deserts

Glossary

6.31.1 Introduction

6.31.2 Karst in Hot Deserts

6.31.3 Discussion

References

Noncarbonate Karst

6.32 Salt Karst

Glossary

6.32.1 Introduction

6.32.2 Salt Occurrence

6.32.3 Subaerial Denudation Rates

6.32.4 Features of Salt Karst in Various Settings

6.32.5 Caprock Subaerial Morphology and Associated Hydrology

6.32.6 Vadose Caves

6.32.7 Boundary Conditions

6.32.8 Intrastratal and Phreatic Salt Dissolution

6.32.9 Environmental Implications of Salt Karst

6.32.10 Secondary Chemical Deposits

6.32.11 Conclusions

References

6.33 Surface Morphology of Gypsum Karst

Glossary

6.33.1 Introduction

6.33.2 Effects of Interstratal Gypsum Karst on Surface Morphology

6.33.3 Synsedimentary Subsidence in Alluvial Systems

6.33.4 Sinkholes

6.33.5 Poljes

6.33.6 Gypsum Karren

6.33.7 Gypsum Tumuli and Polygons

6.33.8 Gypsum Escarpments and Landslides

Acknowledgment

References

6.34 Evolution of Intrastratal Karst and Caves in Gypsum

Glossary

6.34.1 Introduction

6.34.2 Geological Occurrence of Evaporites

6.34.3 Evolutionary Types of Gypsum Karst

6.34.4 Speleogenesis in Gypsum in Different Types of Karst

6.34.5 Evolution of Intrastratal Gypsum Karst

6.34.6 Other Evolutionary Types of Gypsum Karst: Open and Mantled

6.34.7 Regional Examples of Gypsum Karst Evolution: Inheritance and Zonality

6.34.8 Subsidence Hazards in Different Types of Gypsum Karst

References

6.35 Dealing with Gypsum Karst Problems: Hazards, Environmental Issues, and Planning

Glossary

6.35.1 Introduction

6.35.2 Dealing with Dissolution and Subsidence Hazards

6.35.3 Water and Drainage

6.35.4 Surveying, Sinkhole Susceptibility, GIS, and Planning

6.35.5 Construction and Ground Investigation

6.35.6 Conclusions

References

Relevant Websites

6.36 Solutional Weathering and Karstic Landscapes on Quartz Sandstones and Quartzite

Glossary

6.36.1 Introduction

6.36.2 The Suite of Sandstone Karst Landforms

6.36.3 Chemical Weathering of Quartz Arenites

6.36.4 Large-Scale Landscapes – Ruiniform, Stone Cities, Towers, Corridors, and Grikes

6.36.5 Caves, Shafts, and Dolines

6.36.6 Smaller Surface Forms – Rock Basins and Runnels

6.36.7 Speleothems

6.36.8 Conclusions

References

Volume 7: Mountain and Hillslope Geomorphology

7.1 Mountain and Hillslope Geomorphology: An Introduction

7.2 Regolith and Soils of Mountains and Slopes

Glossary

7.2.1 Introduction

7.2.2 Mountain Types

7.2.3 Summary

References

Relevant websites

7.3 Stress, Deformation, Conservation, and Rheology: A Survey of Key Concepts in Continuum Mechanics

Glossary

7.3.1 Introduction

7.3.2 Continuum

7.3.3 Force

7.3.4 Stress

7.3.5 Deformation

7.3.6 Rate of Deformation

7.3.7 Conservation

7.3.8 Constitutive Relations

7.3.9 Example Application

7.3.10 Concluding Remarks

References

7.4 Influence of Physical Weathering on Hillslope Forms

7.4.1 Introduction: Modes of Physical Weathering

7.4.2 Physical Weathering and Its Effect on Geomorphic Processes

7.4.3 Sheeting Joints from Unloading (Pressure Release)

7.4.4 Effect of Slaking on Structural Landforms and Mass Movement

7.4.5 Effect of Crystal Growth Weathering (Salt Fretting and Frost Shattering) on Landforms and Mass Movement

7.4.6 Conclusion

References

7.5 Influence of Chemical Weathering on Hillslope Forms

Glossary

7.5.1 Introduction

7.5.2 A General Mass Balance Model of Hillslope Evolution Including Chemical Weathering

7.5.3 Feedbacks between Chemical Weathering and Geomorphic Processes

7.5.4 Conclusions

References

7.6 Rates of Denudation

Glossary

7.6.1 Introduction

7.6.2 A Word about Nomenclature and Units

7.6.3 Techniques Used to Determine Spatially Averaged Denudation Rates

7.6.4 Controls of Denudation Rates

7.6.5 Temporal and Spatial Scales of Denudation Rate Measurements

References

7.7 Surface-Runoff Generation and Forms of Overland Flow

Glossary

7.7.1 Introduction

7.7.2 Hillslope Hydrology, Overland Flow, and Surface Runoff

7.7.3 Processes That Generate Surface Runoff

7.7.4 Factors Affecting Surface-Runoff Generation

7.7.5 Importance of Scale and Hydrologic Connectivity

7.7.6 Conclusions

References

7.8 Flood Generation and Flood Waves

7.8.1 Introduction

7.8.2 The Concept of Hydrological Connectivity

7.8.3 Flood Generation in Drylands

7.8.4 Flood Generation in Temperate Regions

7.8.5 Flood Waves

7.8.6 Summary and Conclusion

References

7.9 Analysis of Flash-Flood Runoff Response, with Examples from Major European Events

Glossary

7.9.1 Introduction

7.9.2 Runoff Generation under Intense Rainfall

7.9.3 Examination of Runoff Characteristics from Major Flash Floods Monitored in Europe

7.9.4 Location and Data Characterization

7.9.5 Characterizing Runoff Coefficient

7.9.6 Conclusions

References

7.10 Conceptualization in Catchment Modeling

Glossary

7.10.1 Introduction

7.10.2 Models and Simulation

7.10.3 Scale and Scaling

7.10.4 Model Error and Model Testing

7.10.5 Concept-Development Simulation, What If

7.10.6 Coos Bay Case Study

7.10.7 Summary

Acknowledgments

References

7.11 Rill and Gully Development Processes

Glossary

7.11.1 Concepts and Classifications

7.11.2 Rill Development and Erosion Processes

7.11.3 General Approaches on Rill Erosion

7.11.4 Gully Development and Erosion Processes

7.11.5 Gully Erosion Approaches

7.11.6 Conclusions

References

7.12 Land Use and Sediment Yield

Glossary

7.12.1 Introduction

7.12.2 Human Impact and Land-Use Change

7.12.3 Field Evidence of Human-Induced Soil Erosion

7.12.4 Land Use and Sediment Yield at Different Spatial Scales

7.12.5 Quantification of Human-Induced Sediment Yield: Ways Forward

7.12.6 Conclusion

References

7.13 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Quantifying Creep

Glossary

7.13.1 Introduction

7.13.2 Conceptual Models for Creep

7.13.3 Quantifying Creep

7.13.4 Conclusion

Acknowledgement

References

7.14 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Slides

Glossary

7.14.1 Introduction

7.14.2 Types of Sliding

7.14.3 Initiation of Slides

7.14.4 Reactivation of Ancient Landslides

7.14.5 Concluding Remarks

References

7.15 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Flow

Glossary

7.15.1 Introduction: Flow Processes on Hillslopes

7.15.2 Size Matters: Scale Issues

7.15.3 Flow Types

7.15.4 Flows on Hillslopes

7.15.5 Initiation of Flows

7.15.6 Flow Characteristics

7.15.7 Deposition and Entrainment in Slope Flows

7.15.8 Examples of Flows on Hillslopes: Debris Flows

7.15.9 Examples of Flows on Hillslopes: Earth Flows

7.15.10 Examples of Flows on Hillslopes: Peat Flows

7.15.11 Concluding Remarks

References

7.16 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Topple

Glossary

7.16.1 Toppling

References

7.17 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Rockfall

Glossary

7.17.1 Introduction

7.17.2 Distribution of Rockfalls

7.17.3 Rockfall Inventories

7.17.4 Rockfall Triggers

7.17.5 Rockfall Movement

7.17.6 Talus Slopes

7.17.7 Modeling of Rockfall Activity

References

7.18 Long-Runout Landslides

Glossary

7.18.1 Introduction

7.18.2 Catastrophic Long-Runout Landslides

7.18.3 Causes and Triggers

7.18.4 Conclusions and Outlook

References

7.19 Mass-Movement Causes: Overloading

Glossary

7.19.1 Introduction

7.19.2 Qualitative Case Study on Overloading with Water, Road Fill, and Landslide Debris

7.19.3 Incorporation of Surcharge in Quantitative Slope Stability Analysis

7.19.4 Importance of Overloading as a Parameter Influencing Slope Stability

References

7.20 Mass-Movement Causes: Water

Glossary

7.20.1 Introduction

7.20.2 The Underground Material

7.20.3 Water and Plasticity of Soils

7.20.4 Pore-Water Pressure in the Void System

7.20.5 Water in Different Landslide Types

References

7.21 Mass-Movement Causes: Changes in Slope Angle

Glossary

7.21.1 Introduction

7.21.2 Slow Changes in Slope Angle

7.21.3 Sudden Changes in Slope Angle

7.21.4 Changing Slope Angles in Landscape Evolution Models

References

7.22 Mass-Movement Causes: Glacier Thinning

Glossary

7.22.1 Introduction

7.22.2 Landslides in Soil

7.22.3 Landslides in Rock

7.22.4 Conclusions

References

7.23 Mass-Movement Causes: Earthquakes

Glossary

7.23.1 Introduction

7.23.2 Landslide Types and Triggering Characteristics

7.23.3 Geographic Distributions of Landslides

7.23.4 Characteristics of Landslide Distributions

7.23.5 Geomorphic Effects of Earthquake-Triggered Landslides

7.23.6 Summary and Conclusion

References

7.24 Mass-Movement Style, Activity State, and Distribution

7.24.1 Mass-Movement Style

7.24.2 Activity State

7.24.3 Mass-Movement Distribution

References

7.25 Lateral Spreading

Glossary

7.25.1 Introduction

7.25.2 Morphological Description, Causes and Evolution

7.25.3 Hazard and Planning Implications

References

7.26 Mass-Movement Hazards and Risks

Glossary

7.26.1 Introduction

7.26.2 The Physical Context

7.26.3 The Human Context

7.26.4 Social and Physical Environmental Change

7.26.5 Concepts: Hazard, Risk, and Susceptibility

7.26.6 Assessing Hazard and Risk

7.26.7 Conclusion

References

7.27 Avoidance and Protection Measures

Glossary

7.27.1 Introduction

7.27.2 Risk Acceptance

7.27.3 Hazard Avoidance

7.27.4 Hazard Reduction Strategies

7.27.5 Strategies for Consequences Reduction

7.27.6 Concluding Remarks

References

7.28 Numerical Modeling of Flows and Falls

Glossary

7.28.1 Introduction

7.28.2 Basic Model Principles

7.28.3 Modeling of Flows

7.28.4 Modeling of Rockfall

7.28.5 Future Challenges in Mass Movement Modeling

Acknowledgment

References

7.29 Changing Hillslopes: Evolution and Inheritance; Inheritance and Evolution of Slopes

Glossary

7.29.1 Introduction

7.29.2 Hillslope Evolution

7.29.3 The Inheritance of Landforms Predating Plio–Pleistocene Climate Change

7.29.4 The Inheritance of Landforms during Glacial–Interglacial Fluctuations

7.29.5 Bedrock Landscapes

7.29.6 Soil-Mantled Landscapes

7.29.7 Discussion and Conclusions

Acknowledgment

References

7.30 Hillslope Processes and Climate Change

Glossary

7.30.1 Introduction

7.30.2 Climate Change

7.30.3 Landslides and Climate Coupling

7.30.4 Landslides and Climate Change

7.30.5 Landslides as Inheritance of Global and Regional Climate Change, at Different Temporal Scales

7.30.6 Landslides and Long-Term Climate Changes

7.30.7 Landslides and Short-Term Climate Variability

7.30.8 Hazard Issues in a Changing Environment

References

7.31 Hillslope Processes in Cold Environments: An Illustration of High-Latitude Mountain and Hillslope Processes and Forms

Glossary

7.31.1 Introduction

7.31.2 Weathering Processes and Regolith Formation

7.31.3 Slow Mass Wasting

7.31.4 Rapid Mass Movement: Active Layer Detachment Failures

7.31.5 Impacts of Climate Change on Hillslope Processes and Forms

7.31.6 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

7.32 Hillslope Processes in Temperate Environments

Glossary

7.32.1 Introduction

7.32.2 Overview of Hillslope Processes in Temperate Environments

7.32.3 Lithologic Controls

7.32.4 Competition between Processes on Hillslopes and in Channels

7.32.5 Upslope- and Downslope-Directed Coupling

7.32.6 To Thresholds and Beyond

7.32.7 From Hillslopes to Channels: Decreasing Sediment Discharge during the Holocene

7.32.8 Beneath Permafrost Elevations: Hillslope Processes in a Changing Climate

Acknowledgments

References

7.33 Semiarid Hillslope Processes

Glossary

7.33.1 Introduction to the Semiarid Environment

7.33.2 Semiarid Hillslope Characteristics

7.33.3 Soil-Surface Characteristics and Geomorphological Processes on Semiarid Hillslopes

7.33.4 Effects of Plants and Geomorphological Processes

7.33.5 Scale Aspects of Semiarid Hillslope Processes

References

7.34 Hillslope Processes in Arid Environments

Glossary

7.34.1 Introduction

7.34.2 Arid Hillslope Processes

7.34.3 Discussion

7.34.4 Conclusion

References

7.35 Hillslope Processes in Tropical Environments

Glossary

7.35.1 Introduction

7.35.2 The Weathering Mantle and Its Origin

7.35.3 The Role of Mass Movements in the Landscape

7.35.4 Surface-Wash Processes on Hillslopes

7.35.5 Conclusion

References

7.36 Extraterrestrial Hillslope Processes

Glossary

7.36.1 Introduction

7.36.2 The Effects of Gravity

7.36.3 The Effect of Climate

7.36.4 Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Volume 8: Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology

8.1 The Development and History of Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology

Glossary

8.1.1 Periglacial Geomorphology

8.1.2 Glacial Geomorphology

References

Glacials and Interglacials

8.2 Identifying Glacial and Interglacial Periods to Assess the Long-Term Climate History of Earth

Glossary

8.2.1 Introduction

8.2.2 Direct and Indirect Glacial Evidence

8.2.3 Climate Models and Application to Geologic Time

8.2.4 Glacials and Interglacials in Gondwana

8.2.5 Hysteresis of Glaciations in the Permo-Carboniferous

8.2.6 Possibility of Glaciations in the Cretaceous

8.2.7 Summary

References

8.3 Quaternary-Pleistocene Glacial and Periglacial Environments

Glossary

8.3.1 Introduction

8.3.2 North America

8.3.3 Europe

8.3.4 Asia

8.3.5 Australasia

8.3.6 Africa

8.3.7 Central and South America

8.3.8 Antarctica

8.3.9 Summary and Conclusions

References

Glacier Regimes and Dynamics

8.4 Classification of Ice Masses

Glossary

8.4.1 Introduction

8.4.2 Morphological Classification

8.4.3 Thermal Classification

8.4.4 Conclusions

References

Relevant Websites

8.5 Ice Properties and Glacier Dynamics

Glossary

8.5.1 Deformation of Glacier Ice

8.5.2 Force Balance

8.5.3 Modeling Glacier Flow

8.5.4 Glacier Instability

8.5.5 Concluding Remarks

References

8.6 Water in Glaciers and Ice Sheets

8.6.1 Introduction

8.6.2 Sources of Glacial Meltwater

8.6.3 Storage of Water in Glaciers

8.6.4 Methods of Studying Glacier Hydrology

8.6.5 Glacier Hydrological Systems

8.6.6 Subglacial Water Pressure

8.6.7 Discharge Fluctuations

8.6.8 Glacial Meltwater Erosion

8.6.9 Hydrological Effects on Glacier Motion

8.6.10 Conclusions

References

Glacial Erosion – Process and Form

8.7 Glacial Erosion Processes and Rates

Glossary

8.7.1 Introduction

8.7.2 Processes of Glacial Erosion

8.7.3 Plucking and Entrainment of Rock Fragments by Ice

8.7.4 Abrasion

8.7.5 Rates of Glacial Erosion

8.7.6 Conclusion

References

8.8 Erosional Features

Glossary

8.8.1 Introduction

8.8.2 Small-Scale Erosional Forms

8.8.3 Intermediate-Scale Forms

8.8.4 Large-Scale Erosional Forms

References

8.9 Erosional Landscapes

Glossary

8.9.1 Introduction

8.9.2 Landscapes of Local Glaciation

8.9.3 Landscapes of Regional and Continental Glaciation

8.9.4 Landscape Development and Interpretation

References

Glacial Transport and Deposition – Process and Form

8.10 Depositional Processes

Glossary

8.10.1 Introduction

8.10.2 Glacial Transport

8.10.3 Glacial Deposition

8.10.4 Concluding Remarks

References

8.11 Depositional Features

Glossary

Introduction

8.11.1 Transport

8.11.2 Deposition

8.11.3 Future Perspectives

References

Fluvial Systems in Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology

8.12 Fluvial Processes in Proglacial Environments

Glossary

8.12.1 Introduction

8.12.2 Fundamentals

8.12.3 Glacial Effects on Water and Sediment Supply to Rivers

8.12.4 Proglacial River Morphology

8.12.5 Extreme Events

8.12.6 Examples of Proglacial Environments

8.12.7 Summary and Concluding Remarks

References

8.13 Watershed Hydrology in Periglacial Environments

Glossary

8.13.1 Why is Periglacial Hydrology Unique?

8.13.2 Unique Vulnerabilities

References

Permafrost and Cryostratigraphy

8.14 Ground Ice and Cryostratigraphy

Glossary

8.14.1 Introduction

8.14.2 Description of Ice within Frozen Ground

8.14.3 Genetic Types of Ground Ice

8.14.4 Cryostratigraphy

8.14.5 Transition Zone

8.14.6 Massive Ice and Icy Sediments

8.14.7 Ice Wedges and Soil Wedges

8.14.8 Yedoma and Related Deposits

8.14.9 Summary and Future Research

References

8.15 Permafrost: Formation and Distribution, Thermal and Mechanical Properties

Glossary

8.15.1 Introduction

8.15.2 Thermal Properties of Permafrost

8.15.3 Mechanical Properties of Permafrost

8.15.4 The Global Distribution of Permafrost

8.15.5 Permafrost and Climate Variability

8.15.6 Conclusion Remark

References

Landforms of the Periglacial Environment

8.16 Palsas and Lithalsas

Glossary

8.16.1 Introduction

8.16.2 Segregation Ice

8.16.3 Palsas

8.16.4 Lithalsas

8.16.5 Conclusion

References

8.17 Rock Glaciers

8.17.1 Introduction

8.17.2 Definition

8.17.3 Objectives

8.17.4 Rock Glaciers as Part of the Mountain System

8.17.5 The Rock Glacier System

8.17.6 Form

8.17.7 Surface Morphology

8.17.8 Processes: Movement

8.17.9 Origin and Internal Structure

8.17.10 Fabric Analysis

8.17.11 Distribution and Climate

8.17.12 Rock Glacier Age

8.17.13 Geophysical Methods Applied to Rock Glaciers

8.17.14 Rates of Flow/Creep

8.17.15 Hydrology

8.17.16 Geospatial Techniques

8.17.17 Climate Change and Hazards

8.17.18 Martian Rock Glaciers

8.17.19 Future Research

References

8.18 Pingos

Glossary

8.18.1 Terminology

8.18.2 Regional Distribution and Characteristics of Pingos

8.18.3 Geographic Characteristics of a Forming Pingo

8.18.4 Hydrology of the Pingo

8.18.5 Future Research

References

8.19 Patterned Ground and Polygons

Glossary

8.19.1 Introduction and Scope

8.19.2 Background

8.19.3 Observation and Classification

8.19.4 Monitoring and Experimentation

8.19.5 Theory and Numerical Modeling

8.19.6 Conclusion

References

Thermokarst

8.20 Thermokarst Terrains

Glossary

8.20.1 Introduction

8.20.2 Thermokarst Landforms

8.20.3 Degradation Processes and Stages

8.20.4 Factors Affecting Permafrost Degradation

8.20.5 Conclusions

References

8.21 Thermokarst Lakes, Drainage, and Drained Basins

Glossary

8.21.1 Permafrost and Thermokarst Lakes in the Arctic and Subarctic

8.21.2 Regional and Global Importance of Thermokarst Lakes

8.21.3 Distribution of Thermokarst Lakes in the Arctic and Subarctic

8.21.4 Thermokarst Lake Formation and Morphology

8.21.5 Hydrological Dynamics of Thermokarst Lakes

8.21.6 Oriented Thermokarst Lakes

8.21.7 Drainage of Thermokarst Lakes

8.21.8 Drained Thermokarst Lake Basins and Thermokarst Lake Cycle

8.21.9 Outlook

Acknowledgments

References

8.22 Thermokarst and Civil Infrastructure

Glossary

8.22.1 Introduction

8.22.2 Active Layer

8.22.3 Transition Zone

8.22.4 Thermokarst

8.22.5 Engineering in Permafrost Regions

8.22.6 Conclusions

References

Slope and Aeolian Processes in the Periglacial Environment

8.23 Mass Movement Processes in the Periglacial Environment

Glossary

8.23.1 Introduction

8.23.2 Slope Stability and Thaw Consolidation and their Role in Periglacial Mass Wasting

8.23.3 Classification and Processes of Mass Wasting

8.23.4 Mass Wasting Deposits in a Paleoenvironmental Context

8.23.5 The Role of Periglacial Mass Wasting as an Indicator of Global Environmental Change

8.23.6 Conclusion

References

8.24 Evolution of Slopes in a Cold Climate

Glossary

8.24.1 Introduction

8.24.2 Cryoplanation Mechanism and Landforms

8.24.3 Talus Slopes, Including Stratified Slope Deposits

8.24.4 Blockfields

8.24.5 Block Streams

8.24.6 Research Perspectives

References

8.25 Aeolian Processes in Periglacial Environments

Glossary

8.25.1 Introduction

8.25.2 Background

8.25.3 Why Is There Aeolian Activity In Periglacial Environments?

8.25.4 Cold-Climate Aeolian Features

8.25.5 Summary

References

Research Frontiers

8.26 Climate Change Impacts on Cold Climates

Glossary

8.26.1 Introduction – Cold Climate Regions

8.26.2 Impact of Climate Change on the Glacial System

8.26.3 Climate Change and Sea Level in Cold Regions

8.26.4 Climate Change and Permafrost Dynamics

8.26.5 Biologic Bellwether of Climatic Changes in Cold Regions

References

8.27 Geomorphology and Retreating Glaciers

Glossary

8.27.1 Introduction

8.27.2 Moraines and the Thermal Regime Process–Form Continuum

8.27.3 Glacifluvial Landform–Sediment Assemblages

8.27.4 Landsystems in Deglaciated Terrain

8.27.5 Landsystem Superimposition and Spatio-temporal Change

References

8.28 The Glacial and Periglacial Research Frontier: Where from Here?

Glossary

8.28.1 Introduction

8.28.2 The Glacial Research Frontier – Status

8.28.3 The Periglacial Research Frontier – Status

8.28.4 Permafrost–Glacier Interactions

8.28.5 Comparing the Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology Research Frontiers – Focus and Scale

8.28.6 Where from Here?

Acknowledgments

References

Volume 9: Fluvial Geomorphology

9.1 Treatise on Fluvial Geomorphology

9.1.1 Introduction and Overview

Reference

Scales and Conceptual Models

9.2 A River Runs Through It: Conceptual Models in Fluvial Geomorphology

9.2.1 The Geomorphic Field Problem

9.2.2 Hierarchy of Analysis Frameworks

9.2.3 A Braided River of Conceptual Models in Fluvial Geomorphology

9.2.4 The Field Problem Revisited

References

Drainage Basin Processes and Analysis

9.3 Subsurface and Surface Flow Leading to Channel Initiation

Glossary

9.3.1 Micro-Scale Flow Processes

9.3.2 Hillslope-Scale Flow Processes

9.3.3 Channel Initiation

9.3.4 Summary and Perspectives

References

9.4 Network-Scale Energy Distribution

Glossary

9.4.1 Introduction

9.4.2 Energy Expenditure and OCNs

9.4.3 Global Energy Expenditure

9.4.4 Local Energy Expenditure

References

Channel Processes

9.5 Reach-Scale Flow Resistance

Glossary

9.5.1 Introduction

9.5.2 Traditional Approaches to Reach-Scale Flow Resistance

9.5.3 Physics-Based Approaches to Resistance

9.5.4 How Well Do Standard Equations Predict Total Resistance?

9.5.5 Recent Developments

9.5.6 Summary and Research Directions

References

9.6 Turbulence in River Flows

Glossary

9.6.1 Introduction

9.6.2 Defining and Measuring Turbulence

9.6.3 The Nature of Turbulence in River Flows

9.6.4 Concluding Comments

References

9.7 The Initiation of Sediment Motion and Formation of Armor Layers

9.7.1 Critical Shear Stress

9.7.2 Armor Formation

9.7.3 Conclusions and Future Directions

References

9.8 Bedload Kinematics and Fluxes

Glossary

9.8.1 Introduction

9.8.2 The General Character of Bedload

9.8.3 Grain Kinematics

9.8.4 Fluxes

9.8.5 Future Directions

References

9.9 Suspended Load

Glossary

9.9.1 Introduction

9.9.2 Suspension of Noncohesive Sediment

9.9.3 Suspension of Cohesive Sediment

9.9.4 Sampling of Suspended Sediment

9.9.5 Future Directions of Research

References

9.10 Bedforms in Sand-Bedded Rivers

Glossary

9.10.1 Introduction

9.10.2 The Classical Concept of a Continuum of Bedforms

9.10.3 Bedform Typology and Classification

9.10.4 Bedforms and Flow Resistance

9.10.5 Flow over Bedforms

9.10.6 The Origin of Bedforms

9.10.7 Growth and Diminution

9.10.8 Bedform Kinematics and Sediment Transport

9.10.9 Preservation

9.10.10 Summary and Future Research Directions

References

9.11 Wood in Fluvial Systems

Glossary

9.11.1 Introduction

9.11.2 Defining Wood

9.11.3 Wood Retention in Fluvial Systems

9.11.4 Wood Dynamics

9.11.5 Wood and Landforms

9.11.6 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

9.12 Influence of Aquatic and Semi-Aquatic Organisms on Channel Forms and Processes

9.12.1 Introduction

9.12.2 Boundary Conditions

9.12.3 Sediment Transport

9.12.4 Influence of Macroinvertebrates and Anadromous Fishes on Dissolved Load Transport

9.12.5 Aquatic Vegetation and Channel Hydraulics

9.12.6 Opportunities for Future Research

References

Exchanges/Fluxes

9.13 Geomorphic Controls on Hyporheic Exchange Across Scales: Watersheds to Particles

Glossary

9.13.1 Introduction

9.13.2 The Effect of Geomorphology on HEFs

9.13.3 Discussion

9.13.4 Conclusion

References

9.14 Reciprocal Relations between Riparian Vegetation, Fluvial Landforms, and Channel Processes

Glossary

9.14.1 Introduction

9.14.2 Approaches to Characterizing Riparian Vegetation

9.14.3 How Riparian Vegetation Affects Fluvial Geomorphic Processes

9.14.4 Conclusions

References

9.15 Landslides in the Fluvial System

9.15.1 Introduction

9.15.2 Landslides in the Fluvial System

9.15.3 Conclusions and Outlook

Acknowledgments

References

Channel Patterns

9.16 River Meandering

9.16.1 Introduction

9.16.2 Research Phases and Topics

9.16.3 Approaches and Methods

9.16.4 Empirical Evidence and Analysis

9.16.5 Theoretical and Conceptual Explanations

9.16.6 Perspective and Synthesis

9.16.7 Conclusions

References

9.17 Morphology and Dynamics of Braided Rivers

Glossary

9.17.1 Introduction

9.17.2 Occurrence and Development of Braiding

9.17.3 Braided River Morphology and Morpho-Dynamics

9.17.4 Bedload Transport and Morpho-Dynamics

9.17.5 Conclusion

References

9.18 Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches

Glossary

9.18.1 Introduction

9.18.2 Conceptual Basis for Hydraulic Geometry

9.18.3 Recent Research

9.18.4 Summary and Future Research

References

9.19 Anabranching and Anastomosing Rivers

9.19.1 Introduction

9.19.2 Why Do Rivers Anabranch?

9.19.3 Modeling and Theoretical Developments

9.19.4 Vegetation

9.19.5 Anabranching Longevity

9.19.6 Types of Anabranching River

9.19.7 Management of Anabranching Rivers

9.19.8 Conclusion

References

9.20 Step–Pool Channel Features

Abbreviation

Glossary

9.20.1 Introduction

9.20.2 Step–Pool Channel Morphology

9.20.3 The Formation of Step–Pool Units

9.20.4 The Frequency of Step–Pool Units and Their Morphology

9.20.5 Step–Pool Hydraulics and Flow Resistance

9.20.6 Sediment Transport and Channel Stability

9.20.7 Summary and Research Directions

References

9.21 Pool–Riffle

Glossary

9.21.1 Pool–Riffle Morphology

9.21.2 Pool and Riffle Definitions

9.21.3 Pool Formation and Maintenance

9.21.4 Pool and Riffle Geometry

9.21.5 Pool–Riffle Spacing and Percent Area

9.21.6 Sediment Sorting

9.21.7 Future Directions in Pool and Riffle Research

9.21.8 Conclusions

References

Fluvial Landforms

9.22 Fluvial Terraces

Glossary

9.22.1 Introduction

9.22.2 Fluvial Terrace Definition and General Description

9.22.3 Terrace Geochronology

9.22.4 Features and Processes of Rivers and Watersheds that Contain Terraces

9.22.5 Graded and Steady-State Stream Profiles and Their Relation to Rerraces

9.22.6 Strath Genesis

9.22.7 Terrace Genesis

9.22.8 Summary and Future Research Directions

References

9.23 Waters Divided: A History of Alluvial Fan Research and a View of Its Future

Glossary

9.23.1 Introduction

9.23.2 Formative Boundary Conditions for Alluvial Fan

9.23.3 Processes that Supply Sediment to Alluvial Fans

9.23.4 Processes Observed on Fans

9.23.5 Hypotheses Guiding Field and Experimental Work

9.23.6 Morphometry

9.23.7 Hydraulic Geometry

9.23.8 Sedimentology

9.23.9 Geologic Record of Fans

9.23.10 Experimental Approaches

9.23.11 Models of Fan Evolution

9.23.12 The Record of Hazards on Alluvial Fans

9.23.13 Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

Paleohydrology

9.24 Quantitative Paleoflood Hydrology

9.24.1 Introduction

9.24.2 Quantitative Paleoflood Hydrology

9.24.3 A Paleoflood Case Study: The Llobregat River

9.24.4 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives

References

9.25 Outburst Floods

9.25.1 Introduction

9.25.2 Flood Sources

9.25.3 Outburst Flood Magnitude and Behavior

9.25.4 Summary

Acknowledgment

References

Relevant Websites

9.26 Global Late Quaternary Fluvial Paleohydrology: With Special Emphasis on Paleofloods and Megafloods

Glossary

9.26.1 Introduction

9.26.2 Types of Global Fluvial Paleohydrological Studies

9.26.3 Alluvial Chronologies

9.26.4 Paleofloods

9.26.5 Megafloods

9.26.6 Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

Specific Fluvial Environments

9.27 Steep Headwater Channels

Glossary

9.27.1 Introduction: What Is a Steep Headwater Channel?

9.27.2 Morphological Types of Steep Headwater Channels

9.27.3 How Do Steep, Headwater Channels Function?

9.27.4 The Scale of Headwater Channels

9.27.5 Sediment Flux

9.27.6 Wood in Steep Headwater Channels

9.27.7 Summary: Current Research Directions

Acknowledgment

References

9.28 Bedrock Rivers

9.28.1 Introduction

9.28.2 Flow Hydraulics and Channel Morphology

9.28.3 Erosion Processes and Bedforms

9.28.4 River Profiles and Landscape Relief

9.28.5 Tectonic Interpretation of River Profiles

9.28.6 Concluding Remarks

References

9.29 Incised Channels: Disturbance, Evolution and the Roles of Excess Transport Capacity and Boundary Materials in Controlling Channel Response

9.29.1 Introduction

9.29.2 Temporal and Spatial Trends of Incision

9.29.3 Channelization

9.29.4 Channelization Programs in the Mid-Continent, USA

9.29.5 Case Studies: Incision by Channelization and Reduced Sediment Supply

9.29.6 Stream Power, Flow Energy, and Channel Adjustment

9.29.7 Simulation of the Effect of Bank Materials on Channel Incision

9.29.8 Discussion and Conclusions

References

9.30 Streams of the Montane Humid Tropics

9.30.1 Introduction

9.30.2 Hydrology and Aquatic Ecology of TMSs

9.30.3 Water Quality and Denudation

9.30.4 Channel Morphology of TMSs

9.30.5 Response to Anthropogenic Disturbances

9.30.6 Conclusions

References

9.31 Dryland Fluvial Environments: Assessing Distinctiveness and Diversity from a Global Perspective

9.31.1 Introduction

9.31.2 Growth of the Idea of a Distinct Fluvial Geomorphology of Drylands

9.31.3 Recognition of Greater Diversity in the Fluvial Geomorphology of Drylands

9.31.4 Dryland River Characteristics

9.31.5 Toward a Global Perspective on Dryland Rivers

9.31.6 Recent Trends in Dryland Fluvial Research and Future Research Directions

9.31.7 Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

9.32 Large River Floodplains

Glossary

9.32.1 Definition and Scale

9.32.2 Conditions for Creation of a Large River Floodplain

9.32.3 Distinctive Characteristics of Large Rivers and Floodplains

9.32.4 Sedimentation Processes and Forms of Large Floodplains

9.32.5 Floodplain Construction by Single-Thread Sinuous Rivers

9.32.6 Floodplain Construction by Single-Thread Braided Rivers

9.32.7 Floodplain Construction by Anabranching Rivers

9.32.8 Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Techniques of Study

9.33 Field and Laboratory Experiments in Fluvial Geomorphology

Glossary

9.33.1 Background

9.33.2 Introduction to Field Experiments

9.33.3 Introduction to Flume Experiments

References

9.34 Numerical Modeling in Fluvial Geomorphology

9.34.1 Introduction

9.34.2 Examples of Models

9.34.3 Issues and Future Prospects

9.34.4 Conclusions

References

9.35 Remote Data in Fluvial Geomorphology: Characteristics and Applications

9.35.1 Introduction

9.35.2 Types and Brief History of Remote Data

9.35.3 Recent Applications of Remote Data in Fluvial Geomorphology

9.35.4 Problems and Future Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Management and Human Effects

9.36 Geomorphic Classification of Rivers

9.36.1 Introduction

9.36.2 Purpose of Classification

9.36.3 Types of Channel Classification

9.36.4 Use and Compatibility of Channel Classifications

9.36.5 The Rise and Fall of Classifications: Why Are Some Channel Classifications More Used Than Others?

9.36.6 Future Needs and Directions

9.36.7 Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

Appendix

9.37 Impacts of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on River Systems

9.37.1 Introduction

9.37.2 Landscape Sensitivity and Scale

9.37.3 Hydrogeomorphic Changes Caused by Land Use

9.37.4 Impacts on Fluvial Systems

9.37.5 Historical Perspective: Episodic Land-Use Change and Sediment Production

9.37.6 Conclusion

References

9.38 Flow Regulation by Dams

9.38.1 Introduction

9.38.2 Hydrologic Impacts of Flow Regulation

9.38.3 Geomorphic Impacts of Flow Regulation

9.38.4 Contribution of Dam Studies to Geomorphic and Ecological Theory

9.38.5 Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

9.39 Urbanization and River Channels

9.39.1 Introduction

9.39.2 Approaches to Investigating Urbanization in River Systems

9.39.3 Nature of Urbanization

9.39.4 Effects on the Fluvial System

9.39.5 Implications, Opportunities, and Challenges for Management

9.39.6 Conclusion and Prospect

Acknowledgments

References

9.40 Impacts of Humans on River Fluxes and Morphology

Glossary

9.40.1 Introduction

9.40.2 Human-Induced Drivers of Changing Rivers

9.40.3 Human Impacts and Integrated Management Responses

References

9.41 Geomorphologist’s Guide to Participating in River Rehabilitation

Glossary

9.41.1 Introduction

9.41.2 Background

9.41.3 Context of River Rehabilitation

9.41.4 Dilemmas in Rehabilitation

9.41.5 Standard Rehabilitation Practice?

9.41.6 Final Thoughts

Acknowledgments

References

Volume 10: Coastal Geomorphology

10.1 Perspectives on Coastal Geomorphology: Introduction

10.1.1 Introduction

10.1.2 Nearshore Processes

10.1.3 Morphodynamic Systems

10.1.4 Coastal Environments

References

10.2 The Four Traditions of Coastal Geomorphology

Glossary

10.2.1 Introduction

10.2.2 Concepts from the Distant Past

10.2.3 Questions of Time and Space

10.2.4 The Earth-Science Perspective – The Landlubbers

10.2.5 The Mathematical Theorists

10.2.6 The Ocean Science Perspective – The Seafarers

10.2.7 The Coastal Engineering Tradition

10.2.8 Conclusion: Welding Noble Traditions into Modern Practice

References

Nearshore Processes

10.3 Waves

Glossary

10.3.1 Introduction

10.3.2 Linear Waves

10.3.3 Nonlinear Waves

10.3.4 Long-Period Waves

10.3.5 Summary and Conclusions

References

10.4 Sediment Transport

Glossary

10.4.1 Introduction

10.4.2 Measuring Nearshore Sediment Transport

10.4.3 Sediment Mobilization and Suspension

10.4.4 Cross-Shore Sediment Transport

10.4.5 Longshore Sediment Transport

10.4.6 Swash Zone Sediment Transport

10.4.7 Concluding Remarks

References

Morphodynamic Systems

10.5 Beach Morphodynamics

Glossary

10.5.1 Introduction

10.5.2 Beach Morphodynamics

10.5.3 Beach Morphodynamics – Status

10.5.4 Beach Morphodynamics – the Way Forward

10.5.5 Discussion and Conclusion

References

Relevant Websites

10.6 Nearshore Bars

Glossary

10.6.1 Introduction

10.6.2 Nearshore Bar Morphology

10.6.3 What Mechanism(s) Related to Waves, Currents, and Sediment Transport in the Nearshore Lead to the Formation of Nearshore Bars?

10.6.4 How Do Controls Such as Sediment Size, Nearshore Slope, and Wave Climate Determine Whether Nearshore Bars Form on a Sandy Coast?

10.6.5 What Are the Mechanisms Related to Waves, Currents, and Sediment Transport That Control Morphological Change in Nearshore Bar Systems on a Time-Scale of Hours to Weeks and Months?

10.6.6 How Do Factors Such as Sediment Size, Nearshore Slope, and Wave Climate Interact with the Short-Term Morphodynamics to Control the Number, Size, and Spacing of Bars in the Nearshore and Intertidal Zones?

10.6.7 Summary and Conclusions

References

10.7 Tidal Inlets and Lagoons along Siliciclastic Barrier Coasts

Glossary

10.7.1 Introduction

10.7.2 What is a Tidal Inlet?

10.7.3 Inlet Morphology

10.7.4 Tidal Inlet Formation

10.7.5 Tidal Inlet Relationships

10.7.6 Sand Transport Patterns

10.7.7 Tidal Inlet Effects on Adjacent Shorelines

10.7.8 Coastal Lagoons

10.7.9 Lagoon Inlet Response to Sea-Level Rise

10.7.10 Conclusions

References

10.8 Morphodynamics of Barrier Systems: A Synthesis

Glossary

10.8.1 Introduction

10.8.2 Trailing-Edge Coasts

10.8.3 Marginal Sea Coasts

10.8.4 Collision Coasts

10.8.5 Migration and Morphodynamics of Barrier Systems: Primary Factors

10.8.6 Future Research Directions and Suggestions

Acknowledgements

References

10.9 Coastal Gravel Systems

Glossary

10.9.1 Introduction

10.9.2 Difficulties in Undertaking Gravel-Beach Morphodynamic Analysis

10.9.3 Scale Differentiation of Coastal Gravel Systems

10.9.4 Short-Term Controls: Beachface Processes and Responses

10.9.5 Morpho-Sedimentary Approaches to Gravel-Beach Morphodynamic Domains

10.9.6 Tidal Modulation

10.9.7 Gravel-Beach Profile Variation

10.9.8 Extreme Events, Barrier Overtopping, and Overwashing: Bridging Short- to Long-Term Morphodynamic Processes

10.9.9 Barrier Resilience and the Morphodynamic Perspective

10.9.10 Morphodynamics and Long-Term Gravel Barrier Development

10.9.11 Morphodynamic Implications of Human Intervention on Gravel Systems

10.9.12 Conclusions

References

10.10 Beach and Dune Interaction

10.10.1 Introduction

10.10.2 Process-Scale Aeolian Transport from Beach to Dune

10.10.3 Beach–Dune Interaction at Tidal and Storm-Scales

10.10.4 Beach–Dune Interaction over the Holocene

10.10.5 Beach–Dune Interaction Models

10.10.6 Conclusions

References

Coastal Environments

10.11 Rock Coasts

10.11.1 Introduction

10.11.2 Processes

10.11.3 Rocky Coast Landforms

10.11.4 Rock Coast Modeling

10.11.5 Conclusions

References

10.12 Estuaries

10.12.1 Introduction

10.12.2 Definition and Distribution

10.12.3 Classification of Estuaries

10.12.4 Estuarine Morphodynamics: Physical Factors

10.12.5 Morphodynamics and Evolution

10.12.6 Estuarine Subenvironments

10.12.7 Future Issues

References

10.13 Coral Systems

Glossary

10.13.1 Introduction

10.13.2 Reef Systems and Geomorphic Complexity

10.13.3 The Distribution and Evolution of Coral Reefs

10.13.4 Geomorphic Development of Holocene Coral Reefs

10.13.5 Rates of Reef Growth

10.13.6 Developments in Geomorphology of Sedimentary Landforms

10.13.7 Lagoon Sedimentation and Geomorphic Development of Reefs

10.13.8 Reef Island Morphology and Evolution

10.13.9 Summary and Conclusions

References

10.14 Mangrove Systems

Glossary

10.14.1 Introduction

10.14.2 Large-Scale Controls on Mangroves

10.14.3 Regional Scale Dynamics of Mangrove Forests

10.14.4 Local-Scale Dynamics

10.14.5 Regional, Event-Based Dynamics

10.14.6 Mangroves and Global Environmental Change

10.14.7 Concluding Remarks: Geomorphology and Mangroves in the Twentieth Century

References

10.15 Developed Coasts

10.15.1 Introduction

10.15.2 The Impact of Humans through Time

10.15.3 Altering Landforms to Suit Human Needs

10.15.4 Nourishing Beaches

10.15.5 Building Dunes

10.15.6 Effects of Structures

10.15.7 Characteristics of Human-Altered Landforms

10.15.8 Distinguishing Natural from Human-Created Landforms

10.15.9 Cyclic Change versus Progressive Change

10.15.10 Maintaining or Restoring Natural Processes, Structure, and Functions

10.15.11 Dune-Management Options in Spatially Restricted Environments

10.15.12 Prognosis

References

10.16 Evolution of Coastal Landforms

Glossary

10.16.1 Introduction

10.16.2 Role of Tectonics in Coastal Evolution

10.16.3 Sea Level Influence on Coastal Evolution

10.16.4 Evolution of Coastal Environments

10.16.5 Rocky Coasts

10.16.6 Glaciated Coasts

10.16.7 Rocky Carbonate Coasts

10.16.8 Case Histories of Coastal Evolution

10.16.9 Summary

References

Volume 11: Aeolian Geomorphology

11.1 Aeolian Geomorphology: Introduction

11.1.1 Introduction

11.1.2 Historical Development and Contemporary State

11.1.3 Future Trends

Acknowledgments

References

Aeolian Processes

11.2 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Boundary-Layer Processes

Glossary

11.2.1 Introduction

11.2.2 Classic Boundary Layer Concepts

11.2.3 Velocity Profiles in Clean Air

11.2.4 Steady-State Boundary Layers with Saltation

11.2.5 Wind Unsteadiness and Turbulent Events

11.2.6 Summary and Conclusions

References

11.3 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Aeolian Sediments

11.3.1 Introduction

11.3.2 Measuring Aeolian Sediments

11.3.3 Characteristics of Aeolian Sediments

11.3.4 Concluding Comments

References

11.4. Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Dust Emissions and Transport – Near Surface

11.4.1 Introduction

11.4.2 Threshold of Entrainment for Dust

11.4.3 Dust Emissions by Saltation: Thresholds and Particle Flux

11.4.4 Controls on the Emission Process I: Particle Size, Moisture, Binding Energy (Crusting)

11.4.5 Controls on the Emission Process II: Roughness

11.4.6 Disturbance Effects on Dust Emissions

11.4.7 Electrostatic Effects and Dust Emissions

11.4.8 Conclusions

References

11.5 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Long-Range Transport of Dust

Glossary

11.5.1 Introduction

11.5.2 Dust Transport Patterns and Pathways

11.5.3 Meteorological Processes Associated with Dust Long-Range Rransport Pattern and the Seasonal Cycle

11.5.4 Properties of Transported Dust

11.5.5 Impacts of Long-Range Transported Dust

11.5.6 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

11.6 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Wind-Blown Sand

11.6.1 Introduction

11.6.2 Historical Perspectives

11.6.3 Turbulent Boundary Layers

11.6.4 Modes of Aeolian Transport

11.6.5 Initiation of Grain Motion

11.6.6 Transport Models

11.6.7 Wind-Blown Sand in Natural Environments

11.6.8 Measuring Transport

11.6.9 Research Prospects

References

11.7 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Airflow Over Dunes

Nomenclature

11.7.1 Introduction

11.7.2 Flow–Form–Sediment Transport Interactions in Dune Systems

11.7.3 Boundary Layer Flow over Complex Terrain

11.7.4 Airflow Dynamics Over and Around Dunes

11.7.5 Conclusions

References

11.8 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Aeolian Abrasion

Glossary

11.8.1 Introduction

11.8.2 Target Characteristics

11.8.3 Abrader Characteristics

11.8.4 Environmental Factors

11.8.5 Planetary Comparisons

11.8.6 Conclusions

References

Aeolian Landscapes

11.9 Loess and its Geomorphic, Stratigraphic, and Paleoclimatic Significance in the Quaternary

Glossary

11.9.1 Introduction

11.9.2 Definition of Loess

11.9.3 Spatial Distribution of Loess

11.9.4 Sedimentology of Loess

11.9.5 Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Loess

11.9.6 Genesis of Loess Deposits

11.9.7 Loess Stratigraphy

11.9.8 Loess Geochronology

11.9.9 Paleoclimatic and Paleoenvironmental Interpretation of Loess Deposits

11.9.10 Summary

Acknowledgments

References

11.10 Clay Deposits

11.10.1 Introduction

11.10.2 Clay Mineralogy and Geomorphic Processes

11.10.3 Clay Landforms and Landscapes

11.10.4 The Importance of Aeolian Clay Landscapes

11.10.5 Summary

References

11.11 Dune Morphology and Dynamics

11.11.1 Introduction

11.11.2 Classification and Key Controls

11.11.3 Dune Dynamics

11.11.4 Dune Morphology and Processes

11.11.5 Dune Interactions and Equilibrium

11.11.6 Conclusion and Research Requirements

References

11.12 Sand Seas and Dune Fields

Glossary

11.12.1 Introduction

11.12.2 Fundamental Controls on the Formation of Sand Seas

11.12.3 Distribution of Sand Seas in Relation to Climate, Topography, and Sand Transport Systems

11.12.4 Sediments of Sand Seas

11.12.5 Dune Patterns in Sand Seas

11.12.6 The Importance of the Quaternary Legacy

11.12.7 Key Issues and Research Needs

References

11.13 Aeolian Stratigraphy

11.13.1 Introduction

11.13.2 Bounding Surfaces

11.13.3 Sedimentary Models for Dunes, Interdune, and Sandsheet Strata

11.13.4 Aeolian Stratigraphic Models

11.13.5 Conclusion

References

11.14 Abraded Systems

Glossary

11.14.1 Introduction: Landscapes of Aeolian Abrasion

11.14.2 Ventifacts

11.14.3 Yardangs

11.14.4 Desert Depressions

11.14.5 Inverted Topography

11.14.6 Conclusions

References

11.15 Extraterrestrial Aeolian Landscapes

Glossary

11.15.1 Overview

11.15.2 Creation of Aeolian Depositional Landscapes

11.15.3 Emergent Structures in Depositional Aeolian Landscapes

11.15.4 Erosional Landscapes

11.15.5 Unanswered Questions

11.15.6 Conclusions

References

11.16 Modeling Aeolian Landscapes

Glossary

11.16.1 Introduction

11.16.2 Conceptual Models

11.16.3 Point Models: Dune Mobility

11.16.4 Transect Models

11.16.5 3D and Quasi-3D Models

11.16.6 Reflections and Prospective

References

Aeolian Environments

11.17 Coastal Dunes

Glossary

11.17.1 Introduction

11.17.2 Foredunes

11.17.3 Foredune Plains

11.17.4 Blowouts

11.17.5 Parabolic Dunes

11.17.6 Transgressive Dune Sheets and Dunefields

11.17.7 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

11.18 Aeolian Paleoenvironments of Desert Landscapes

Glossary

11.18.1 Introduction

11.18.2 Sandy Paleoenvironments

11.18.3 Chronologies of Paleo-Aeolian Systems

11.18.4 Future Prospects

References

11.19 Cold-Climate Aeolian Environments

Glossary

11.19.1 Introduction

11.19.2 Winds in Cold-Climate Environments

11.19.3 Sediment Supply and Availability in Cold Environments

11.19.4 Cold-Climate Aeolian Processes and Features

11.19.5 Contemporary Cold-Climate Aeolian Environments

11.19.6 Relict Cold-Climate Aeolian Systems

11.19.7 Conclusions

References

11.20 Anthropogenic Environments

Glossary

11.20.1 Introduction

11.20.2 Human-Induced Wind Erosion – A Global Perspective

11.20.3 Anthropogenic Factors that Influence Wind Erosion

11.20.4 Environmental Effects of Wind Erosion

11.20.5 Techniques for Studying Wind Erosion

11.20.6 Control of Anthropogenic Wind Erosion

11.20.7 Future Outlook and Perspectives

References

11.21 Critical Environments: Sand Dunes and Climate Change

Glossary

11.21.1 Introduction

11.21.2 The Effect of Drought on Vegetation Cover – Conceptual Modeling

11.21.3 The Singularity of Dune Sand Texture and Its Effect on the Sand Moisture and Vegetation Cover

11.21.4 Drought and Mega-Drought and Its Effect on Sand Dunes Activation

11.21.5 Biocrust and Its Effect on the Stability of Sand Dunes

11.21.6 Past Climate Events and Their Effect on the Present Status of Fixed and Mobile Sand Dunes Fields

11.21.7 Vegetated Linear Dunes and Their Implications for the Sand Seas

11.21.8 Closing Remarks

References

11.22 Linked Aeolian-Vegetation Systems

Glossary

11.22.1 Introduction

11.22.2 How Vegetation Impacts Sand Transport

11.22.3 How Aeolian Transport Impacts Soil and Vegetation

11.22.4 Feedbacks between Aeolian Transport and Vegetation

11.22.5 Managed Ecosystems

11.22.6 Summary

References

Volume 12: Ecogeomorphology

12.1 The Role of Biota in Geomorphology: Ecogeomorphology

12.1.1 Introduction to Ecogeomorphology

12.1.2 Chapter Sequence and Topics in this Volume

References

12.2 Riverine Habitat Dynamics

12.2.1 Introduction

12.2.2 Habitat Dynamics of Selected Biota in Riverine Ecosystems

12.2.3 Implications and Applications of Habitat Dynamics

12.2.4 Conclusions

References

12.3 Wood Entrance, Deposition, Transfer and Effects on Fluvial Forms and Processes: Problem Statements and Challenging Issues

Glossary

12.3.1 Introduction

12.3.2 Space–Time Framework of Wood Dynamics

12.3.3 LW Effects on Fluvial Processes, Channel Morphology, and Riparian Features

12.3.4 In-Channel Wood and River Management

References

12.4 River Processes and Implications for Fluvial Ecogeomorphology: A European Perspective

12.4.1 Introduction

12.4.2 The Long-term Perspective: Past, Present, and Future Trends in Channel Adjustments

12.4.3 Progress in Understanding and Modeling Channel Processes Related to Fluvial Ecogeomorphology

12.4.4 River Processes and Ecogeomorphology

References

12.5 Riparian Vegetation and the Fluvial Environment: A Biogeographic Perspective

Abbreviations

12.5.1 Introduction

12.5.2 Early History: Pattern and Process in Riparian Zones

12.5.3 Influence of Hydrogeomorphology on Vegetation: Evolution from Descriptive to Quantitative Studies

12.5.4 Specific Mechanisms of Hydrogeomorphic Impact

12.5.5 Influence of Vegetation on Geomorphology

12.5.6 Feedbacks between Vegetation and Hydrogeomorphology

12.5.7 Patterns in Published Literature

12.5.8 Patterns and Perceptions Revealed in the Literature

References

12.6 The Impacts of Vegetation on Roughness in Fluvial Systems

Glossary

12.6.1 Introduction

12.6.2 In-Stream Emergent Vegetation

12.6.3 In-Stream Submerged Vegetation

12.6.4 Streambank Vegetation

12.6.5 Floodplain Vegetation

12.6.6 Future Directions

References

12.7 Vegetation Ecogeomorphology, Dynamic Equilibrium, and Disturbance

Glossary

12.7.1 Introduction

12.7.2 Vegetation Patterns

12.7.3 Hillslopes

12.7.4 Riparian Vegetation, Fluvial Processes, and Landforms

12.7.5 Dynamic Equilibrium and the Erosional–Depositional Environment

12.7.6 Summary

Acknowledgments

References

12.8 The Reinforcement of Soil by Roots: Recent Advances and Directions for Future Research

Glossary

12.8.1 Introduction

12.8.2 Calculating Root Reinforcement

12.8.3 Root-Reinforcement and Geomorphologic Processes at Different Spatial Scales

12.8.4 Conclusions and Direction of Future Research

References

12.9 Dendrogeomorphology: Dating Earth-Surface Processes with Tree Rings

Glossary

12.9.1 Introduction

12.9.2 Tree Rings and Earth-Surface Processes

12.9.3 What Earth-Surface Processes Have Been Analyzed with Tree Rings?

12.9.4 Research Perspectives: Looking to Future Developments

References

12.10 Tree-Ring Records of Variation in Flow and Channel Geometry

Glossary

12.10.1 Introduction

12.10.2 Tree-Ring Methods in the Riparian Setting

12.10.3 Using Establishment Dates of Riparian Pioneer Trees to Determine Flood History and Flood-Plain Dynamics

12.10.4 Forest Area–Age Distributions in Cottonwood-Dominated Systems: An Illustration of the Use of Tree Rings to Investigate Fluvial Dynamics

References

Relevant Websites

12.11 Peatland Geomorphology

Glossary

12.11.1 Introduction

12.11.2 Definition of Peatlands

12.11.3 Geomorphology of Intact Peatlands

12.11.4 Geomorphology of Eroding Peatlands

12.11.5 Techniques in Peatland Geomorphology

12.11.6 Putting It All Together: Peatland Function and Ecosystem Services

References

12.12 Ecogeomorphology of Salt Marshes

Glossary

12.12.1 Effects of Invertebrates and Vegetation on Marsh-Sediment Transport

12.12.2 Feedbacks between Salt-Marsh Vegetation and Platform Elevation

12.12.3 Long-Term Marsh Stability and Biogeochemical Cycling

12.12.4 Modeling Intertidal Ecogeomorphology

Acknowledgments

References

12.13 Ecogeomorphology of Tidal Flats

Glossary

12.13.1 Physiography, Sedimentology, and Stratigraphy of Tidal Flats

12.13.2 Biofilms in Tidal Flat Sediments

12.13.3 Tidal Flats Vegetation and Sediment Transport Interactions

Acknowledgments

References

12.14 Valley Plugs, Land Use, and Phytogeomorphic Response

Glossary

12.14.1 Introduction

12.14.2 Valley-Plug Formation

12.14.3 Fluvial-Geomorphic Responses

12.14.4 Vegetative Responses

12.14.5 Restoration

12.14.6 Summary

References

12.15 Fire as a Geomorphic Agent

Glossary

12.15.1 Introduction

12.15.2 Soil

12.15.3 Weathering

12.15.4 Erosion

12.15.5 Hydrology

12.15.6 Prehistoric Fire

12.15.7 Geomorphic and Topographic Influences on Fire

12.15.8 Conclusion

References

12.16 The Faunal Influence: Geomorphic Form and Process

Glossary

12.16.1 Introduction

12.16.2 Categories of Geomorphic Impacts by Animals

12.16.3 Geomorphic Impacts of Domesticated and Feral Animals

12.16.4 Zoogeomorphology at Ecotones

12.16.5 Conclusion

References

12.17 Microbioerosion and Bioconstruction

Glossary

12.17.1 Introduction

12.17.2 What Are Microbes and Why Are They Important to Geomorphology?

12.17.3 What Do We Know about Microbial Contributions to Geomorphology? – a Brief Historical Review

12.17.4 State-of-the-Art of Microbial Contributions to Geomorphology – Case Study Environments

12.17.5 Current Key Questions in Microbial Geomorphology

References

12.18 The Geomorphic Impacts of Animal Burrowing and Denning

Glossary

12.18.1 Introduction

12.18.2 Haplotaxida – Earthworms

12.18.3 Isoptera and Hymenoptera

12.18.4 Salmoniformes – Salmon and Trout

12.18.5 Testudines – Gopher Tortoises and Related Species

12.18.6 Procellariiformes – Wedge-tailed and Sooty Shearwaters

12.18.7 Lagomorphs (Lagomorpha) – Rabbits and Pikas

12.18.8 Rodents (Rodentia)

12.18.9 Carnivores (Carnivora)

12.18.10 Soricomorpha – Moles

12.18.11 Conclusions

References

12.19 Effects of Ants and Termites on Soil and Geomorphological Processes

Glossary

12.19.1 Introduction

12.19.2 Geographic Distribution and Diversity

12.19.3 Effects of Ants and Termites on Soil Physical Properties

12.19.4 Effects of Ants and Termites on Soil Chemical Processes

12.19.5 Impacts of Alien Species: The Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) as an Example

12.19.6 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

12.20 Beaver Hydrology and Geomorphology

Glossary

12.20.1 Introduction

12.20.2 History and Geographic Distribution of Beaver

12.20.3 Main Hydrologic Signatures of Beaver

12.20.4 Influence of Beaver Activities on the Water Cycle

12.20.5 Beaver Geomorphology – Landforms and Sedimentation

12.20.6 Conclusions and Future Challenges

References

12.21 Interactions among Hydrogeomorphology, Vegetation, and Nutrient Biogeochemistry in Floodplain Ecosystems

Glossary

12.21.1 Floodplains and Their Essential Interactive Processes

12.21.2 The Template of Hydrogeomorphology in Floodplains

12.21.3 Controls of Vegetation in Floodplains

12.21.4 Controls of Nutrient Biogeochemistry in Floodplains

12.21.5 Case Studies

12.21.6 Conclusions

References

Volume 13: Geomorphology of Human Disturbances, Climate Change, and Natural Hazards

13.1 Geomorphology of Human Disturbances, Climate Change, and Hazards

Glossary

13.1.1 Introduction

13.1.2 Background

13.1.3 Human Impacts on Geomorphic Systems

13.1.4 Impacts of Climate and Climate Change on Geomorphic Systems

13.1.5 Geomorphic Hazards

13.1.6 Nuclear Detonations as a Geomorphic Agent

13.1.7 Restoration, Stabilization, Rehabilitation, and Management

13.1.8 Conclusion

References

13.2 Impacts of Vegetation Clearance on Channel Change: Historical Perspective

Glossary

13.2.1 Introduction

13.2.2 Historical Perspective on Observation and Research

13.2.3 Linking Vegetation Clearance to Channel Change: Recently Colonized Landscapes

13.2.4 The Mediterranean Region and Europe

13.2.5 Further Examples Linking Vegetation Clearance to Channel Change

13.2.6 Summary of Trends

References

13.3 Land-Use Impacts on the Hydrogeomorphology of Small Watersheds

Glossary

13.3.1 Introduction

13.3.2 Hydrogeomorphic Systems in Small Watersheds

13.3.3 Land-Use Impacts on Hydrogeomorphic Systems: An Overview

13.3.4 Land-Use Impacts on Upland Areas of Small Watersheds

13.3.5 Land-Use Impacts on Stream Channels in Small Watersheds

13.3.6 Conclusions

References

13.4 Impacts of Early Agriculture and Deforestation on Geomorphic Systems

Glossary

13.4.1 Introduction

13.4.2 Emergence and Geomorphic Impacts of Early Agriculture

13.4.3 Intensification of Agriculture in Eurasia

13.4.4 Introduction of European Agriculture to the New World

13.4.5 Modern Agricultural and Deforestation Impacts

13.4.6 Conclusion

References

13.5 Grazing Influences on Geomorphic Systems

Glossary

13.5.1 Introduction

13.5.2 General Geomorphic Impacts of Grazing

13.5.3 Grazing Impacts of Restricted Native Populations of Animals

13.5.4 Grazing Impacts of Feral Animals

13.5.5 Grazing Impacts of Domesticated Animals

13.5.6 Conclusions

References

13.6 Impacts of Mining on Geomorphic Systems

Glossary

13.6.1 Introduction

13.6.2 Types of Mines and Mining History

13.6.3 The Current Scenario

13.6.4 Mining and Geomorphic Hazards

13.6.5 Geomorphology and Mine Reclamation

13.6.6 Conclusion

References

Relevant Websites

13.7 Hydrogeomorphic Effects of Reservoirs, Dams, and Diversions

13.7.1 Introduction

13.7.2 Water Benefit – Environmental Impact Dilemma

13.7.3 Channel Changes Associated with Dams and Flow Regulation

13.7.4 The Future of River Regulation

References

13.8 Climatic Geomorphology

13.8.1 Introduction

13.8.2 The Dawning of Climatic Geomorphology

13.8.3 The Establishment of Climatic Geomorphology

13.8.4 The Development of Climatic Geomorphology

13.8.5 Climatic Geomorphology: Processes and Morphoclimatic Zonation

13.8.6 The Zonal Concept in Climatic Geomorphology

13.8.7 The Main Morphoclimatic Zones

References

13.9 Climate Change and Aeolian Processes

Glossary

13.9.1 Introduction

13.9.2 Conceptual Framework

13.9.3 Dust Events and Climate Variability

13.9.4 Dune Systems

13.9.5 Modeling the Response of Aeolian Systems to Climate Change

13.9.6 Aeolian System Response to Future Climates

13.9.7 Conclusions

References

13.10 Glacial Responses to Climate Change

Glossary

13.10.1 Introduction

13.10.2 Glaciers and the Cryosphere Components in the Climate System

13.10.3 The Development of Internationally Coordinated Glacier Observation

13.10.4 Documented Changes and Challenges for the Future

13.10.5 Scenarios, Impacts, and Adaptation

References

13.11 Response of Periglacial Geomorphic Processes to Global Change

Glossary

13.11.1 Introduction

13.11.2 Permafrost

13.11.3 Periglacial Processes

13.11.4 Climate Change and Permafrost

13.11.5 Geomorphic Responses to Global Change

13.11.6 Conclusions

References

13.12 Natural Hazards, Landscapes, and Civilizations

Glossary

13.12.1 Introduction

13.12.2 Slow Change or a Series of Disasters

13.12.3 Past Great Disasters

13.12.4 Recent Disasters

13.12.5 Discussion

13.12.6 Conclusions

References

13.13 Tsunami

Glossary

13.13.1 Introduction

13.13.2 Tsunamis as a Natural Process

13.13.3 Historic Records

13.13.4 Hybrid Records

13.13.5 Geological Records

13.13.6 Geomorphological Records

13.13.7 Conclusions

References

13.14 Factors Influencing Volcanic Hazards and the Morphology of Volcanic Landforms

Glossary

13.14.1 Prologue/Introduction

13.14.2 Volcanic Phenomena

13.14.3 Global Volcanic Features

13.14.4 Regional Features (>100 km)

13.14.5 Local Features (<100 km)

13.14.6 Conclusion

References

13.15 Hazardous Processes: Flooding

13.15.1 Introduction

13.15.2 Flood Causes and Their Magnitude

13.15.3 Flood Hazards in Fluvial Environments

13.15.4 Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers of Flood Hazard Variability

13.15.5 Concluding Remarks

References

13.16 Wildfire and Landscape Change

Glossary

13.16.1 Introduction

13.16.2 Physical Changes Brought About by Wildfire

13.16.3 Process Changes Brought About by Wildfire

13.16.4 Landform Changes Brought About by Wildfire

13.16.5 Applications of Geomorphology in Burned Areas

13.16.6 Summary

References

13.17 Landslide Hazards and Climate Change in High Mountains

13.17.1 Introduction

13.17.2 Background

13.17.3 Detecting Climate Change Impacts in Landslide Frequency–Magnitude Distributions

13.17.4 Temperature and Stability in Bedrock Permafrost

13.17.5 Catastrophic Rock and Ice Avalanches – Growing Evidence of Climate Change Effects?

13.17.6 Debris Flows and Other Landslides in Proglacial Environments

13.17.7 Dynamic Interactions Among Landslide, Glacial, and River Processes

13.17.8 Assessment and Modeling of Slope Stability in the Context of Climate Change

13.17.9 Conclusions

References

Volume 14: Methods in Geomorphology

14.1 Methods and Techniques for the Modern Geomorphologist: An Introduction to the Volume

References

14.2 Fundamental Classic and Modern Field Techniques in Geomorphology: An Overview

Glossary

14.2.1 Introduction

14.2.2 Classic Field Techniques in Geomorphology Revisited

14.2.3 Modern Field Techniques in Geomorphology

14.2.4 Conclusions

14.2.5 Disclaimer

References

14.3 Geomorphometry: Quantitative Land-Surface Analysis

Glossary

14.3.1 Introduction

14.3.2 Basics: Altitude and Slope Gradient

14.3.3 Geomorphometric Field Variables: Local and Regional

14.3.4 Linear Objects

14.3.5 Areal Objects

14.3.6 Scaling and Scale Specificity

14.3.7 Conclusions: The Future

References

Relevant Websites

14.4 The Modern Geomorphological Map

Glossary

14.4.1 Introduction

14.4.2 Methods and Geomorphological Maps

14.4.3 Modern Geomorphological Mapping and Geoconservation

14.4.4 Conclusions and Closing Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Relevant Websites

14.5 Google Earth™ in Geomorphology: Re-Enchanting, Revolutionizing, or Just another Resource?

Glossary

14.5.1 Introduction

14.5.2 Recent Feature Developments to Google Earth™

14.5.3 Use of Google Earth™ in Geomorphology

14.5.4 Discussion

14.5.5 Possible Future Developments in the Use of Google Earth™ in Geomorphology

14.5.6 Conclusions

References

Relevant Websites

14.6 Methods in Geomorphology: Numerical Modeling of Drainage Basin Development

Glossary

14.6.1 Background

14.6.2 Defining the Numerical Modeling Exercise

14.6.3 Geomorphic Process Equations

14.6.4 Constructing and Running the Model

14.6.5 Model Confirmation

14.6.6 Final Comments

References

14.7 Methods in Geomorphology: Investigating River Channel Form

Glossary

14.7.1 Introduction

14.7.2 History/Background

14.7.3 Methods

14.7.4 Case Studies

14.7.5 Future Work and Direction

14.7.6 Conclusions

References

Relevant Websites

14.8 Methods in Geomorphology: Mapping Glacial Features

14.8.1 Introduction

14.8.2 Types of Maps

14.8.3 Identification of Features

14.8.4 Production of a Base Map or Image

14.8.5 Field Mapping

14.8.6 Mapping in Different Glacial Settings – Case Studies

14.8.7 Map Production/Cartography

Acknowledgments

References

Techniques and Methods for the Field

14.9 Techniques and Methods for the Field: An Introduction and Commentary

14.9.1 Introduction

14.9.2 What’s on Top? – Studying the Surface

14.9.3 What Lies Beneath? – Subsurface Investigations in the Field

14.9.4 Back in the Laboratory

14.9.5 Never Ignore Safety

14.9.6 Value of Fieldwork in Educational Aspects of Geomorphology

14.9.7 Conclusions

References

14.10 Topographic Field Surveying in Geomorphology

14.10.1 Introduction

14.10.2 Basic Survey Principles

14.10.3 Common Types of Instruments

14.10.4 Summary and Conclusions

References

14.11 Coring and Augering

Glossary

14.11.1 Introduction

14.11.2 The Principles of Coring

14.11.3 Corer Types: Designs and Operation

14.11.4 Corers for Taking Long Cores

14.11.5 Core Handling and Contamination Control

14.11.6 Conclusion

References

14.12 Trenching and Exposed Faces

Glossary

14.12.1 The Purpose of Trenching and Mapping Exposed Faces

14.12.2 Creating an Exposed Face (Trenching)

14.12.3 Preparing the Exposed Face for Mapping (Logging)

14.12.4 Logging the Exposed Face

14.12.5 Applications of Trenching in Geomorphology

14.12.6 Summary

References

14.13 Working with Gravel and Boulders

Glossary

14.13.1 Introduction

14.13.2 Background

14.13.3 Methodology

14.13.4 Problems, Pitfalls, and Limitations

14.13.5 Case Studies

14.13.6 Future Work and Direction

14.13.7 Conclusions

References

14.14 The Micro and Traversing Erosion Meter

14.14.1 Introduction

14.14.2 The Microerosion Meter

14.14.3 The Traversing Microerosion Meter

14.14.4 Rates of Erosion and Swelling

14.14.5 Comparisons with other Methods

14.14.6 Conclusions

References

14.15 Soil Description Procedures for Use in Geomorphological Studies

Glossary

14.15.1 Introduction

14.15.2 A Brief History of Soil Survey and Descriptions

14.15.3 Methodology

14.15.4 Problems, Pitfalls, and Limitations

14.15.5 Case Study

14.15.6 Future Work and Directions

14.15.7 Conclusions

References

Relevant Websites

14.16 Ground Penetrating Radar

14.16.1 History of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

14.16.2 GPR Principles

14.16.3 Equipment

14.16.4 Processing

14.16.5 Survey Design

14.16.6 Radar Profiles as Cross-Sections and Ground Truth

14.16.7 Radar Facies

14.16.8 Radar Stratigraphy

14.16.9 3-D Date and 2.5D Grids

14.16.10 Problems, Pitfalls, and Limitations

14.16.11 Side Swipes and Airwaves

14.16.12 Examples: Fluvial Geomorphology

14.16.13 Sand Dunes

References

14.17 Electronic Measurement Techniques for Field Experiments in Process Geomorphology

Glossary

14.17.1 Introduction

14.17.2 Monitoring Geomorphic Systems Controlled by Hydrodynamic Processes

14.17.3 Monitoring Geomorphic Systems Controlled by Aeolian Processes

14.17.4 Interpreting the Signal

14.17.5 Conclusions

References

Techniques in the Laboratory

14.18 Laboratory Techniques for Geomorphologists: An Introduction

14.18.1 Investigating the Size and Shape of Particles

14.18.2 Chemical Techniques for Geomorphological Investigations

14.18.3 Micropaleontology: Sometimes it’s the Little Things that Count

14.18.4 Dates and Rates: Dating Geomorphic Processes

References

14.19 Measuring and Analyzing Particle Size in a Geomorphic Context

Glossary

14.19.1 Introduction

14.19.2 Sample Preparations: A General Note on Labeling and the Selection of Materials for Particle-Size Analysis

14.19.3 Grain (Particle) Size Scales: The Udden–Wentworth Scale

14.19.4 Analytical Techniques

14.19.5 Interpretation of Particle-Size Data

14.19.6 The Same but Different: A Concluding Note on Comparing Different Techniques

References

14.20 Examining Particle Shape

14.20.1 Introduction

14.20.2 Background

14.20.3 Methodology

14.20.4 Limitations

14.20.5 Conclusions

References

14.21 The Scanning Electron Microscope in Geomorphology

Glossary

14.21.1 Introduction

14.21.2 Methodology

14.21.3 Case Studies

14.21.4 Conclusions

References

14.22 Determining Organic and Carbonate Content in Sediments

14.22.1 Introduction

14.22.2 Basic Analytical Principle

14.22.3 Measurement Methodologies

14.22.4 Summary and Conclusions

References

14.23 Wet Chemical Methods (pH, Electrical Conductivity, Ion-Selective Electrodes, Colorimetric Analysis, Ion Chromatography, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, and Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry)

Glossary

14.23.1 Introduction

14.23.2 Pretreatment of Samples

14.23.3 Water for Analytical Methods

14.23.4 pH

14.23.5 Electrical Conductivity

14.23.6 Ion-Selective Electrodes

14.23.7 Colorimetric Analysis

14.23.8 Ion Chromatography

14.23.9 Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

14.23.10 Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometries

14.23.11 Summary

References

14.24 Use of Sedimentary-Metal Indicators in Assessment of Estuarine System Health

14.24.1 Introduction

14.24.2 Methodology

14.24.3 Magnitude of Human-Induced Change

14.24.4 Benthic Risk

14.24.5 Use of Sedimentary-Metal Indicators in Estuarine Health Assessment

14.24.6 Lake Macquarie – A Case Study

14.24.7 Conclusions

References

14.25 Microfossils in Tidal Settings as Indicators of Sea-Level Change, Paleoearthquakes, Tsunamis, and Tropical Cyclones

Glossary

14.25.1 Introduction

14.25.2 Microfossils and Intertidal Environments

14.25.3 Microfossil-Based Reconstructions of Sea-Level Change

14.25.4 Microfossils and Land-Level Change

14.25.5 Microfossils as Indicators of Paleotsunamis and Storms

14.25.6 Summary

Acknowledgments

References

14.26 Palynology and Its Application to Geomorphology

Glossary

14.26.1 Introduction

14.26.2 Palynological Analysis

14.26.3 Palynology and Its Applications to Geomorphology

14.26.4 Conclusion

14.26.5 Use of Exotic Markers

References

Investigating the Strength of Materials Introduction

14.27 Investigating the Strength of Materials: Introduction

References

14.28 Direct Shear Testing in Geomorphology

14.28.1 Introduction

14.28.2 The Importance of Shear Strength in Geomorphology

14.28.3 Direct Shear Testing in Geomorphology

14.28.4 Data Analysis

14.28.5 Strengths and Weaknesses of Direct Shear Tests in Geomorphology

14.28.6 The Principles of the Back-Pressured Shearbox

14.28.7 Direct Shear Testing of Fine Sand

14.28.8 Discussion

14.28.9 Conclusions

References

14.29 The Schmidt Hammer and Related Devices in Geomorphological Research

14.29.1 Introduction

14.29.2 Operation of the SH

14.29.3 The Equotip and Piccolo

14.29.4 The Uses of the SH and Equotip

14.29.5 Conclusions

References

An Introduction to Dating Techniques: A Guide for Geomorphologists

14.30 An Introduction to Dating Techniques: A Guide for Geomorphologists

Glossary

14.30.1 Introduction

14.30.2 Dating Issues

14.30.3 Dating Methods

14.30.4 Sidereal or Incremental Dating

14.30.5 Isotopic: Change in Isotopic Composition

14.30.6 Radiocarbon Dating

14.30.7 Radiogenic: Luminescence Dating

14.30.8 Time Dependent Chemical Reactions

14.30.9 Amino Acid Racemization

14.30.10 Conclusion

References

14.31 Radiocarbon Dating of Plant Macrofossils from Tidal-Marsh Sediment

14.31.1 Introduction

14.31.2 Growth, Deposition, and Decay of Tidal-Marsh Plants

14.31.3 Radiocarbon Dating of Plant Macrofossils

14.31.4 Building Chronologies by Interpreting Ages

14.31.5 Examples of Radiocarbon Dating of Plant Macrofossils in Coastal Sequences

14.31.6 Recommendations for Selection of Plant Macrofossil Samples

14.31.7 Recommendations for Sample Preparation

Acknowledgments

References

Relevant Websites

Index

Author Index

Quotes and reviews

"…the information is comprehensive, and the set successfully pulls together an overview of existing geomorphic knowledge. Given the multidisciplinary nature of the field, this resource will be useful to students in geology, geography, and environmental sciences."Summing Up: Highly recommended.--CHOICE Reviews Online, June 2014
"…the readership is expected to range from undergraduates looking for material for their term papers to professionals seeking pointers to productive future research directions…it should be an invaluable source of information on the geomorphological processes that Holocene scientists encounter and often need to know more about."--The Holocene, April 2014

 
 
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