Treatise on Geochemistry, 2nd Edition

 
Treatise on Geochemistry, 2nd Edition,Karl Turekian,Heinrich Holland,ISBN9780080959757
 
 
 

Turekian  &   Holland   

Elsevier Science

9780080959757

9780080983004

9144

This 16-volume set provides a complete overview of this growing field, and is perfect for both research and teaching.

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Key Features

  • In a many-faceted field such as Geochemistry, explaining and understanding how one sub-field relates to another is key. Instructors will find the complete overviews with extensive cross-referencing useful additions to their course packs and students will benefit from the contextual organization of the subject matter.
  • Six new volumes added and 66% updated from 1st edition. The Editors of this work have taken every measure to include the many suggestions received from readers and ensure comprehensiveness of coverage and added value in this 2nd edition.
  • The esteemed Board of Volume Editors and Editors-in-Chief worked cohesively to ensure a uniform and consistent approach to the content, which is an amazing accomplishment for a 15-volume work (16 volumes including index volume)!

Description

This extensively updated new edition of the widely acclaimed Treatise on Geochemistry has increased its coverage beyond the wide range of geochemical subject areas in the first edition, with five new volumes which include: the history of the atmosphere, geochemistry of mineral deposits, archaeology and anthropology, organic geochemistry and analytical geochemistry. In addition, the original Volume 1 on "Meteorites, Comets, and Planets" was expanded into two separate volumes dealing with meteorites and planets, respectively. These additions increased the number of volumes in the Treatise from 9 to 15 with the index/appendices volume remaining as the last volume (Volume 16). Each of the original volumes was scrutinized by the appropriate volume editors, with respect to necessary revisions as well as additions and deletions. As a result, 27% were republished without major changes, 66% were revised and 126 new chapters were added.

Readership

A must have for researchers, teachers and (graduate) students of Geochemistry, in particular, and the Geosciences in general. It is also highly recommended for professionals working in contamination clean-up, resource managers, and environmental regulators, among others.

Karl Turekian

KARL KAREKIN TUREKIAN (1927-2013) Karl Turekian was a man of remarkable scientific breadth, with innumerable important contributions to marine geochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, cosmochemistry, and global geochemical cycles. He was mentor to a long list of students, postdocs, and faculty (at Yale and elsewhere), a leader in geochemistry, a prolific author and editor, and had a profound influence in shaping his department at Yale University. In 1949 Karl joined a graduate program in the new field of geochemistry at Columbia University under Larry Kulp with students Dick Holland and his fellow Wheaton alums Wally Broecker and Paul Gast. This was a propitious time as Columbia’s Lamont Geological Observatory had only been established a few years beforehand. It was during these years that Karl began to acquire the skills that led to his rapid emergence as a leader in geochemistry. After a brief postdoc at Columbia, Karl accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Geology at Yale University in 1956, where he set out to create a program in geochemistry from scratch. Karl spent the rest of his life on the Yale faculty and was immersed in geochemistry to the end. He was deeply involved in editing this edition of the massive Treatise on Geochemistry, which has grown to 15 volumes, until only a month before his passing away on 15 March 2013. Karl turned to the study of deep-sea cores and especially the analysis of trace elements to study the wide variety of geochemical processes that are recorded there. His work with Hans Wedepohl in writing and tabulating the Handbook of Geochemistry (Turekian, 1969) was a major accomplishment and this work was utilized by many generations of geochemists. Teaming up with his graduate students and in association with Paul Gast, he developed a mass spectrometry lab at Yale and began to thoroughly investigate the Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of deep-sea clays, not only as repositories but also as sites for exchange to occur and serve as a control of the geochemistry of ocean water. Karl was a major player in a revolutionary marine geochemistry campaign known as the Geochemical Ocean Section Study (GEOSECS). GEOSECS was part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration in the 1970s, and it took aim at measuring and understanding the distribution of geochemical tracers for circulation and biogeochemistry in the world’s oceans.. It was also within this same time period that another large-scale ‘geochemical’ sampling program known as Apollo 11 came along. Here Karl utilized his INAA techniques to examine some of the first returned lunar samples for their trace elements. Karl was particularly proud of being the holder of the Silliman Chair and being curator of the Yale meteorite collection. In a continuation of Karl’s foray into cosmochemistry, Andy Davis came to Yale to study with Karl and Sydney Clark. Equally important to the legacy of what Karl did for science in his research contributions on and across the planet was his influence on scientists. His legendary daily coffee hours were a training ground for many generations of students, postdocs, and visitors, as well as a proving ground for Karl’s own ideas. He had a great love for vigorous scientific debate. Karl loved to question and be questioned. Nothing was sacred and, in the act of questioning as in exploring, new science arises. He was extraordinarily supportive of people, always had time to discuss and listen, and helped everyone from students to his fellow faculty at Yale. Karl was twice department chair and even when not chair, a steadying influence in times of departmental difficulty. Andrew M. Davis, Lawrence Grossman and Albert S. Colman University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Mark H. Thiemens University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA This Obituary was first published in PNAS, Vol. 110, No. 41, 1

Affiliations and Expertise

Yale University, Connecticut, USA

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Heinrich Holland

HEINRICH DIETER HOLLAND (1927-2012) Heinrich Dieter ‘Dick’ Holland, who died on 21 May 2012, was responsible for major advances across several fields of geochemistry. He was born on 27 May 1927 and died just short of his 85th birthday. Dick was 19 years old when he graduated from Princeton. After a stint of about a year in the US army with subsequent naturalization, he was drawn to Columbia University to start a career in geochemistry. While Dick was working on his thesis at Columbia, he was recruited in 1950 by Harry Hess, the new chairman of the Princeton geology department, to start a new program in geochemistry at Princeton. Dick ultimately received his PhD in 1952 from Columbia, where he studied the distribution of uranium daughter nuclides in seawater and, to a lesser extent, in sediments, rocks, and minerals as part of an effort to date these materials. At Princeton, Dick was very interested early on in the interactions of the atmosphere, Earth’s surface, and the oceans and history of the atmosphere. Along the way, he also attacked such problems as the distribution of trace elements between aqueous systems (i.e., the ocean) and calcium carbonate, a common deposit of marine organisms, with the hope of using such partitioning as an index of the temperature of precipitation. In the past few years, this work has seen fruition in the study of strontium in corals as temperature indicators of contemporary oceans and has been extended to the past. Dick’s interest in deciphering the history of the oceans and the atmosphere over eons of Earth time resulted in several substantive articles and two fundamental books: The Chemistry of the Atmosphere, Rivers and Oceans (1978) and The Chemical Evolution of the Atmosphere and Oceans (1984). He continued this interest up to his latest days. He wrote a fundamental essay, ‘The geologic history of seawater,’ on the subject in the Treatise on Geochemistry (2003) for which he and I acted as executive editors. We were close to completing the second edition of the treatise before he died. AGU played an important role in both editions of the treatise. The volume editors and the executive editors used get-togethers at AGU Fall Meetings in San Francisco, CA, to gradually bring the treatise to completion. Dick was also one of the earliest explorers of oceanic ridges, searching for hydrothermal activity associated with the expected spreading centers predicted by the geological and geophysical study of these ridges. Dick was president of the Geochemical Society from 1970 to 1971. In 1994, he received the V. M. Goldschmidt Medal and Award, the society’s highest recognition. In 1995, he was awarded the Penrose Gold Medal of the Society of Economic Geologists, and in 1998 he was awarded the Leopold von Buch Medal by the German Geological Society. Dick was a member of the US National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He retired from Harvard in 2000 but stayed on there, continuing his research until 2006, when he left for Philadelphia, PA, to be close to some members of his family. There he took up the position of visiting research scientist at the University of Pennsylvania. On his retirement from Harvard in 2000, a symposium in his honor was held. The participants included many of the people he had influenced during his long career at Princeton and Harvard. Perhaps the greatest recognition for Dick was not the many honors he received from learned societies but the extraordinary achievements of his many students and postdocs for whom he was an enormous influence. Karl K. Turekian, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA (extracted from Eos, Vol. 93, No. 34, 21 August 2012 © 2012 American Geophysical Union)

View additional works by Heinrich D. Holland

Treatise on Geochemistry, 2nd Edition

In Memoriam

Heinrich Dieter Holland (1927–2012)

Karl Karekin Turekian (1927–2013)

References

Executive Editors’ Foreword to the Second Edition

Permission Acknowledgments

Volume 1: Meteorites and Cosmochemical Processes

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

References

1.1. Classification of Meteorites and Their Genetic Relationships

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.1.1 Introduction

1.1.2 Classification of Chondritic Meteorites

1.1.3 Classification of Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs)

1.1.4 Classification of Nonchondritic Meteorites

1.1.5 Genetic Relations Among Meteorite Groups

References

1.2. Chondrites and Their Components

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.2.1 Introduction

1.2.2 Classification and Parent Bodies of Chondrites

1.2.3 Bulk Composition of Chondrites

1.2.4 Metamorphism, Alteration, and Impact Processing

1.2.5 Chondritic Components

1.2.6 Formation and Accretion of Chondritic Components

1.2.7 Heating Mechanisms in the Early Solar System

References

1.3. Calcium–Aluminum-Rich Inclusions in Chondritic Meteorites

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.3.1 Introduction

1.3.2 Changes in this Revision

1.3.3 Some Essential Terminology: Structural Elements of a CAI

1.3.4 Mineralogy and Mineral Chemistry

1.3.5 Diversity and Major Element Bulk Chemistry

1.3.6 Type C CAIs, Compound Objects, and the Chondrule–CAI Connection

1.3.7 Fun CAIs and Hibonite Grains

1.3.8 Distribution Among Chondrite Types

1.3.9 Ages

1.3.10 Trace Elements

1.3.11 Oxygen Isotopes

1.3.12 Short-Lived Radionuclides in CAIs

1.3.13 CAIS, Chondrules, Condensation, and Melt Distillation

1.3.14 Wark–Lovering Rim Sequences: One Terminal Event or Many?

1.3.15 Conclusions and Reflections: Technology, the Big Picture, and the Convergence of Cosmochemistry and Astronomy

References

1.4. Presolar Grains

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.4.1 Introduction

1.4.2 Historical Background

1.4.3 Types of Presolar Grains

1.4.4 Analysis Techniques

1.4.5 Astrophysical Implications of the Study of Presolar Grains

1.4.6 Silicon Carbide

1.4.7 Silicon Nitride

1.4.8 Graphite

1.4.9 Oxygen-Rich Grains

1.4.10 Diamond

1.4.11 Conclusion and Future Prospects

References

1.5. Structural and Isotopic Analysis of Organic Matter in Carbonaceous Chondrites

Abstract

1.5.1 Introduction

1.5.2 Organic Material in Carbonaceous Chondrites

1.5.3 Extractable Organic Matter

1.5.4 Macromolecular Material

1.5.5 In Situ Examination of Meteoritic Organic Matter

1.5.6 Environments of Formation

References

1.6. Achondrites

Abstract

Acknowledgment

1.6.1 Introduction

1.6.2 Primitive Achondrites

1.6.3 Differentiated Achondrites

1.6.4 Uncategorized Achondrites

1.6.5 Summary

References

1.7. Iron and Stony-Iron Meteorites

Abstract

1.7.1 Introduction

1.7.2 Classification and Chemical Composition of Iron Meteorites

1.7.3 Accretion and Differences in Bulk Chemistry Between Groups of Iron Meteorites

1.7.4 Heating and Differentiation

1.7.5 Fractional Crystallization of Metal Cores

1.7.6 Cooling Rates and Sizes of Parent Bodies

1.7.7 Pallasites

1.7.8 Parent Bodies of Iron and Stony-Iron Meteorites

1.7.9 Future Research Directions

References

1.8. Early Solar Nebula Grains – Interplanetary Dust Particles

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.8.1 Introduction

1.8.2 Particle Size, Morphology, Porosity, and Density

1.8.3 Mineralogy

1.8.4 Optical Properties

1.8.5 Compositions

1.8.6 Conclusions

References

1.9. Nebular Versus Parent Body Processing

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.9.1 Introduction

1.9.2 Nebular or Asteroidal Processing: Some Criteria

1.9.3 Aqueous Alteration

1.9.4 Oxidation and Metasomatism

1.9.5 Future Work

References

1.10. Condensation and Evaporation of Solar System Materials

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.10.1 Introduction

1.10.2 Theoretical Framework

1.10.3 Laboratory Experiments

1.10.4 Applications

1.10.5 Outlook

References

1.11. Short-Lived Radionuclides and Early Solar System Chronology

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.11.1 Introduction

1.11.2 Dating with Ancient Radioactivity

1.11.3 ‘Absolute’ and ‘Relative’ Timescales

1.11.4 The Record of Short-Lived Radionuclides in Early Solar System Materials

1.11.5 Origins of the Short-Lived Nuclides

1.11.6 Short-Lived Nuclides as Chronometers

1.11.7 Conclusions

References

1.12. Solar System Time Scales from Long-Lived Radioisotopes in Meteorites and Planetary Materials

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.12.1 Introduction

1.12.2 Chondrites and Their Components

1.12.3 Differentiated Meteorites

1.12.4 Planetary Materials

1.12.5 Conclusions

References

1.13. Cosmic-Ray Exposure Ages of Meteorites

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.13.1 Introduction

1.13.2 Calculation of Exposure Ages

1.13.3 Carbonaceous Chondrites

1.13.4 H Chondrites

1.13.5 L Chondrites

1.13.6 LL Chondrites

1.13.7 E Chondrites

1.13.8 R Chondrites

1.13.9 Lodranites and Acapulcoites

1.13.10 Lunar Meteorites

1.13.11 Howardite–Eucrite–Diogenite (HED) Meteorites

1.13.12 Angrites

1.13.13 Ureilites

1.13.14 Aubrites (Enstatite Achondrites)

1.13.15 Brachinites

1.13.16 Martian Meteorites

1.13.17 Mesosiderites

1.13.18 Pallasites

1.13.19 Irons

1.13.20 The Smallest Particles: Micrometeorites, Interplanetary Dust Particles, and Interstellar Grains

1.13.21 Conclusions

References

Volume 2: Planets, Asteriods, Comets and The Solar System

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

References

2.1. Origin of the Elements

Abstract

2.1.1 Introduction

2.1.2 Abundances and Nucleosynthesis

2.1.3 IMS: Evolution and Nucleosynthesis

2.1.4 Massive Star Evolution and Nucleosynthesis

2.1.5 Type Ia Supernovae: Progenitors and Nucleosynthesis

2.1.6 Nucleosynthesis and Galactic Chemical Evolution

References

2.2. Solar System Abundances of the Elements

Abstract

2.2.1 Abundances of the Elements in the Solar Nebula

2.2.2 The Abundances of the Elements in the ISM

2.2.3 Summary

References

2.3. The Solar Nebula

Abstract

2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.2 Formation of the Solar Nebula

2.3.3 Solar Nebula Structure and Evolution

2.3.4 Solar Nebula Removal

2.3.5 Summary

References

2.4. Planet Formation

Abstract

2.4.1 Introduction

2.4.2 The Protoplanetary Nebula and the First Solids

2.4.3 Planetesimals and the First Solids

2.4.4 Terrestrial Planet Formation

2.4.5 The Asteroid Belt

2.4.6 Giant-Planet Formation

References

2.5. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts

Abstract

Acknowledgments

2.5.1 Introduction: The Use of Geochemistry in Impact Studies

2.5.2 Background on Impact Craters and Processes

2.5.3 Methods

2.5.4 Examples

2.5.5 Summary

References

2.6. Mercury

Abstract

Acknowledgments

2.6.1 Introduction: The Importance of Mercury

2.6.2 Pre-MESSENGER View of the Chemical Composition of Mercury

2.6.3 Pre-MESSENGER Models for the Origin of Mercury

2.6.4 Results from the MESSENGER Mission

2.6.5 Evaluating Models for the Origin of Mercury

2.6.6 The Future for the Exploration of Mercury

References

2.7. Venus

Abstract

Acknowledgments

2.7.1 Brief History of Observations

2.7.2 Overview of Important Orbital Properties

2.7.3 Atmosphere

2.7.4 Surface and Interior

2.7.5 Summary of Key Questions

References

2.8. The Origin and Earliest History of the Earth

Abstract

Acknowledgments

2.8.1 Introduction

2.8.2 Observational Evidence and Theoretical Constraints Pertaining to the Nebular Environment from Which Earth Originated

2.8.3 The Dynamics of Accretion of the Earth

2.8.4 Chemical and Isotopic Constraints on the Nature of the Components That Accreted to Form the Earth

2.8.5 Core Formation

2.8.6 Lead and Tungsten Isotopes and the Timing, Rates, and Mechanisms of Accretion and Core Formation

2.8.7 Earth's Earliest Atmospheres and Hydrospheres

2.8.8 The Formation of the Moon

2.8.9 Mass Loss and Compositional Changes During Accretion

2.8.10 The Late Veneer

2.8.11 Early Mantle and Crust

References

2.9. The Moon

Abstract

Acknowledgments

2.9.1 Introduction: The Lunar Context

2.9.2 The Lunar Geochemical Database

2.9.3 Mare Volcanism

2.9.4 The Highland Crust: Impact Bombardment and Early Differentiation

2.9.5 Water in the Moon

2.9.6 The Bulk Composition and Origin of the Moon

References

2.10. Mars

Abstract

2.10.1 Geochemical Exploration of Mars

2.10.2 Sources of Geochemical Data

2.10.3 Geochemistry of Planetary Differentiation

2.10.4 Geochemistry of Magmatic Processes

2.10.5 Geochemistry of Sedimentary and Alteration Processes

2.10.6 Organic Matter, Volatile Reservoirs, and Geochemical Cycles

2.10.7 Geochemical Changes with Time and Comparison with Earth

2.10.8 Major Unresolved Problems

References

2.11. Giant Planets

Abstract

2.11.1 The Giant Planets in Relation to the Solar System

2.11.2 Essential Determinants of the Physical Properties of the Giant Planets

2.11.3 Origin and Evolution of the Giant Planets

2.11.4 Extrasolar Giant Planets

2.11.5 Major Unsolved Problems and Future Progress

References

2.12. Major Satellites of the Giant Planets

Abstract

2.12.1 Introduction

2.12.2 Cosmochemical Context

2.12.3 Bulk Composition

2.12.4 Surface Composition

2.12.5 The Jupiter System

2.12.6 The Saturn System

2.12.7 The Uranus System

2.12.8 The Neptune System – Triton

2.12.9 Major Issues and Future Directions

References

2.13. Comets

Abstract

2.13.1 Introduction

2.13.2 Comet and Asteroid Comparisons

2.13.3 Comet Activity

2.13.4 Comet Types – Orbital Distinction

2.13.5 Physical Evolution of Comets

2.13.6 Major Component Composition

2.13.7 Diversity Among Comets

2.13.8 Conclusions

References

2.14. Asteroids

Abstract

Acknowledgments

2.14.1 Introduction

2.14.2 Background

2.14.3 Remote Observations

2.14.4 Taxonomy

2.14.5 Spacecraft Missions

2.14.6 Interesting Groups of Asteroids

2.14.7 Taxonomic Distribution of Taxonomic Types

2.14.8 Conclusions and Future Work

References

Volume 3: The Mantle and Core

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

1 Introduction

2 Working Down from the Top

3 Crust–Mantle Exchange Is not a One Way Street

4 Is the Present the Key to the Past

5 Chemical Differentiation Before Earth Formation

6 Concluding Points

3.1. Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition

Abstract

3.1.1 Introduction and Historical Remarks

3.1.2 The Composition of Earth's Mantle as Derived from the Composition of the Sun

3.1.3 The Cosmochemical Classification of Elements and the Chemical Composition of Chondritic Meteorites

3.1.4 The Composition of the PM Based on the Analysis of the Upper Mantle Rocks

3.1.5 Comparison of the PM Composition with Meteorites

3.1.6 The Isotopic Composition of Earth

3.1.7 Summary

References

3.2. Geophysical Constraints on Mantle Composition

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.2.1 Introduction

3.2.2 Upper Mantle Bulk Composition

3.2.3 Upper Mantle Heterogeneity

3.2.4 Lower Mantle Bulk Composition

3.2.5 Lower Mantle Heterogeneity

3.2.6 Future Prospects

References

3.3. Sampling Mantle Heterogeneity through Oceanic Basalts: Isotopes and Trace Elements

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.3.1 Introduction

3.3.2 Local and Regional Equilibrium Revisited

3.3.3 Crust–Mantle Differentiation

3.3.4 Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts: Samples of the Depleted Mantle

3.3.5 Ocean Island, Plateau, and Seamount Basalts

3.3.6 The Lead Paradox

3.3.7 Geochemical Mantle Models

References

3.4. Orogenic, Ophiolitic, and Abyssal Peridotites

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 Types, Distribution, and Provenance

3.4.3 Major- and Trace-Element Geochemistry of Peridotites

3.4.4 Major- and Trace-Element Geochemistry of Pyroxenites

3.4.5 Nd–Sr Isotope Geochemistry

References

3.5. Mantle Samples Included in Volcanic Rocks: Xenoliths and Diamonds

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.5.1 Mantle Xenoliths: the Nature of the Sample

3.5.2 Peridotite Xenoliths

3.5.3 Eclogite Xenoliths

3.5.4 Diamonds

References

3.6. The Formation and Evolution of Cratonic Mantle Lithosphere – Evidence from Mantle Xenoliths

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.6.1 Introduction

3.6.2 Modification of CLM

3.6.3 Primary Compositions of Cratonic Peridotites and Their Melting Environment

3.6.4 Constraining the Timing of Lithosphere Formation

3.6.5 Models for the Formation of Cratonic Roots

References

3.7. Noble Gases as Mantle Tracers

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.7.1 Introduction

3.7.2 Noble Gases as Geochemical Tracers

3.7.3 Mantle Noble Gas Characteristics

3.7.4 Noble Gases as Mantle Tracers

3.7.5 Concluding Remarks

References

3.8. Noble Gases as Tracers of Mantle Processes

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.8.1 Introduction

3.8.2 Advances in Understanding Noble Gas Behavior

3.8.3 Mantle Noble Gas Characteristics

3.8.4 Noble Gases and the Tracing of Mantle Processes

3.8.5 Concluding Remarks

References

3.9. Volatiles in Earth's Mantle

Abstract

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

3.9.1 Introduction

3.9.2 Evidence from Mantle-Derived Magmas

3.9.3 C–O–H: Evidence from Mantle-Derived Samples

3.9.4 Sulfur

3.9.5 Halogens

3.9.6 Nitrogen

3.9.7 Summary and Conclusions

References

3.10. Melt Extraction and Compositional Variability in Mantle Lithosphere

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.10.1 Introduction

3.10.2 Phase Equilibrium and Melt Extraction

3.10.3 The Mantle Sample

3.10.4 The Role of Melt Extraction

3.10.5 Perspective on Mantle Thermal Evolution

3.10.6 Summary

References

3.11. Trace Element Partitioning: The Influences of Ionic Radius, Cation Charge, Pressure, and Temperature

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.11.1 Introduction

3.11.2 Ionic Radius and Lattice-Strain Theory

3.11.3 Determination of ES and ro

3.11.4 Simulations of Trace Element Substitution into Garnet

3.11.5 Deviations from Simple Bulk Modulus Systematics

3.11.6 Temperature and Pressure Dependencies of DO and Partitioning

3.11.7 Garnet–Melt Partitioning of REE

3.11.8 Dependence of Do on Ionic Charge

3.11.9 Henry's Law and Substitution Mechanisms

3.11.10 Mineral–Melt Partition Coefficients

References

3.12. Partition Coefficients at High Pressure and Temperature

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.12.1 Planetary Differentiation

3.12.2 Experimental Approaches

3.12.3 Metal/Silicate Equilibria

3.12.4 Mineral/Melt Equilibria

3.12.5 Models

3.12.6 Summary and Future

References

3.13. The Subduction-Zone Filter and the Impact of Recycled Materials on the Evolution of the Mantle

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.13.1 Introduction

3.13.2 Thermal Structure and Mineralogy of the Subducting Plate and Overriding Mantle

3.13.3 The Arc Volcanic Record of Slab Modification of the Mantle Wedge

3.13.4 The Fate of Immobile Elements Through Subduction

3.13.5 Subduction Fluxes and Mantle Composition

3.13.6 Summary

References

3.14. Convective Mixing in the Earth's Mantle

Abstract

Nomenclature

Acknowledgments

3.14.1 Introduction

3.14.2 Geochemical and Geophysical Observations of Mantle Heterogeneity

3.14.3 Characterization of Mixing

3.14.4 Outlook

Appendix

References

3.15. Experimental Constraints on Core Composition

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.15.1 Introduction

3.15.2 Methods

3.15.3 Major Elements in the Core

3.15.4 Light Elements in the Core

3.15.5 Minor and Trace Elements in the Core

3.15.6 Conclusions and Outlook

References

Glossary

3.16. Compositional Model for the Earth's Core

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.16.1 Introduction

3.16.2 First-Order Geophysics

3.16.3 Constraining the Composition of the Earth's Core

3.16.4 A Compositional Model for the Core

3.16.5 Radioactive Elements in the Core

3.16.6 Timing of Core Formation

3.16.7 Nature of Core Formation

3.16.8 The Inner Core, its Crystallization, and Core–Mantle Exchange

3.16.9 Summary

References

Volume 4: The Crust

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

1 What’s New in The Second Edition

2 The Continental Crust

3 The Oceanic Crust

4 Crust-Mantle Exchange

5 Crustal Evolution

6 Concluding Thoughts

Acknowledgements

References

4.1. Composition of the Continental Crust

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.1.1 Introduction

4.1.2 The Upper Continental Crust

4.1.3 The Deep Crust

4.1.4 Bulk Crust Composition

4.1.5 Implications of the Crust Composition

4.1.6 Earth's Crust in a Planetary Perspective

4.1.7 Summary

References

4.2. Constraints on Crustal Heat Production from Heat Flow Data

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.2.1 Introduction

4.2.2 Estimates of Bulk Crustal Heat Production

4.2.3 Heat Flow and Crustal Heat Production

4.2.4 Heat Production of the Continental Crust through Time

4.2.5 Controls on Crustal Heat Production

4.2.6 Heat Production and Heat Loss in the Earth

4.2.7 Conclusion

Appendix A Power Spectra

Appendix B Mantle Heat Flux, Moho Temperature, and Lithosphere Thickness

References

4.3. Continental Basaltic Rocks

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.3.1 Introduction

4.3.2 General Principles

4.3.3 Continental Extrusive Igneous Rocks

4.3.4 Intrusive Equivalents of Continental Basaltic Rocks

4.3.5 Concluding Remarks

References

4.4. Volcanic Degassing: Process and Impact

Abstract

Nomenclature

Acknowledgments

4.4.1 Introduction

4.4.2 Sources of Volatiles in Volcanic Emissions

4.4.3 Magma Degassing

4.4.4 Volcanic Emissions: Manifestations and Measurements

4.4.5 Isotope Fractionation in Volcanic and Geothermal Fluids

4.4.6 Fluxes of Volcanic Volatiles to the Atmosphere

4.4.7 Impacts of Volcanic Volatile Emissions

4.4.8 Concluding Remarks

References

4.5. Timescales of Magma Transfer and Storage in the Crust

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.5.1 Introduction

4.5.2 Geophysical and Time-Series Estimates for Residence Times and Volumes of Magmas

4.5.3 General Constraints on the Duration of Magma Transfer from U-Series Disequilibria

4.5.4 Timescales of Magma Differentiation

4.5.5 Timescales of Crystallization

4.5.6 Discussion and Summary

References

4.6. Fluid Flow in the Deep Crust

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.6.1 Introduction

4.6.2 Evidence for Deep-Crustal Fluids

4.6.3 Devolatilization

4.6.4 Porous Media and Fracture Flow

4.6.5 Overview of Fluid Chemistry

4.6.6 Chemical Transport and Reaction

4.6.7 Geochemical Fronts

4.6.8 Flow and Reaction Along Gradients in Temperature and Pressure

4.6.9 Examples of Mass and Heat Transfer

4.6.10 Concluding Remarks

References

4.7. Geochemical Zoning in Metamorphic Minerals

Abstract

Symbols

Acknowledgment

4.7.1 Introduction

4.7.2 Major Elements

4.7.3 Stable Isotopes

4.7.4 Trace Elements

4.7.5 Radiogenic Isotopes (Age Variability)

4.7.6 Case Study: Fall Mountain, New Hampshire

4.7.7 Discussion and Conclusions

References

4.8. Thermochronology in Orogenic Systems

Abstract

Nomenclature

Acknowledgments

4.8.1 Introduction

4.8.2 Basic Concepts of Geochronology

4.8.3 Analytical Methods

4.8.4 The Interpretation of Dates as Ages

4.8.5 Open-System Behavior: The Role of Diffusion

4.8.6 Closure Temperature Theory

4.8.7 Inverse Modeling of Thermal Histories from Individual Samples

4.8.8 Resetting Temperature Theory

4.8.9 Applications

4.8.10 Directions for Future Research

References

4.9. Subduction of Continental Crust to Mantle Depth: Geochemistry of Ultrahigh-Pressure Rocks

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.9.1 Introduction

4.9.2 Indicators of UHP Metamorphism

4.9.3 Overview of UHP Terrains

4.9.4 General Features of UHP Terrains

4.9.5 Composition of UHP Crust

4.9.6 Composition of UHP Fluids

4.9.7 Geochronology of UHP Rocks

4.9.8 Outlook

References

4.10. U–Th–Pb Geochronology

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.10.1 Introduction

4.10.2 Decay of U and Th to Pb

4.10.3 Causes of Discordance in the U–Th–Pb System

4.10.4 Measurement Techniques

4.10.5 Precision and Accuracy of U–Th–Pb Geochronology

4.10.6 Applications: The Present and Future of U–Th–Pb Geochronology

References

4.11. Growth and Differentiation of the Continental Crust from Isotope Studies of Accessory Minerals

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.11.1 A Question of Scale

4.11.2 Information Contained in Accessory Minerals

4.11.3 Technical Aspects

4.11.4 Areas of Progress

4.11.5 The Future and New Frontiers

References

4.12. Physics and Chemistry of Deep Continental Crust Recycling

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.12.1 Introduction

4.12.2 Physics of Lower Crustal Recycling

4.12.3 The Aftermath of Foundering

4.12.4 Case Studies

4.12.5 The Composition and Mass Fluxes of Lower Crustal Foundering

4.12.6 Fate of Recycled Mafic Lower Crust

4.12.7 Some Useful Petrologic Approaches in Studying Lower Crustal Recycling

4.12.8 Summary and Outlook

References

4.13. Composition of the Oceanic Crust

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.13.1 Introduction

4.13.2 Architecture of the Oceanic Crust

4.13.3 Creation of Oceanic Crust at Mid-Ocean Ridges

4.13.4 The Composition of MORB

4.13.5 Future Directions

References

4.14. The Lower Oceanic Crust

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.14.1 Background

4.14.2 Observations

4.14.3 Generating the Lower Oceanic Crust

References

4.15. Melt Migration in Oceanic Crustal Production: A U-Series Perspective

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.15.1 Introduction

4.15.2 U-Series Preliminaries

4.15.3 Observations

4.15.4 U-Series Melting Models

4.15.5 Summary of Model Behavior

4.15.6 Concluding Remarks

References

4.16. Chemical Fluxes from Hydrothermal Alteration of the Oceanic Crust

Abstract

Acknowledgements

4.16.1 Introduction

4.16.2 Determining the Composition of the Unaltered Oceanic Crust Protolith

4.16.3 Determining the Composition of Altered Oceanic Crust

4.16.4 Determining Geochemical Fluxes in an Open System

4.16.5 Chemical Changes in Altered Crust Composition due to Hydrothermal Processes

4.16.6 Discussion

4.16.7 Conclusions

References

4.17. The Chemical Composition of Subducting Sediments

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.17.1 Introduction

4.17.2 Approach

4.17.3 Geochemical Systematics in Seafloor Sediments

4.17.4 Global Subducting Sediments

4.17.5 Implications for Recycling at Subduction Zones

4.17.6 Future Prospects

References

4.18. Oceanic Plateaus

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.18.1 Introduction

4.18.2 Formation and Structure of Oceanic Plateaus

4.18.3 Preservation of Oceanic Plateaus

4.18.4 Cretaceous Oceanic Plateaus

4.18.5 Oceanic Plateau Identification in the Geological Record

4.18.6 Plateaus Accreted around the Pacific Margins

4.18.7 Precambrian Oceanic Plateaus

4.18.8 Environmental Impact of Oceanic Plateau Formation

4.18.9 Concluding Statements

References

4.19. Devolatilization During Subduction

Abstract

4.19.1 Introduction

4.19.2 Setting the Scene

4.19.3 Devolatilization Regimes in MORB

4.19.4 How Much H2O Subducts into the Transition Zone?

4.19.5 Devolatilization in Sediments

4.19.6 Serpentinized Peridotite

4.19.7 Implications for Trace Elements and an Integrated View of the Oceanic Lithosphere

4.19.8 Dents in a Simplified Subduction Model

4.19.9 Concluding Remarks

References

4.20. Chemical and Isotopic Cycling in Subduction Zones

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.20.1 Introduction

4.20.2 The Seafloor, as It Enters the Trenches

4.20.3 Thermal Evolution, Devolatilization History, and H2O and CO2 Cycling in Subduction Zones

4.20.4 Initial Processing of Sediments and Pore Waters in Trench and Shallow Forearc Settings (<15 km)

4.20.5 Chemical Changes in Forearc to Subarc High-P/T Metamorphic Suites (15–100 km)

4.20.6 The Deep Forearc and Subarc Slab–Mantle Interface

4.20.7 Slab–Arc Connections

4.20.8 Beyond Arcs

4.20.9 Outlook

References

4.21. One View of the Geochemistry of Subduction-Related Magmatic Arcs, with an Emphasis on Primitive Andesite and Lower Crust

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.21.1 Introduction

4.21.2 Arc Lava Compilation

4.21.3 Characteristics of Arc magmas

4.21.4 Arc Lower Crust

4.21.5 Implications for Continental Genesis

4.21.6 Conclusions

References

Volume 5: The Atmosphere

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

5.1. Ozone, Hydroxyl Radical, and Oxidative Capacity

Abstract

5.1.1 Introduction

5.1.2 Evolution of Oxidizing Capability

5.1.3 Fundamental Reactions

5.1.4 Meteorological Influences

5.1.5 Human Influences

5.1.6 Measuring Oxidation Rates

5.1.7 Atmospheric Models and Observations

5.1.8 Conclusions

References

5.2. Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry

Abstract

Acknowledgments

5.2.1 Introduction

5.2.2 Main Reaction Mechanisms

5.2.3 Tropospheric Ozone Depletion at Polar Sunrise

5.2.4 Marine Boundary Layer

5.2.5 Salt Lakes

5.2.6 Volcanoes

5.2.7 Free Troposphere

5.2.8 Additional Sources of Reactive Halogens

5.2.9 Summary

References

5.3. Global Methane Biogeochemistry

Abstract

Acknowledgments

5.3.1 Introduction

5.3.2 Global Methane Budget

5.3.3 Terrestrial Studies

5.3.4 Marine Studies

5.3.5 Ice Cores

5.3.6 Future Work

References

5.4. Tropospheric Aerosols

Abstract

Nomenclature

Subscripts

Acknowledgments

5.4.1 Introduction

5.4.2 Aerosol Properties

5.4.3 Measurement of Aerosol Properties

5.4.4 Spatial and Temporal Variation of Tropospheric Aerosols

5.4.5 Aerosol Processes

5.4.6 Representation of Aerosol Processes in Chemical Transport and Transformation Models

5.4.7 Aerosol Influences on Climate and Climate Change

5.4.8 Final Thoughts

References

5.5. Biomass Burning: The Cycling of Gases and Particulates from the Biosphere to the Atmosphere

Abstract

5.5.1 Introduction: Biomass Burning, Geochemical Cycling, and Global Change

5.5.2 Global Impacts of Biomass Burning

5.5.3 Enhanced Biogenic Soil Emissions of Nitrogen and Carbon Gases: A Postfire Effect

5.5.4 The Geographical Distribution of Biomass Burning

5.5.5 Biomass Burning in the Boreal Forests

5.5.6 Estimates of Global Burning and Global Gaseous and Particulate Emissions

5.5.7 Calculation of Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Fires

5.5.8 Biomass Burning and Atmospheric Nitrogen and Oxygen

5.5.9 Atmospheric Chemistry Resulting from Gaseous Emissions from the Fires

5.5.10 A Case Study of Biomass Burning: The 1997 Wildfires in Southeast Asia

5.5.11 Results of Calculations: Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from the Fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia, August to December 1997

5.5.12 The Impact of the Southeastern Asia Fires on the Composition and Chemistry of the Atmosphere

References

5.6. Mass-Independent Isotopic Composition of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Materials

Abstract

Acknowledgments

5.6.1 General Introduction

5.6.2 Applications of Mass-Independent Isotopic Effects

5.6.3 Isotopic Anomalies in Extraterrestrial Atmospheres and Environments

5.6.4 Atmospheric Observations of Mass-Independent Isotopic Compositions

5.6.5 Atmospheric Aerosol Sulfate: Present Earth's Atmosphere

5.6.6 Mass-Independent Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Paleosulfates

5.6.7 Atmospheric Mass-Independent Molecular Oxygen

5.6.8 The Atmospheric Aerosol Nitrate and the Nitrogen Cycle

5.6.9 Mass-Independent Oxygen Isotopic Compositions in Solids to Reflect Atmospheric Change: Earth and Mars

5.6.10 Sulfur in the Earth's Earliest Atmosphere: The Rise of Oxygen

5.6.11 Sulfur Isotopic Fractionation Processes in other Solar System Objects

5.6.12 Concluding Comments

References

5.7. The Stable Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

Abstract

Acknowledgments

5.7.1 Introduction

5.7.2 Methodology and Terminology

5.7.3 δ13C in Atmospheric CO2

5.7.4 δ18O in CO2

5.7.5 Clumped Isotopes

5.7.6 Concluding Remarks

References

5.8. Water Stable Isotopes: Atmospheric Composition and Applications in Polar Ice Core Studies

Abstract

Symbols

Acknowledgments

5.8.1 Introduction

5.8.2 Present-Day Observations

5.8.3 Physics of Water Isotopes

5.8.4 Modeling the Water Isotope Atmospheric Cycle

5.8.5 Ice Core Isotopic Records

5.8.6 The Conventional Approach for Interpreting Water Isotopes in Ice Cores

5.8.7 Alternative Estimates of Temperature Changes in Greenland and Antarctica

5.8.8 What Do People Learn from GCMs?

5.8.9 Influence of the Oceanic Source of Polar Precipitation

5.8.10 Conclusion

References

5.9. Radiocarbon

Abstract

5.9.1 Introduction

5.9.2 Production and Distribution of 14C

5.9.3 Measurements of Radiocarbon

5.9.4 Timescale Calibration

5.9.5 Radiocarbon and Solar Irradiance

5.9.6 The ‘Bomb’ 14C Transient

5.9.7 Future Applications

References

5.10. Natural Radionuclides in the Atmosphere

Abstract

5.10.1 Introduction

5.10.2 Radon and Its Daughters

5.10.3 Cosmogenic Nuclides

5.10.4 Coupled Lead-210 and Beryllium-7

References

5.11. Carbonaceous Particles: Source-Based Characterization of Their Formation, Composition, and Structures

Abstract

Acknowledgments

5.11.1 Introduction

5.11.2 Carbonaceous Particles from Fossil Fuel Combustion

5.11.3 Biofuel and Biomass Burning Carbonaceous Particles

5.11.4 Carbonaceous Particles from Biogenic Vapor Fluxes

5.11.5 Carbonaceous Particles from Mechanically Lofted Biological Components

5.11.6 Impacts of Carbonaceous Particle on the Earth System

Appendix A Measurement Techniques for Carbonaceous Particles

References

Glossary

5.12. Ocean-Derived Aerosol and Its Climate Impacts

Abstract

Acknowledgments

5.12.1 Introduction

5.12.2 Ocean-Derived Aerosol Production Mechanisms

5.12.3 Radiative Effects of Ocean-Derived Aerosol

5.12.4 Sources and Composition of Ocean-Derived CCN

5.12.5 The MBL CCN Budget

5.12.6 The CLAW Hypothesis

5.12.7 Concluding Comments

References

5.13. Aerosol Hygroscopicity: Particle Water Content and Its Role in Atmospheric Processes

Abstract

Abbreviations

Symbols

Acknowledgments

5.13.1 Introduction

5.13.2 Methods for the Measurement of Aerosol Water Contents

5.13.3 Parameterizations of Aerosol Hygroscopicity

5.13.4 Laboratory Measurements for Selected Aerosol Types

5.13.5 Observations of Aerosol Water Content and Atmospheric Implications

References

5.14. The Stable Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric O2

Abstract

5.14.1 Introduction

5.14.2 Methodology and Terminology

5.14.3 18O/16O Ratios in Atmospheric O2

5.14.4 Oxygen-17 and Oxygen-18 in Atmospheric O2

References

5.15. Studies of Recent Changes in Atmospheric O2 Content

Abstract

Acknowledgments

5.15.1 Introduction

5.15.2 Overview of the Large-Scale Variability

5.15.3 Measurement Methods

5.15.4 O2-Based Global Carbon Budgets

5.15.5 Seasonal Cycles in APO

5.15.6 Interannual Variability in APO

5.15.7 Interhemispheric Gradient in O2/N2 and APO

5.15.8 Diurnal and Other Shorter-Term Variability

5.15.9 Future Outlook

References

5.16. Fluorine-Containing Greenhouse Gases

Abstract

Acknowledgments

5.16.1 Introduction

5.16.2 Global Observations

5.16.3 Global Cycles

5.16.4 Environmental Impacts, Current Trends and Emission Policies

5.16.5 Verification of Future National Emission Reports Using Observations

5.16.6 Conclusions

References

Volume 6: The Atmosphere - History

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

6.1. Geochemical and Planetary Dynamical Views on the Origin of Earth's Atmosphere and Oceans

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.1.1 Introduction

6.1.2 Making Terrestrial Planets

6.1.3 Inventories and Isotopic Compositions of Volatiles in Terrestrial Planets, Meteorites, and Comets

6.1.4 Modeling the Origin of Noble Gases in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

6.1.5 Nature and Timing of Noble Gas Degassing and Escape

6.1.6 The Origin of Major Volatile Elements in Earth

6.1.7 The Late Heavy Bombardment

6.1.8 Conclusion: A Not So Rare Earth?

References

6.2. Degassing History of Earth

Abstract

Acknowledgment

6.2.1 Introduction

6.2.2 Partitioning and Solubility of Volatile Components

6.2.3 Volatile Data

6.2.4 Modeling Degassing, Recycling, and Atmosphere Evolution

6.2.5 Discussion

6.2.6 Conclusions and Outlook

References

6.3. Chemistry of Earth's Earliest Atmosphere

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.3.1 Introduction and Overview

6.3.2 Secondary Origin of Earth's Atmosphere

6.3.3 Source(s) of Volatiles Accreted by the Earth

6.3.4 Heating During Accretion of the Earth

6.3.5 Earth's Silicate Vapor Atmosphere

6.3.6 Steam Atmosphere

6.3.7 Impact Degassing of the Late Veneer

6.3.8 Outgassing on the Early Earth

6.3.9 Summary of Key Questions

References

6.4. Geologic and Geochemical Constraints on Earth's Early Atmosphere

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.4.1 Introduction

6.4.2 The Hadean Atmosphere

6.4.3 The Archean Atmosphere

6.4.4 The Great Oxidation Event (GOE)

6.4.5 Synthesis

Note added in proof

References

6.5. Paleobiological Clues to Early Atmospheric Evolution

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.5.1 Introduction

6.5.2 Methanogenesis and the Early Atmosphere

6.5.3 Cyanobacteria and Oxygenic Photosynthesis

6.5.4 Eukaryotes and Aerobiosis

6.5.5 Algal Evolution and Sulfur Gases

6.5.6 Conclusions

References

6.6. Modeling the Archean Atmosphere and Climate

Abstract

6.6.1 Introduction

6.6.2 Atmospheric Composition and Redox Balance

6.6.3 Constraints on Climate During the Archean

References

6.7. The Great Oxidation Event Transition

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.7.1 Introduction

6.7.2 Controls on O2 Levels

6.7.3 Atmospheric Chemistry Through the Great Oxidation Event (GOE)

6.7.4 Explaining the Rise of O2

6.7.5 Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Associated with the Rise of O2

6.7.6 Conclusions

References

6.8. Proterozoic Atmospheric Oxygen

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.8.1 Introduction

6.8.2 Controls on Atmospheric Oxygen

6.8.3 Physical Environment

6.8.4 Isotopic Evidence for Organic Carbon and Pyrite Sulfur Burial

6.8.5 Evidence for the History of Oxygenation

6.8.6 History of Atmospheric Oxygen through the Proterozoic Eon

6.8.7 Oxygen Control

6.8.8 Perspectives and Conclusions

References

6.9. Neoproterozoic Atmospheres and Glaciation

Abstract

6.9.1 Introduction

6.9.2 The Initiation of a Snowball Earth

6.9.3 What Was the Face of Earth during the Snowball Earth?

6.9.4 Melting the Snowball Earth

6.9.5 Aftermath of the Snowball Earth

6.9.6 Discussion and Conclusions

References

6.10. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.10.1 Introduction

6.10.2 Phylogenetic Context and Molecular Dating

6.10.3 The Fossil Record of Early Metazoans

6.10.4 Redox History of Ediacaran Oceans

6.10.5 Oceanic Oxygenation and Early Animal Evolution

6.10.6 Conclusion and Prospect

References

Glossary

6.11. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 During the Phanerozoic: Tools, Patterns, and Impacts

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.11.1 Introduction

6.11.2 Models for Atmospheric CO2 and O2 Estimation

6.11.3 Proxies for Atmospheric Reconstruction

6.11.4 Impacts of CO2 and O2 on Climate and Life

References

6.12. The Geochemistry of Mass Extinction

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.12.1 Introduction

6.12.2 Isotopic Records of the Major Mass Extinctions

6.12.3 Interpreting the Geochemical Records of Mass Extinction

6.12.4 Summary with Extensions

References

Glossary

6.13. Greenhouse Climates

Abstract

6.13.1 Introduction

6.13.2 Temperatures: An Evolving Perspective

6.13.3 The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum and Other Eocene Hyperthermals

6.13.4 The Case For and Against Glaciations During Greenhouse Climates

6.13.5 Greenhouse Climates and Organic Carbon Burial

6.13.6 Climate Modeling and the Challenges of Greenhouse Temperature Distributions

6.13.7 Estimates of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Relationship to Greenhouse Climates

6.13.8 Summary

References

6.14. Atmospheric Composition and Biogeochemical Cycles over the Last Million Years

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.14.1 Introduction

6.14.2 Archiving of the Atmospheric Composition in Glacier Ice

6.14.3 Archiving of Biological Productivities (Marine and Terrestrial) and Dust Deposition in Sediments

6.14.4 The Records

6.14.5 Scenarios of Climate/Biogeochemical Interactions

6.14.6 Conclusion

References

6.15. Relating Weathering Fronts for Acid Neutralization and Oxidation to pCO2 and pO2

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.15.1 Introduction

6.15.2 A Chemical Definition of Regolith

6.15.3 Erosion and Weathering

6.15.4 Observations of pCO2 and pO2 Versus Depth

6.15.5 Weathering Advance Rates Without Erosion

6.15.6 CO2 and O2 Consumption Rates

6.15.7 Modeling Reaction Front Depths

6.15.8 The Acid-Generation Front

6.15.9 Conclusions

Appendix

References

6.16. The History of Planetary Degassing as Recorded by Noble Gases

Abstract

Acknowledgment

6.16.1 Introduction

6.16.2 Present-Earth Noble Gas Characteristics

6.16.3 Bulk Degassing of Radiogenic Isotopes

6.16.4 Degassing of the Mantle

6.16.5 Degassing of the Crust

6.16.6 Major Volatile Cycles

6.16.7 Degassing of Other Terrestrial Planets

6.16.8 Conclusions

References

6.17. The Origin of Noble Gases and Major Volatiles in the Terrestrial Planets

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.17.1 Introduction

6.17.2 Characteristics of Terrestrial-Planet Volatiles

6.17.3 Acquisition of Noble Gases and Volatiles

6.17.4 Early Losses of Noble Gases to Space

6.17.5 The Origin of Terrestrial Noble Gases

6.17.6 The Origin of Noble Gases on Venus

6.17.7 The Origin of Noble Gases on Mars

6.17.8 Conclusions

References

Volume 7: Surface And Groundwater, Weathering and Soils

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

7.1. Soil Formation

Abstract

7.1.1 Introduction

7.1.2 What Is Soil?

7.1.3 Geographical Access to Soil Data

7.1.4 Conceptual Partitioning of the Earth Surface

7.1.5 The Human Dimension of Soil Formation

7.1.6 Soil Geochemistry in Deserts

7.1.7 Soil Formation on Mars

7.1.8 Concluding Remarks

References

7.2. Modeling Low-Temperature Geochemical Processes

Abstract

Acknowledgments

7.2.1 Introduction

7.2.2 Modeling Concepts and Definitions

7.2.3 Solving the Chemical Equilibrium Problem

7.2.4 Historical Background to Geochemical Modeling

7.2.5 The Problem of Activity Coefficients

7.2.6 Geochemical Databases

7.2.7 Geochemical Codes

7.2.8 Water–Rock Interactions

7.2.9 Final Comments

References

7.3. Reaction Kinetics of Primary Rock-Forming Minerals under Ambient Conditions

Abstract

Acknowledgments

7.3.1 Introduction

7.3.2 Experimental Techniques for Dissolution Measurements

7.3.3 Mechanisms of Dissolution

7.3.4 Surface Area

7.3.5 Rate Constants as a Function of Mineral Composition

7.3.6 Temperature Dependence

7.3.7 Chemistry of Dissolving Solutions

7.3.8 Chemical Affinity

7.3.9 Duration of Dissolution

7.3.10 Conclusion

References

7.4. Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals

Abstract

Nomenclature

7.4.1 Introduction

7.4.2 Defining Natural Weathering Rates

7.4.3 Mass Changes Related to Chemical Weathering

7.4.4 Normalization of Weathering to Regolith Surface Area

7.4.5 Tabulations of Weathering Rates of Some Common Silicate Minerals

7.4.6 Time as a Factor in Natural Weathering

7.4.7 Factors Influencing Natural Weathering Rates

7.4.8 Summary

References

7.5. Geochemical Weathering in Glacial and Proglacial Environments

Abstract

7.5.1 Introduction

7.5.2 Basic Glaciology and Glacier Hydrology

7.5.3 Composition of Glacial Runoff

7.5.4 Geochemical Weathering Reactions in Glaciated Terrain

7.5.5 Geochemical Weathering Reactions in the Proglacial Zone

7.5.6 Composition of Subglacial Waters Beneath Antarctica

7.5.7 Concluding Remarks

References

7.6. Chemical Weathering Rates, CO2 Consumption, and Control Parameters Deduced from the Chemical Composition of Rivers

Abstract

7.6.1 Introduction

7.6.2 Definition of Chemical Weathering

7.6.3 Calculation of CWRs from Field Data

7.6.4 Parameters Controlling CWRs

7.6.5 Control Parameters Deduced from the Chemical Composition of Rivers

References

7.7. Trace Elements in River Waters

Abstract

Acknowledgments

7.7.1 Introduction

7.7.2 Natural Abundances of Trace Elements in River Water

7.7.3 Sources of Trace Elements in Aquatic Systems

7.7.4 Aqueous Speciation

7.7.5 The “Colloidal World”

7.7.6 Interaction of Trace Elements with Solid Phases

7.7.7 Conclusion

References

7.8. Dissolved Organic Matter in Freshwaters

Abstract

7.8.1 Introduction

7.8.2 Inventories and Fluxes

7.8.3 Chemical and Biological Interactions

7.8.4 Chemical Properties

7.8.5 Summary and Conclusions

References

7.9. Environmental Isotope Applications in Hydrologic Studies

Abstract

Acknowledgments

7.9.1 Introduction

7.9.2 Water Sources, Ages, and Cycling

7.9.3 Solute Isotope Hydrology and Biogeochemistry

7.9.4 Use of a Multi-Isotope Approach

7.9.5 Summary and Conclusions

References

7.10. Metal Stable Isotopes in Weathering and Hydrology

Abstract

7.10.1 Introduction

7.10.2 Essential Background Information

7.10.3 Li, Mg, Ca, and Fe Stable Isotope Signals in the Environment

7.10.4 Frontier Metal Stable Isotope Systems

7.10.5 Directions Forward

References

7.11. Groundwater Dating and Residence-Time Measurements

Abstract

7.11.1 Introduction

7.11.2 Nature of Groundwater Flow Systems

7.11.3 Solute Transport in Subsurface Water

7.11.4 Summary of Groundwater Age Tracers

7.11.5 Lessons from Applying Geochemical Age Tracers to Subsurface Flow and Transport

7.11.6 Tracers at the Regional Scale

7.11.7 Tracers at the Aquifer Scale

7.11.8 Tracers at the Local Scale

7.11.9 Tracers in Vadose Zones

7.11.10 Conclusions

References

7.12. Cosmogenic Nuclides in Weathering and Erosion

Abstract

7.12.1 Introduction

7.12.2 Cosmogenic Nuclide Systematics at Earth's Surface

7.12.3 Using Cosmogenic Nuclides to Determine Rates of Surface Lowering and Denudation

7.12.4 Chemical Erosion Inferred from Cosmogenic Nuclides

7.12.5 Summary

References

Glossary

7.13. Geochemistry of Saline Lakes

Abstract

7.13.1 Introduction

7.13.2 Origin and Occurrence

7.13.3 Environmental Context

7.13.4 Compositional Controls

7.13.5 Evaporative Brine Evolution

7.13.6 Examples of Saline Lake Systems

7.13.7 Economic Minerals in Saline Lakes

7.13.8 Summary

References

7.14. Deep Fluids in Sedimentary Basins

Abstract

Acknowledgments

7.14.1 Introduction

7.14.2 Field and Laboratory Methods

7.14.3 Chemical Composition of Subsurface Waters

7.14.4 Isotopic Composition of Water

7.14.5 Isotopic Composition of Solutes

7.14.6 Basinal Brines as Ore-Forming Fluids

7.14.7 Dissolved Gases

7.14.8 The Influence of Geologic Membranes

7.14.9 Summary and Conclusions

References

Glossary

7.15. Deep Fluids in the Continents

Abstract

7.15.1 Introduction

7.15.2 Field Sampling Methods

7.15.3 Chemistry and Isotopic Composition of Groundwaters from Crystalline Environments

7.15.4 Gases from Crystalline Environments

7.15.5 The Origin and Evolution of Fluids in Crystalline Environments

7.15.6 Examples from Research Sites Found in Crystalline Environments

7.15.7 Summary and Conclusions

References

Volume 8: The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

References

8.1. Physico-Chemical Controls on Seawater

Abstract

Acknowledgments

8.1.1 Composition of Seawater

8.1.2 Thermodynamic Properties of Seawater

8.1.3 Thermodynamic Equilibria in Seawater

8.1.4 Kinetic Processes in Seawater

8.1.5 Modeling the Ionic Interactions in Natural Waters

8.1.6 Effect of Ocean Acidification

References

8.2. Controls of Trace Metals in Seawater

Abstract

8.2.1 Introduction

8.2.2 External Inputs of Trace Metals to the Oceans

8.2.3 Removal Processes

8.2.4 Internal Recycling

8.2.5 Complexation with Organic Ligands

8.2.6 Future Directions

References

Relevant Websites

8.3. Air–Sea Exchange of Marine Trace Gases

Abstract

8.3.1 Introduction

8.3.2 Gas Exchange Processes and Parameterizations

8.3.3 The Cycling of Trace Gases Across the Air–Sea Interface

8.3.4 Effects of Climate Change on Marine Trace Gases

References

8.4. The Biological Pump

Abstract

List of Symbols

8.4.1 Introduction

8.4.2 Description of the Biological Pump

8.4.3 Impact of the Biological Pump on Biogeochemical Cycling of Macronutrients

8.4.4 Quantifying the Biological Pump

8.4.5 The Efficiency of the Biological Pump

8.4.6 The Biological Pump in the Immediate Future

References

8.5. Marine Bioinorganic Chemistry: The Role of Trace Metals in the Oceanic Cycles of Major Nutrients

Abstract

Acknowledgments

8.5.1 Introduction: The Scope of Marine Bioinorganic Chemistry

8.5.2 Trace Metals in Marine Microorganisms

8.5.3 The Biochemical Functions of Trace Elements in the Uptake and Transformations of Nutrients

8.5.4 Effects of Trace Metals on Marine Biogeochemical Cycles

8.5.5 Epilogue

References

8.6. Organic Matter in the Contemporary Ocean

Abstract

Acknowledgments

8.6.1 Introduction

8.6.2 Reservoirs and Fluxes

8.6.3 The Nature and Fate of TOC Delivered to the Oceans

8.6.4 Origin, Cycling, Composition, and Fate of DOC in the Ocean

8.6.5 Emerging Perspectives on OM Preservation

8.6.6 Microbial OM Production and Processing: New Insights

8.6.7 Summary and Future Research Directions

References

8.7. Hydrothermal Processes

Abstract

Remembrance

8.7.1 Introduction

8.7.2 Vent-Fluid Geochemistry

8.7.3 The Net Impact of Hydrothermal Activity

8.7.4 Near-Vent Deposits

8.7.5 Hydrothermal Plume Processes

8.7.6 Hydrothermal Sediments

8.7.7 Conclusion

References

8.8. Tracers of Ocean Mixing

Abstract

8.8.1 Introduction

8.8.2 Theoretical Framework 1: Advection–Diffusion Equations

8.8.3 The Nature of Oceanic Mixing

8.8.4 Theoretical Framework 2: Tracer Ages

8.8.5 Theoretical Framework 3: Diagnostic Methods

8.8.6 Steady-State Tracers

8.8.7 Transient Tracers

8.8.8 Tracer Age Dating

8.8.9 Tracer Release Experiments

8.8.10 Concluding Remarks

References

8.9. Chemical Tracers of Particle Transport

Abstract

Nomenclature

8.9.1 Particle Transport and Ocean Biogeochemistry

8.9.2 Tracers of Particle Transport

8.9.3 Transfer from Solution to Particles (Scavenging)

8.9.4 Colloidal Intermediaries

8.9.5 Export of Particles from Surface Ocean Waters

8.9.6 Particle Dynamics and Regeneration of Labile Particles

8.9.7 Lateral Redistribution of Sediments

8.9.8 Summary

References

8.10. Biological Fluxes in the Ocean and Atmospheric pCO2

Abstract

8.10.1 Introduction

8.10.2 How Atmospheric CO2 is Affected by the Biological Pump

8.10.3 Visions of the Biological Pump in the Ocean

8.10.4 How the Biological Pump Could Change

8.10.5 Conclusion

References

8.11. Sedimentary Diagenesis, Depositional Environments, and Benthic Fluxes

Abstract

Acknowledgments

8.11.1 Introduction

8.11.2 Diagenetic Oxidation–Reduction Reactions

8.11.3 Diagenetic Transport Processes

8.11.4 Diagenetic Transport–Reaction Models

8.11.5 Patterns in Boundary Conditions and Reaction Balances

8.11.6 Corg Burial and Preservation: Reactants and Diagenetic Regime

8.11.7 Carbonate Mineral Dissolution–Alteration–Preservation

8.11.8 Biogenic Silica and Reverse Weathering

8.11.9 Future Directions

References

8.12. Geochronometry of Marine Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

8.12.1 Introduction

8.12.2 Principles

8.12.3 Radioactive Systems Used in Marine Geochronometry

8.12.4 Coastal Deposits

8.12.5 Deep-Sea Sediments

8.12.6 Ferromanganese Deposits

8.12.7 Corals

8.12.8 Methods Not Depending on Radioactive Decay

References

8.13. Geochemical Evidence for Quaternary Sea-Level Changes

Abstract

8.13.1 Introduction

8.13.2 Methods of Sea-Level Reconstruction

8.13.3 History and Current State of Direct Sea-Level Reconstruction

8.13.4 History and Current State of Sea-Level Determinations from Oxygen Isotope Measurements

8.13.5 Causes of Sea-Level Change and Future Work

References

8.14. Elemental and Isotopic Proxies of Past Ocean Temperatures

Abstract

Acknowledgments

8.14.1 Introduction

8.14.2 A Brief History of Early Research on Geochemical Proxies of Temperature

8.14.3 Oxygen Isotopes as a Paleotemperature Proxy in Foraminifera

8.14.4 Oxygen Isotopes as a Climate Proxy in Reef Corals

8.14.5 Oxygen Isotopes as a Climate Proxy in other Marine Biogenic Phases

8.14.6 Clumped Oxygen Isotopes

8.14.7 Magnesium as a Paleotemperature Proxy in Foraminifera

8.14.8 Magnesium as a Paleotemperature Proxy in Ostracoda

8.14.9 Strontium as a Climate Proxy in Corals

8.14.10 Magnesium and Uranium in Corals as Paleotemperature Proxies

8.14.11 Calcium Isotopes as a Paleotemperature Proxy

8.14.12 Conclusions

References

8.15. Alkenone Paleotemperature Determinations

Abstract

8.15.1 Introduction

8.15.2 Systematics and Detection

8.15.3 Occurrence of Alkenones in Marine Waters and Sediments

8.15.4 Function

8.15.5 Ecological Controls on Alkenone Production and Downward Flux

8.15.6 Calibration of Uk′37 Index to Temperature

8.15.7 Synthesis of Calibration

8.15.8 Paleotemperature Studies Using the Alkenone Method

8.15.9 Conclusions

References

8.16. Tracers of Past Ocean Circulation

Abstract

8.16.1 Introduction

8.16.2 Nutrient Water Mass Tracers

8.16.3 Conservative Water Mass Tracers

8.16.4 Neodymium Isotope Ratios

8.16.5 Circulation Rate Tracers

8.16.6 Nongeochemical Tracers of Past Ocean Circulation

8.16.7 Ocean Circulation during the LGM

8.16.8 Conclusions

References

8.17. Long-lived Isotopic Tracers in Oceanography, Paleoceanography, and Ice-sheet Dynamics

Abstract

Acknowledgments

8.17.1 Introduction

8.17.2 Long-lived Isotopic Tracers and Their Applications

8.17.3 Systematics of Long-lived Isotope Systems in the Earth

8.17.4 Neodymuim Isotopes in the Oceans

8.17.5 Applications to Paleoclimate

8.17.6 Long-lived Radiogenic Tracers and Ice-sheet Dynamics

8.17.7 Final Thoughts

References

8.18. The Biological Pump in the Past

Abstract

8.18.1 Introduction

8.18.2 Concepts

8.18.3 Tools

8.18.4 Observations

References

8.19. The Oceanic CaCO3 Cycle

Abstract

Acknowledgment

8.19.1 Introduction

8.19.2 The Contemporary Marine CaCO3 Cycle

8.19.3 Oceanic Distribution and Present-Day Changes in the Seawater CO2–Carbonic Acid System Due to Human Activities

8.19.4 Implications of Anthropogenic Ocean Acidification to the Marine CaCO3 Cycle

8.19.5 A Brief Commentary on Past Alterations to the Marine CaCO3 Cycle and Analogies to the Present Perturbation

8.19.6 Back to the Future: Summary of Past and Present Clues on the Future CaCO3 Cycle

References

8.20. Records of Cenozoic Ocean Chemistry

Abstract

8.20.1 Introduction

8.20.2 Cenozoic Deep-Sea Stable Isotope Record

8.20.3 The Marine Strontium and Osmium Isotope Records

8.20.4 Mg/Ca Records from Benthic Foraminifera

8.20.5 Boron Isotopes, Paleo-pH, and Atmospheric CO2

8.20.6 Closing Synthesis: Does Orogenesis Lead to Cooling?

References

8.21. The Geologic History of Seawater

Abstract

Acknowledgments

8.21.1 Introduction

8.21.2 The Hadean (4.5–4.0 Ga)

8.21.3 The Archean (4.0–2.5 Ga)

8.21.4 The Proterozoic (2.5–0.542 Ga)

8.21.5 The Phanerozoic (0.542 Ga–Present)

8.21.6 Summary

References

Volume 9: Sediments, Diagenesis and Sedimentary Rocks

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

References

9.1. Chemical Composition and Mineralogy of Marine Sediments

Abstract

9.1.1 Introduction

9.1.2 Pelagic Sediments

9.1.3 Ferromanganese Nodules and Crusts

9.1.4 Metalliferous Ridge and Basal Sediments

9.1.5 Marine Phosphorites

9.1.6 Conclusions

References

9.2. The Recycling of Biogenic Material at the Sea Floor

Abstract

9.2.1 Introduction

9.2.2 Pore Water Sampling and Profiling

9.2.3 Organic Matter Decomposition in Sediments

9.2.4 Particle Mixing in Surface Sediments: Bioturbation

9.2.5 CaCO3 Dissolution in Sediments

9.2.6 Silica Cycling in Sediments

9.2.7 Conclusions

References

9.3. Formation and Diagenesis of Carbonate Sediments

Abstract

9.3.1 Introduction

9.3.2 Physical Geochemistry of Carbonate Minerals

9.3.3 Surface Reactions: Review of Theory

9.3.4 New Directions, New Insights

9.3.5 Sources and Diagenesis of Deep-Sea Carbonates

9.3.6 Sources and Diagenesis of Shoal-Water Carbonate-Rich Sediments

References

9.4. The Diagenesis of Biogenic Silica: Chemical Transformations Occurring in the Water Column, Seabed, and Crust

Abstract

Nomenclature

Acknowledgments

9.4.1 Introduction

9.4.2 The Precipitation of Biogenic Silica

9.4.3 The Physical Properties of Biogenic Silica

9.4.4 Changes in Biogenic Silica Chemistry Occurring in the Water Column

9.4.5 Diagenesis of Biogenic Silica in the Upper Meter of the Seabed

9.4.6 Silica Diagenesis on Timescales of Millions of Years

References

9.5. Formation and Geochemistry of Precambrian Cherts

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.5.1 Introduction

9.5.2 Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic Environments of Chert Formation

9.5.3 Chert of Late Archean and Paleoproterozoic Iron Formation

9.5.4 Archean Chert and Cherty Iron Formation

9.5.5 Stable Isotopes and Rare Earth Elements in Precambrian Chert and Cherty Iron Formation

9.5.6 Conclusions

References

9.6. Geochemistry of Fine-Grained, Organic Carbon-Rich Facies

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.6.1 Introduction

9.6.2 Conceptual Model: Processes

9.6.3 Conceptual Model: Proxies

9.6.4 Geochemical Case Studies of Fine-Grained, Organic Carbon-Rich Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

9.6.5 Discussion: A Unified View of the Geochemistry of Fine-Grained Organic Carbon-Rich Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

References

9.7. Late Diagenesis and Mass Transfer in Sandstone–Shale Sequences

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.7.1 Introduction

9.7.2 The Realm of ‘Late Diagenesis’

9.7.3 Elemental Mobility at the Grain Scale

9.7.4 Volumetrically Significant Processes of Late Diagenesis

9.7.5 Whole-Rock Elemental Data and Larger-Scale Elemental Mobility

9.7.6 Fluid Flow

9.7.7 Reverse Weathering and Concluding Comments

References

9.8. Coal Formation and Geochemistry

Abstract

9.8.1 Introduction

9.8.2 Coal Formation

9.8.3 Coal Rank

9.8.4 Structure of Coal

9.8.5 Hydrocarbons from Coal

9.8.6 Inorganic Geochemistry of Coal

9.8.7 Geochemistry of Coal Utilization

9.8.8 Economic Potential of Metals from Coal

9.8.9 Inorganics in Coal as Indicators of Depositional Environments

9.8.10 Environmental Impacts

9.8.11 Conclusions

References

9.9. Formation and Geochemistry of Oil and Gas

Abstract

9.9.1 Introduction

9.9.2 The Early Steps in Oil and Gas Formation: Where Does It All Begin?

9.9.3 Insoluble Organic Material – Kerogen

9.9.4 Soluble Organic Material

9.9.5 Geochemistry and Sequence Stratigraphy

9.9.6 Fluid Inclusions

9.9.7 Reservoir Geochemistry

9.9.8 Basin Modeling

9.9.9 Natural Gas

9.9.10 Surface Prospecting

9.9.11 Summary

References

9.10. The Sedimentary Sulfur System: Biogeochemistry and Evolution through Geologic Time

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.10.1 Introduction

9.10.2 Sulfur in Sediments

9.10.3 Pyrite Formation in Sediments

9.10.4 Other Forms of Sulfur in Sediments

9.10.5 Reactive Iron

9.10.6 Microbial Ecology

9.10.7 Evolution of the Sulfur Biome

9.10.8 Euxinic Systems

9.10.9 The Geochemistry of Sulfidic Sedimentary Rocks

9.10.10 Geochemical Evolution of Sulfur-Based Sediments

References

9.11. Manganiferous Sediments, Rocks, and Ores

Abstract

9.11.1 Chemical Fundamentals

9.11.2 Distribution of Manganese in Rocks and Natural Waters

9.11.3 Common Manganese Minerals

9.11.4 Composition of Manganese Accumulations

9.11.5 Behavior of Manganese in Igneous Settings, Especially Mid-Ocean Ridge Vents

9.11.6 Behavior of Manganese in Sedimentation

9.11.7 Two Models of Sedimentary Manganese Mineralization

9.11.8 Behavior in Soils and Weathering

9.11.9 Manganese through Geologic Time

9.11.10 Conclusions

References

9.12. Green Clay Minerals

Abstract

9.12.1 What Are We Looking At?

9.12.2 Description of Green Clay Minerals

9.12.3 Nonchlorite, Nonmicaceous Green Clay Minerals

9.12.4 Geochemical Origin of Green Clays

9.12.5 General Reflections

References

9.13. Chronometry of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

Abstract

9.13.1 Introduction

9.13.2 Chronometry Based on the Fossil Record – First Steps

9.13.3 Refinements in Chronometry Using Fossils

9.13.4 Oil Recovery in California Using Fossil-Based Chronometry

9.13.5 Principles of Chorology: The Science of the Distribution of Organisms

9.13.6 Constraints on Chronometry Imposed by Chorology

9.13.7 Radiochronometry

9.13.8 Magnetic Field Polarity and Chronometry

9.13.9 Orbital Chronometry

9.13.10 Terminologies

9.13.11 Summary

References

9.14. The Geochemistry of Mass Extinction

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.14.1 Introduction

9.14.2 Isotope Records of the Major Mass Extinctions

9.14.3 Interpreting the Geochemical Records of Mass Extinction

9.14.4 Summary with Extensions

References

9.15. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

Abstract

Acknowledgment

9.15.1 Introduction

9.15.2 The Earth System

9.15.3 Generation and Recycling of the Oceanic and Continental Crust

9.15.4 Global Tectonic Realms and Their Recycling Rates

9.15.5 Present-Day Sedimentary Shell

9.15.6 Tectonic Settings and Their Sedimentary Packages

9.15.7 Petrology, Mineralogy, and Major Element Composition of Clastic Sediments

9.15.8 Trace Element and Isotopic Composition of Clastic Sediments

9.15.9 Secular Evolution of Clastic Sediments

9.15.10 Sedimentary Recycling

9.15.11 Ocean/Atmosphere System

9.15.12 Major Trends in the Evolution of Sediments during Geologic History

References

9.16. Stable Isotopes in the Sedimentary Record

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.16.1 Introduction

9.16.2 Isotopic Concentration Units and Fractionation

9.16.3 Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes in the Water Cycle

9.16.4 Hydrogen and Oxygen Fractionation in Clays, Water, and Carbonates

9.16.5 Calcium Isotopes in Seawater and Carbonates

9.16.6 Carbon Isotopes in Carbonates and Organic Matter

9.16.7 Nitrogen Isotopes in Sedimentary Environment

9.16.8 Sulfur Isotopes in Sedimentary Sulfate and Sulfide

9.16.9 Boron Isotopes at the Earth's Surface

9.16.10 40Ar in the Clay Fraction of Sediments

References

9.17. Geochemistry of Evaporites and Evolution of Seawater

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.17.1 Introduction

9.17.2 Definition of Evaporites

9.17.3 Brines and Evaporites

9.17.4 Environment of Evaporite Deposition

9.17.5 Seawater as a Salt Source for Evaporites

9.17.6 Evaporite and Saline Minerals

9.17.7 Model of Marginal Marine Evaporite Basin

9.17.8 Mode of Evaporite Deposition

9.17.9 Primary and Secondary Evaporites

9.17.10 Evaporation of Seawater – Experimental Approach

9.17.11 Crystallization Sequence before K–Mg Salt Precipitation

9.17.12 Crystallization Sequence of K–Mg Salts

9.17.13 Isotopic Effects in Evaporating Seawater Brines and Evaporite Salts

9.17.14 Usiglio Sequence – A Summary

9.17.15 Principles and Record of Chemical Evolution of Evaporating Seawater

9.17.16 Evaporation of Seawater – Remarks on Theoretical Approaches

9.17.17 Sulfate Deficiency in Ancient K–Mg Evaporites

9.17.18 Ancient Ocean Chemistry Interpreted from Evaporites

9.17.19 Recognition of Ancient Marine Evaporites

9.17.20 Fluid Inclusions Reveal the Composition of Ancient Brines

9.17.21 Ancient Ocean Chemistry from Halite Fluid Inclusions – Summary and Comments

9.17.22 Salinity of Ancient Oceans

9.17.23 Evaporite Deposition through Time

9.17.24 Significance of Evaporites in the Earth History

9.17.25 Summary

References

9.18. Iron Formations: Their Origins and Implications for Ancient Seawater Chemistry

Abstract

9.18.1 Introduction

9.18.2 Definition of IF

9.18.3 Mineralogy of IF

9.18.4 Depositional Setting and Sequence-Stratigraphic Framework

9.18.5 IF: A Proxy for Ancient Seawater Composition

9.18.6 Perspective from the Modern Iron Cycle

9.18.7 Secular Trends for Exhalites, IFs, and VMS Deposits

9.18.8 Controls on IF Deposition

9.18.9 Euxinic Conditions Induced by Shift in Dissolved Fe/S Ratio of Seawater due to Iron Oxidation

9.18.10 Research Perspectives and Future Directions

Appendix 1 Precambrian Banded Iron Formations, Granular Iron Formations, and Rapitan-Type Iron Formationsa

Appendix 2 Exhalites Associated with Precambrian Deep-Water (Cu-Rich) Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Depositsa

References

9.19. Bedded Barite Deposits: Environments of Deposition, Styles of Mineralization, and Tectonic Settings

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.19.1 Introduction

9.19.2 Comparisons

9.19.3 The Nevada Barites: A Test Case

9.19.4 Summary

References

Volume 10: Biogeochemistry

Dedication

Volume Editors’ Introduction

References

10.1. The Early History of Life

Abstract

Acknowledgments

10.1.1 Introduction

10.1.2 The Chaotian and Hadean (~ 4.56–4.0 Ga Ago)

10.1.3 The Archean (~ 4–2.5 Ga Ago)

10.1.4 The Functioning of the Earth System in the Archean

10.1.5 Life: Early Setting and Impact on the Environment

10.1.6 The Early Biomes

10.1.7 The Evolution of Photosynthesis

10.1.8 Mud-Stirrers: Origin and Impact of the Eucarya

10.1.9 The breath of Life: The Impact of Life on the Ocean/Atmosphere System

10.1.10 Feedback from the Biosphere to the Physical State of the Planet

References

10.2. Evolution of Metabolism

Abstract

10.2.1 Introduction

10.2.2 The Domains of Life

10.2.3 Life and Rocks

10.2.4 Mechanisms for Energy Conservation

10.2.5 Extant Patterns of Metabolism

10.2.6 Reconstructing the Evolution of Metabolism

10.2.7 Overview

References

10.3. Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers for Early Life

Abstract

Acknowledgments

10.3.1 Introduction

10.3.2 Biomarkers as Molecular Fossils

10.3.3 Thermal Stability and Maturity of Biomarkers

10.3.4 Experimental Approaches to Biomarker and Kerogen Analysis

10.3.5 Discussion of Biomarkers by Hydrocarbon Class

10.3.6 Reconstruction of Ancient Biospheres: Biomarkers for the Three Domains of Life

10.3.7 Biomarkers as Environmental Indicators

10.3.8 Age Diagnostic Biomarkers

10.3.9 Biomarkers in Precambrian Rocks

10.3.10 Outlook

References

10.4. Biomineralization

Abstract

Acknowledgments

10.4.1 Introduction

10.4.2 Biominerals

10.4.3 Examples of Biomineralization

10.4.4 Summary: Why Biomineralize?

References

10.5. Biogeochemistry of Primary Production in the Sea

Abstract

Acknowledgments

10.5.1 Introduction

10.5.2 Chemoautotrophy

10.5.3 Photoautotrophy

10.5.4 Primary Productivity by Photoautotrophs

10.5.5 Export, New, and ‘True New’ Production

10.5.6 Nutrient Fluxes

10.5.7 Nitrification

10.5.8 Limiting Macronutrients

10.5.9 The Evolution of the Nitrogen Cycle

10.5.10 Functional Groups

10.5.11 High-Nutrient, Low-Chlorophyll Regions: Iron Limitation

10.5.12 Glacial–Interglacial Changes in the Biological CO2 Pump

10.5.13 Iron Stimulation of Nutrient Utilization

10.5.14 Linking Iron to N2 Fixation

10.5.15 Other Trace-Element Controls on NPP

10.5.16 Concluding Remarks

References

10.6. Biogeochemical Interactions Governing Terrestrial Net Primary Production

Abstract

Acknowledgments

10.6.1 Introduction

10.6.2 General Constraints on NPP

10.6.3 Limitations to Leaf-Level Carbon Gain

10.6.4 Stand-Level Carbon Gain

10.6.5 Respiration

10.6.6 Allocation of NPP

10.6.7 Tissue Turnover

10.6.8 Global Patterns of Biomass and NPP

10.6.9 Nutrient Use

10.6.10 Balancing Nutrient Limitation

10.6.11 Community-Level Adjustments

10.6.12 Species Effects on Interactive Controls

10.6.13 Species Interactions and Ecosystem Processes

10.6.14 Summary

References

Glossary

10.7. Biogeochemistry of Decomposition and Detrital Processing

Abstract

10.7.1 Introduction

10.7.2 Composition of Decomposer Resources

10.7.3 The Decomposer Organisms

10.7.4 Methods for Studying Decomposition

10.7.5 Detrital Processing

10.7.6 Humification

10.7.7 Control of Decomposition and Stabilization

10.7.8 Modeling Approaches

10.7.9 Conclusions

References

10.8. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

Abstract

Acknowledgments

10.8.1 Overview of Life in the Absence of O2

10.8.2 Autotrophic Metabolism

10.8.3 Decomposition and Fermentation

10.8.4 Methane

10.8.5 Nitrogen

10.8.6 Iron and Manganese

10.8.7 Sulfur

10.8.8 Coupled Anaerobic Element Cycles

References

10.9. The Geologic History of the Carbon Cycle

Abstract

Acknowledgments

10.9.1 Introduction

10.9.2 Modes of Carbon-Cycle Change

10.9.3 The Quaternary Record of Carbon-Cycle Change

10.9.4 The Phanerozoic Record of Carbon-Cycle Change

10.9.5 The Precambrian Record of Carbon-Cycle Change

10.9.6 Conclusions

References

10.10. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

Abstract

10.10.1 Introduction

10.10.2 Major Reservoirs and Natural Fluxes of Carbon

10.10.3 Changes in the Stocks and Fluxes of Carbon as a Result of Human Activities

10.10.4 Mechanisms Thought to be Responsible for Current Terrestrial Carbon Sink

10.10.5 The Future

10.10.6 Conclusion

References

10.11. The Global Oxygen Cycle

Abstract

10.11.1 Introduction

10.11.2 Distribution of O2 among Earth Surface Reservoirs

10.11.3 Mechanisms of O2 Production

10.11.4 Mechanisms of O2 Consumption

10.11.5 Global O2 Budgets

10.11.6 Atmospheric O2 Throughout Earth History

10.11.7 Conclusions

References

Glossary

10.12. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

Abstract

Acknowledgments

10.12.1 Introduction

10.12.2 Biogeochemical Reactions

10.12.3 N Reservoirs and Their Exchanges

10.12.4 Nr Creation

10.12.5 Global Terrestrial N Budgets

10.12.6 Global Marine N Budget

10.12.7 Regional N Budgets

10.12.8 Consequences

10.12.9 Future

10.12.10 Societal Responses

10.12.11 Summary

References

10.13. The Global Phosphorus Cycle

Abstract

10.13.1 Introduction

10.13.2 The Global Phosphorus Cycle: Overview

10.13.3 Phosphorus Biogeochemistry and Cycling: Current Research

10.13.4 Summary

References

10.14. The Global Sulfur Cycle

Abstract

10.14.1 Elementary Issues

10.14.2 Abundance of Sulfur and Early History

10.14.3 Occurrence of Sulfur

10.14.4 Chemistry of Volcanogenic Sulfur

10.14.5 Biochemistry of Sulfur

10.14.6 Sulfur in Seawater

10.14.7 Surface and Groundwaters

10.14.8 Marine Sediments

10.14.9 Soils and Vegetation

10.14.10 Troposphere

10.14.11 Anthropogenic Impacts on the Sulfur Cycle

10.14.12 Sulfur in Upper Atmospheres

10.14.13 Planets and Moons

10.14.14 Conclusions

References

10.15. Plankton Respiration, Net Community Production and the Organic Carbon Cycle in the Oceanic Water Column

Abstract

10.15.1 Introduction

10.15.2 Biogeochemical Background

10.15.3 Biochemical Background

10.15.4 Measurement of Respiration Rates

10.15.5 First Order Overall Global Organic Budget of the Oceans

10.15.6 Distribution of Respiration within the Oceans

10.15.7 Distribution of Respiration within the Community

10.15.8 Summary

References

10.16. Respiration in Terrestrial Ecosystems

Abstract

Abbreviations

Symbols

10.16.1 Introduction

10.16.2 Cellular Respiration

10.16.3 Whole-Plant Respiration

10.16.4 Animal Respiration

10.16.5 Respiration of Terrestrial Ecosystems

10.16.6 Global Terrestrial Ecosystem Respiration

References

Glossary

Volume 11: Environmental Geochemistry

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

References

11.1. Groundwater and Air Contamination: Risk, Toxicity, Exposure Assessment, Policy, and Regulation

Abstract

11.1.1 Introduction

11.1.2 Principles, Definitions, and Perspectives of Hazardous Waste Risk Assessments

11.1.3 Regulatory and Policy Basis for Risk Assessment

11.1.4 The Risk Assessment Process

11.1.5 Hazard Identification

11.1.6 Exposure Assessment

11.1.7 Toxicity Assessment

11.1.8 Risk Characterization

11.1.9 Sources of Uncertainties in Risk Assessment

11.1.10 Risk Management and Risk Communication

References

11.2. Arsenic and Selenium

Abstract

Acknowledgments

11.2.1 Introduction

11.2.2 Sampling

11.2.3 Analytical Methods

11.2.4 Abundance and Forms of Arsenic in the Natural Environment

11.2.5 Pathways and Behavior of Arsenic in the Natural Environment

11.2.6 Abundance and Forms of Selenium in the Natural Environment

11.2.7 Pathways and Behavior of Selenium in the Natural Environment

11.2.8 Concluding Remarks

References

11.3. Heavy Metals in the Environment – Historical Trends

Abstract

11.3.1 Introduction

11.3.2 Occurrence, Speciation, and Phase Associations

11.3.3 Atmospheric Emissions of Metals and Geochemical Cycles

11.3.4 Historical Metal Trends Reconstructed from Sediment Cores

References

11.4. Geochemistry of Mercury in the Environment

Abstract

Acknowledgments

11.4.1 Introduction

11.4.2 Fundamental Geochemistry

11.4.3 Sources of Mercury to the Environment

11.4.4 Atmospheric Cycling and Chemistry of Mercury

11.4.5 Aquatic Biogeochemistry of Mercury

11.4.6 Removal of Mercury from the Surficial Cycle

11.4.7 Models of the Global Cycle

11.4.8 Developments in Studying Mercury in the Environment on a Variety of Scales

11.4.9 Summary

References

11.5. The Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage

Abstract

11.5.1 Introduction

11.5.2 Mineralogy of Ore Deposits

11.5.3 Sulfide Oxidation and the Generation of Oxidation Products

11.5.4 Acid-Neutralization Mechanisms at Mine Sites

11.5.5 Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Secondary Minerals

11.5.6 AMD in Mines and Mine Wastes

11.5.7 Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Oxidation Products

11.5.8 Methods of Prediction

11.5.9 Approaches for Remediation and Prevention

11.5.10 Summary and Conclusions

References

11.6. Radioactivity, Geochemistry, and Health

Abstract

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

11.6.1 Introduction

11.6.2 Radioactive Processes and Sources

11.6.3 Radionuclide Geochemistry: Principles and Methods

11.6.4 Environmental Radioactivity and Health Effects Relevant to Drinking Water, the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, and Nuclear Weapons

11.6.5 Summary

Appendix A Radioactivity and Human Health

Appendix B Health Effects of Uranium

References

11.7. The Environmental and Medical Geochemistry of Potentially Hazardous Materials Produced by Disasters

Abstract

Acknowledgments

11.7.1 Introduction

11.7.2 Potentially Hazardous Materials Produced by Disasters

11.7.3 Medical Geochemistry – A Review and Update

11.7.4 Sampling, Analytical, and Remote Sensing Methods Applied to Disaster Materials

11.7.5 Volcanic Eruptions and Volcanic Degassing

11.7.6 Landslides, Debris Flows, and Lahars

11.7.7 Hurricanes, Extreme Storms, and Floods – Katrina as an Example

11.7.8 Wildfires at the Wildland–Urban Interface

11.7.9 Mud and Waters from the Lusi Mud Eruption, East Java, Indonesia

11.7.10 Failures of Mill Tailings or Mineral-Processing Waste Impoundments

11.7.11 Failures of Coal Slurry or Coal Fly Ash Impoundments

11.7.12 Building Collapse – The World Trade Center as an Example

11.7.13 Disaster Preparedness

11.7.14 Summary

References

11.8. Eutrophication of Freshwater Systems

Abstract

11.8.1 Introduction

11.8.2 Nutrient Cycles in Aquatic Ecosystems

11.8.3 Aquatic Ecosystem Structure

11.8.4 Eutrophication

11.8.5 Two Case Studies in Eutrophication

11.8.6 Future Opportunities

11.8.7 Conclusions

Glossary

References

11.9. Salinization and Saline Environments

Abstract

Acknowledgments

11.9.1 Introduction

11.9.2 River Salinization

11.9.3 Lake Salinization

11.9.4 Groundwater Salinization

11.9.5 Salinization of Dryland Environment

11.9.6 Anthropogenic Salinization

11.9.7 Salinity and the Occurrence of Health-Related Contaminants

11.9.8 Elucidating the Sources of Salinity

11.9.9 Remediation and the Chemical Composition of Desalination

References

Glossary

11.10. Acid Rain – Acidification and Recovery

Abstract

Acknowledgments

11.10.1 Introduction

11.10.2 What Is Acidification?

11.10.3 Long-Term Acidification

11.10.4 Short-Term and Episodic Acidification

11.10.5 Drivers of Short-Term and Episodic Acidification

11.10.6 Effects of Acidification

11.10.7 Effects of a Changing Physical Climate on Acidification

11.10.8 Acidification Trajectories through Recent Time

11.10.9 Longitudinal Acidification

11.10.10 Some Areas with Recently or Potentially Acidified Soft Waters

11.10.11 Experimental Acidification and Deacidification of Low‐ANC Systems

11.10.12 Remediation of Acidity

11.10.13 Chemical Modeling of Acidification of Soft Water Systems

11.10.14 Chemical Recovery from Anthropogenic Acidification

References

11.11. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

Abstract

Abbreviations

Symbols

Acknowledgments

11.11.1 Introduction

11.11.2 General Description of Photochemical Smog

11.11.3 Photochemistry of Ozone and Particulates

11.11.4 Meteorological Aspects of Photochemical Smog

11.11.5 New Directions: Evaluation Based on Ambient Measurements

References

11.12. Volatile Hydrocarbons and Fuel Oxygenates

Abstract

Acknowledgments

11.12.1 Introduction

11.12.2 The Petroleum Industry

11.12.3 Environmental Transport Processes

11.12.4 Transformation Processes

11.12.5 Environmental Restoration

11.12.6 Challenges

References

11.13. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

Abstract

Acknowledgments

11.13.1 Introduction

11.13.2 Scope of Review

11.13.3 Sources

11.13.4 Pathways

11.13.5 Fate

11.13.6 Carbon Isotope Geochemistry

11.13.7 Synthesis

References

11.14. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

Abstract

Acknowledgments

11.14.1 Introduction

11.14.2 Global Transport and Distribution of Halogenated Organic Compounds

11.14.3 Sources and Environmental Fluxes

11.14.4 Chemical Controls on Reactivity

11.14.5 Microbial Biogeochemistry and Bioavailability

11.14.6 Environmental Reactivity

11.14.7 Implications for Environmental Cycling of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

11.14.8 Knowledge Gaps and Fertile Areas for Future Research

References

11.15. The Geochemistry of Pesticides

Abstract

Nomenclature

Acknowledgments

11.15.1 Introduction

11.15.2 Partitioning among Environmental Matrices

11.15.3 Transformations

11.15.4 The Future

References

11.16. The Biogeochemistry of Contaminant Groundwater Plumes Arising from Waste Disposal Facilities

Abstract

11.16.1 Introduction

11.16.2 Source and Leachate Composition

11.16.3 Spreading of Pollutants in Groundwater

11.16.4 Biogeochemistry of Landfill Leachate Plumes

11.16.5 Overview of Processes Controlling Fate of Landfill Leachate Compounds

11.16.6 Norman Landfill (United States)

11.16.7 Grindsted Landfill Site (DK)

11.16.8 Monitored Natural Attenuation

11.16.9 Future Challenges

References

Volume 12: Organic Geochemistry

Dedication

Volume Editors’ Introduction

Introduction

12.1. Organic Geochemistry of Meteorites

Abstract

12.1.1 Meteorites and Their Carbon

12.1.2 Classification of Carbonaceous Chondrites

12.1.3 Stable Isotopes and Carbonaceous Chondrites

12.1.4 The Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Chondrites

12.1.5 Carboxylic Acids

12.1.6 Amino Acids

12.1.7 Amines and Amides

12.1.8 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

12.1.9 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

12.1.10 Nucleic Acid Bases and Other Nitrogen Heterocycles

12.1.11 Alcohols, Polyhydroxylated Compounds, and Carbonyls

12.1.12 Sulfonic and Phosphonic Acids

12.1.13 Organohalogens

12.1.14 Macromolecular Material

12.1.15 Microvesicles and Nanoglobules

12.1.16 Organic–Inorganic Relationships

12.1.17 Source Environments

References

12.2. Organic Geochemical Signatures of Early Life on Earth

Abstract

Acknowledgments

12.2.1 Introduction

12.2.2 Eoarchean (4.0–3.6 Ga) Biological Remnants?

12.2.3 The Post-3.5 Ga Sedimentary Record of Stable Carbon Isotopes

12.2.4 The Record of Organic Carbon Burial

12.2.5 The Composition of Buried Organic Matter

12.2.6 Visible Structures with Organic Affinities

12.2.7 Summary and Prospects

References

Glossary

12.3. The Analysis and Application of Biomarkers

Abstract

Acknowledgments

12.3.1 Introduction

12.3.2 Biomarkers and Environments

12.3.3 Age-Diagnostic Biomarkers

12.3.4 Biomarkers of Fungi

12.3.5 Biomarkers and Extinction Events

12.3.6 Analytical Approaches

12.3.7 Summary

References

12.4. Hydrogen Isotope Signatures in the Lipids of Phytoplankton

Abstract

Acknowledgments

12.4.1 Introduction

12.4.2 The Effect of δDwater on δDlipid

12.4.3 The Effect of Biosynthesis on δDlipid

12.4.4 The Effect of Species on δDlipid

12.4.5 The Effect of Salinity on δDlipid

12.4.6 The Effect of Temperature on δDlipid

12.4.7 The Effect of Growth Rate on δDlipid

12.4.8 Summary and Conclusions

References

12.5. 13C/12C Signatures in Plants and Algae

Abstract

12.5.1 Introduction

12.5.2 The Term ‘Isotopic Fractionation’

12.5.3 Isotopic Fractionation in Plants and Algae

References

12.6. Dissolved Organic Matter in Aquatic Systems

Abstract

Acknowledgments

12.6.1 Introduction

12.6.2 Inventory and Fluxes

12.6.3 Bulk Chemical Properties

12.6.4 The Composition of DOM on an Individual Molecular Level

12.6.5 Reasons Behind the Stability of DOM in the Deep Ocean

12.6.6 Perspectives

References

Glossary

12.7. Dynamics, Chemistry, and Preservation of Organic Matter in Soils

Abstract

12.7.1 Soil Organic Matter and Soil Functions

12.7.2 Input and Quantity of SOM

12.7.3 Composition and Transformation of Organic Matter in Soils

12.7.4 Turnover of SOM

12.7.5 Origin and Turnover of Specific Components in Soils

12.7.6 Soil-Specific Interactions of OM with the Mineral Phase

12.7.7 Peculiarities

References

12.8. Weathering of Organic Carbon

Abstract

12.8.1 Introduction

12.8.2 Reservoirs and Fluxes in the Geochemical Carbon Cycle

12.8.3 Weathering of Kerogen

12.8.4 Biodegradation of Sedimentary OM

12.8.5 Surficial Transport and Transformations of Fossil OM

12.8.6 Model Estimates of Global Organic Carbon Weathering

12.8.7 Synthesis and Conclusions: Carbon Weathering in the Global Carbon Cycle

References

12.9. Organic Carbon Cycling and the Lithosphere

Abstract

12.9.1 Introduction

12.9.2 Carbon Content of the Continental Crust

12.9.3 Isotopic Constraints on Crustal Carbon

12.9.4 Cycling of Crustal Carbon

12.9.5 Inconsistencies in Crustal-Sedimentary Carbon Budgets

12.9.6 Carbon Cycling Under Reduced Atmospheric Oxygen Levels

12.9.7 Conclusions

References

12.10. Organic Nitrogen: Sources, Fates, and Chemistry

Abstract

Acknowledgments

12.10.1 Introduction

12.10.2 Nitrogen Assimilation and Isotopic Effects

12.10.3 Cellular Nitrogenous Compounds and Isotope Effects

12.10.4 Organic Nitrogen in Sediments and Its Application to Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions

12.10.5 Related Topics

12.10.6 Conclusions

References

12.11. Lipidomics for Geochemistry

Abstract

Acknowledgments

12.11.1 Introduction

12.11.2 Lipid Biosynthetic Pathways

12.11.3 Case Studies and Approaches to Lipidomics

12.11.4 Conclusions

References

12.12. Mineral Matrices and Organic Matter

Abstract

Acknowledgments

12.12.1 Introduction

12.12.2 Evidence for Organic Matter Association with Minerals

12.12.3 Impact on Organic Matter

12.12.4 Future Directions

12.12.5 Conclusion

References

Glossary

12.13. Biomarker-Based Inferences of Past Climate: The Alkenone pCO2 Proxy

Abstract

12.13.1 Introduction

12.13.2 The Alkenone CO2 Proxy

12.13.3 CO2 Reconstructions, Uncertainties, and Complications

12.13.4 Active Transport and the Case Against the Diffusive Model of Carbon Uptake

12.13.5 Summary

References

12.14. Biomarker-Based Inferences of Past Climate: The TEX86 Paleotemperature Proxy

Abstract

12.14.1 Introduction

12.14.2 History and Systematics

12.14.3 Detection and Analysis of GDGTs

12.14.4 Ecology of the Thaumarchaeota and Implications for TEX86

12.14.5 Preservation of GDGT Lipids in Sediments

12.14.6 Calibration of TEX86 to Temperature

12.14.7 Conclusion

References

12.15. Biomarkers for Terrestrial Plants and Climate

Abstract

Acknowledgments

12.15.1 Higher Plants Biomarkers

12.15.2 Soil and Lake Microbial Lipids and Proxies for Terrestrial Paleoclimate

12.15.3 Carbon Isotope Signatures of Vegetation and Climate

12.15.4 Lipid-Leaf Fractionation Factors

12.15.5 Transport and Preservation in Soils, Lakes, and Marine Sediments

12.15.6 Terrestrial Biomarkers and Isotopes: Research Outlook

References

Volume 13: Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

13.1. Fluids and Ore Formation in the Earth's Crust

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.1.1 Ore Deposits and Crustal Geochemistry

13.1.2 Magmatic Ore Formation

13.1.3 Ore-Forming Hydrothermal Processes

13.1.4 Hydrothermal Ore Formation in Sedimentary Basins

13.1.5 Hydrothermal Ore Systems in the Oceanic Realm

13.1.6 Magmatic–Hydrothermal Ore Systems

13.1.7 Ore Formation at the Earth's Surface

13.1.8 Back to the Future: Global Mineral Resources

References

Glossary

13.2. The Chemistry of Metal Transport and Deposition by Ore-Forming Hydrothermal Fluids

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.2.1 Introduction

13.2.2 Hydrothermal Ore Solution Chemistry – The Main Dissolved Components

13.2.3 Mineral Solubility in Water and Salt Solutions at High Temperature and Pressure

13.2.4 Ore Metal Transport and Deposition

13.2.5 Epilogue

References

13.3. Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.3.1 Introduction

13.3.2 Fundamental Aspects of Stable Isotope Geochemistry

13.3.3 Stable Isotope Systematics

13.3.4 Analytical Methods

13.3.5 Ore Deposit Types

13.3.6 Summary and Conclusions

References

13.4. Dating and Tracing the History of Ore Formation

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.4.1 A Holistic Approach to Ore Geology

13.4.2 The Fourth Dimension – Time

13.4.3 Radiometric Clocks

13.4.4 Radiometric Clocks for Ore Geology

13.4.5 Rhenium–Osmium – A Clock for Sulfides

13.4.6 Re–Os in Nonsulfides

13.4.7 A Clock for Metal Release and Migration from Hydrocarbon Maturation

13.4.8 Future of Dating for Ore Geology and Mineral Exploration

References

13.5. Fluid Inclusions in Hydrothermal Ore Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.5.1 Introduction

13.5.2 Mississippi Valley-Type Deposits

13.5.3 Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) Deposits

13.5.4 Epithermal Gold and Silver Deposits

13.5.5 Porphyry Cu Deposits

13.5.6 Porphyry Mo Deposits

13.5.7 Porphyry Sn–W Deposits

13.5.8 Skarn Deposits

13.5.9 Carlin-Type Au Deposits

13.5.10 Orogenic Gold Deposits

13.5.11 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

References

13.6. Melt Inclusions

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.6.1 Introduction

13.6.2 Formation of Melt Inclusions

13.6.3 Postentrapment Changes in Melt Inclusions

13.6.4 Analytical Techniques

13.6.5 Information Obtainable from Melt Inclusions

13.6.6 Melt Inclusions in Mineralized Systems

13.6.7 Synthesis and Conclusions

References

13.7. Metamorphosed Hydrothermal Ore Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.7.1 Introduction

13.7.2 Characteristics of Metamorphosed Hydrothermal Ore Systems

13.7.3 Geochemical Techniques Used to Study Metamorphosed Ore Deposits

13.7.4 From Case Examples to Conceptual Models and Exploration Tools

13.7.5 Conclusions

References

13.8. Geochemistry of Magmatic Ore Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.8.1 Introduction

13.8.2 Trace Element Behavior

13.8.3 Fertility of Primary Magmas

13.8.4 Incompatible Element Deposits

13.8.5 Compatible Lithophile Element Deposits

13.8.6 Magmatic Chalcophile Element Deposits

13.8.7 Conclusions

References

13.9. Sediment-Hosted Zinc–Lead Mineralization: Processes and Perspectives

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.9.1 Introduction

13.9.2 Sedimentary ‘Exhalative’ Mineralization

13.9.3 Mississippi Valley-Type Mineralization

13.9.4 Irish-Type Zn–Pb Mineralization: A Transitional Ore Type?

13.9.5 Discussion

References

Glossary

13.10. Low-Temperature Sediment-Hosted Copper Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.10.1 Introduction

13.10.2 Geochemistry in the Genesis of SSC Mineralization

13.10.3 Closely Related Sediment-Hosted Copper Deposits

13.10.4 Distantly Related Sediment-Hosted Deposit Types

13.10.5 Concluding Remarks

References

13.11. Deep-Ocean Ferromanganese Crusts and Nodules

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.11.1 Introduction

13.11.2 New Considerations

13.11.3 Paleoceanographic Records from Fe–Mn Crusts and Nodules

13.11.4 Exploration, Technology, and Resource Considerations

13.11.5 Future Directions

References

13.12. Geochemistry of a Marine Phosphate Deposit: A Signpost to Phosphogenesis

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.12.1 Introduction

13.12.2 Statement of the Problem

13.12.3 The MPM: Local Setting

13.12.4 Lithogenous Sediment Fraction

13.12.5 Seawater-Derived Trace Elements

13.12.6 Rare Earth Elements

13.12.7 Summary and Conclusions

References

13.13. Sedimentary Hosted Iron Ores

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.13.1 Introduction

13.13.2 Definition and Classification of Iron-Formation

13.13.3 Enriched BIF-Hosted Iron Ores

13.13.4 Ooidal Ironstones

13.13.5 Summary

References

13.14. Geochemistry of Porphyry Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.14.1 Introduction

13.14.2 Geology, Alteration, and Mineralization

13.14.3 Tectonic Setting

13.14.4 Igneous Petrogenesis

13.14.5 Geochronology

13.14.6 Lead Isotopes

13.14.7 Fluid Inclusions

13.14.8 Conventional Stable Isotopes

13.14.9 Nontraditional Stable Isotopes

13.14.10 Ore-Forming Processes

13.14.11 Exploration Model

References

13.15. Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Gold Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.15.1 Introduction

13.15.2 Epithermal Deposits

13.15.3 Carlin-Type Gold Deposits

13.15.4 Orogenic Gold Deposits

13.15.5 Summary and Conclusions

References

13.16. Silver Vein Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.16.1 Introduction

13.16.2 Silver–Lead–Zinc Veins

13.16.3 Five-Element (Ag–Ni–Co–As–Bi) Veins

13.16.4 Epithermal Ag–Au and Ag–Base Metal Veins

13.16.5 Silver-Bearing Veins Related to Tin Mineralization

13.16.6 Silver-Bearing Veins Related to Skarn Mineralization

13.16.7 Discussion

References

Glossary

13.17. Geochemistry of Placer Gold – A Case Study of the Witwatersrand Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.17.1 Introduction

13.17.2 Chemical and Physical Properties of Gold

13.17.3 Gold Abundances

13.17.4 Gold Compounds and Minerals

13.17.5 Aqueous Geochemistry of Gold at 25 °C

13.17.6 Gold in Surficial Environments

13.17.7 Witwatersrand Gold – A Case Study

13.17.8 Conclusions

References

13.18. Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.18.1 Introduction

13.18.2 Distribution, Abundance, and Classification

13.18.3 Composition

13.18.4 General Genetic Model

13.18.5 Chemical Evolution of the Hydrothermal Fluids

13.18.6 Metal Zoning and Trace Element Geochemistry

13.18.7 Nonsulfide Gangue Minerals

13.18.8 Alteration Mineralogy and Geochemistry

13.18.9 Chemical Sediments

13.18.10 Sulfur Isotopes

13.18.11 Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Carbon Isotopes

13.18.12 Strontium and Lead Isotopes

13.18.13 Conclusions

References

13.19. Uranium Ore Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.19.1 Introduction

13.19.2 The Need for Uranium

13.19.3 Geochemistry of Uranium

13.19.4 Uranium Deposits Through Time

13.19.5 Deposit Types

13.19.6 Synopsis

References

13.20. Iron Oxide(–Cu–Au–REE–P–Ag–U–Co) Systems

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.20.1 Introduction

13.20.2 Geologic Context for IOCG Systems

13.20.3 Synopsis of Deposit Features

13.20.4 Hydrothermal Alteration and System-scale Zoning

13.20.5 Petrologic and Geochemical Characteristics

13.20.6 Summary of the IOCG Clan, Likely Origins, and the terrestrial Hydrothermal Environment

References

13.21. Geochemistry of the Rare-Earth Element, Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.21.1 Introduction

13.21.2 Geochemistry of Rare Elements

13.21.3 Deposit Characteristics

13.21.4 Genesis of HFSE Deposits

13.21.5 Commonalities of Rare-Element Mineralization

References

Relevant Websites

13.22. Geochemistry of Evaporite Ores in an Earth-Scale Climatic and Tectonic Framework

Abstract

13.22.1 Introduction

13.22.2 Extractable Economic Salts (Excluding Halite and CaSO4 Salts)

13.22.3 Sodium Carbonate (Soda-Ash: Trona)

13.22.4 Sodium Sulfate (Salt-Cake)

13.22.5 Borate and Lithium Occurrences

13.22.6 Climatic and Tectonic Controls on Nonmarine Salts

13.22.7 Potash Salts

References

13.23. Gem Deposits

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.23.1 Introduction

13.23.2 Diamond

13.23.3 Ruby and Sapphire

13.23.4 Emerald

13.23.5 Non-Emerald Gem Beryl

13.23.6 Chrysoberyl

13.23.7 Tanzanite

13.23.8 Tsavorite

13.23.9 Topaz

13.23.10 Jade

References

13.24. Exploration Geochemistry

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.24.1 Introduction

13.24.2 The Primary Environment

13.24.3 The Secondary Environment

13.24.4 Regional Geochemical Mapping

13.24.5 Analysis

13.24.6 Geochemical Data Interpretation

References

Volume 14: Archaeology and Anthropology

Dedication

Volume Editor's Introduction

References

14.1. K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar Isotopic Dating Techniques as Applied to Young Volcanic Rocks, Particularly Those Associated with Hominin Localities

Abstract

Acknowledgments

14.1.1 Introduction

14.1.2 Basis of the K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar Dating Techniques

14.1.3 Suitable Materials for Dating

14.1.4 Size Limitations

14.1.5 The Omo-Turkana Basin Sequence

14.1.6 Results from Afar, Ethiopia

14.1.7 Conclusions

References

14.2. Luminescence Dating Methods

Abstract

Acknowledgments

14.2.1 Luminescence Dating

14.2.2 Applications

14.2.3 Summary

References

14.3. Radiocarbon: Calibration to Absolute Time Scale

Abstract

14.3.1 Introduction

14.3.2 Variable Atmospheric 14C Content

14.3.3 Radiocarbon Calibration Curve

14.3.4 Calibration and Calibration Programs

14.3.5 Calibration in Archaeological Studies

References

Glossary

14.4. Radiocarbon: Archaeological Applications

Abstract

14.4.1 Introduction

14.4.2 Late Paleolithic

14.4.3 Neolithic

14.4.4 Development of Metal Use

14.4.5 Bronze Age

14.4.6 Iron Age

14.4.7 Egyptian Chronologies

14.4.8 New World Archaeology

14.4.9 Australia

14.4.10 Polynesia

14.4.11 Chemistry

14.4.12 Bone Dating

14.4.13 Radiocarbon Dating of Art Works and Historical Objects

14.4.14 Understanding Radiocarbon Dates

14.4.15 Bayesian Modeling

References

14.5. The Molecular Clock

Abstract

14.5.1 Introduction

14.5.2 Historical Overview

14.5.3 A Numerical Example: The Chimp–Human Common Ancestor

14.5.4 Difficulties with the Molecular Clock

14.5.5 Coping with an Imperfect Clock

14.5.6 Using Multiple Genes

14.5.7 Conclusions

References

14.6. Correlation: Volcanic Ash, Obsidian

Abstract

Acknowledgments

14.6.1 Introduction

14.6.2 Some Relatively Common Types of Natural Glass and Their Compositions

14.6.3 Field Occurrence

14.6.4 Sample Preparation

14.6.5 Analytical Techniques

14.6.6 Handling Analyses

14.6.7 Recalculation of Analyses

14.6.8 Sets of Analyses

14.6.9 The Problem of Alkali Content

14.6.10 Comparison of Analyses

14.6.11 Examples of Uses of Volcanic Glass in Archaeological Studies

References

14.7. Cosmogenic Nuclide Burial Dating in Archaeology and Paleoanthropology

Abstract

14.7.1 Introduction

14.7.2 Cosmogenic Nuclides

14.7.3 Burial Dating

14.7.4 Applications to Archaeology and Paleoanthropology

14.7.5 Summary

References

Glossary

14.8. Marine Sediment Records of African Climate Change: Progress and Puzzles

Abstract

14.8.1 Introduction

14.8.2 Marine Sediments as Recorders of Terrestrial Climate Change

14.8.3 Marine Sediment Records of African Paleoclimate: Progress and Puzzles

14.8.4 Summary and Future Directions

References

14.9. History of Water in the Middle East and North Africa

Abstract

14.9.1 Introduction

14.9.2 Paleoclimate of the Middle East and Northeast Africa

14.9.3 Conclusions

References

14.10. The Carbon, Oxygen, and Clumped Isotopic Composition of Soil Carbonate in Archeology

Abstract

Acknowledgments

14.10.1 Introduction

14.10.2 Paleosol Carbonate Recognition

14.10.3 Limitations for Archeologists

14.10.4 Seasonality of Formation and Isotopic Equilibrium

14.10.5 Carbon Isotopes in Soil Carbonate

14.10.6 Clumped Isotopes in Soil Carbonate

14.10.7 Oxygen in Soil Carbonate

14.10.8 Integrity of the Isotopic Record from Soil Carbonate

14.10.9 Environmental Reconstruction on Short Timescales and Future Directions

References

14.11. Microanalytical Isotope Chemistry: Applications for Archaeology

Abstract

Acknowledgments

14.11.1 History of Micromilling Technology

14.11.2 Applications of Micromilling Devices toward the Enhancement of Sampling Strategies and Derivation of High-Resolution Records

14.11.3 Future Advances and Directions

14.11.4 Conclusions

14.11.5 Partial List of Applications of Micromilling in Archaeology

References

Glossary

14.12. Stable Isotope Evidence for Hominin Environments in Africa

Abstract

Acknowledgments

14.12.1 Introduction

14.12.2 Carbon Isotopes in Plants

14.12.3 Ecology of Mixed C3 and C4 Ecosystems

14.12.4 Paleotemperature

14.12.5 Diet History of Mammals

14.12.6 Summary and Future Directions

References

Glossary

14.13. Geochemistry of Ancient Metallurgy: Examples from Africa and Elsewhere

Abstract

Acknowledgments

14.13.1 Introduction

14.13.2 Chemistry of Ancient Metallurgy

14.13.3 Geochemistry Methods in Archaeometallurgy: Some Common Examples

14.13.4 Geochemistry Applications in Ancient Metallurgy

14.13.5 Conclusion

References

14.14. Elemental and Isotopic Analysis of Ancient Ceramics and Glass

Abstract

14.14.1 Introduction

14.14.2 Considerations on Archeological Ceramic Studies

14.14.3 Considerations on Archeological Glass Analysis

References

14.15. Synchrotron Methods: Color in Paints and Minerals

Abstract

Abbreviations

14.15.1 Introduction

14.15.2 Studies of Ancient Pigments, Paints, and Minerals

14.15.3 History of Their Study and Current Trends

14.15.4 Overview of Synchrotron-Based Method Used for the Study of Pigments, Paints, and Minerals

14.15.5 Case Studies

14.15.6 Conclusion and Trends

References

Glossary

14.16. Geochemical Methods of Establishing Provenance and Authenticity of Mediterranean Marbles

Abstract

14.16.1 Foreword

14.16.2 Types of Fakes

14.16.3 Determining Marble Provenance

14.16.4 Testing Authenticity

14.16.5 Summary

References

14.17. Biblical Events and Environments – Authentification of Controversial Archaeological Artifacts

Abstract

14.17.1 Introduction

14.17.2 The James Ossuary

14.17.3 Jehoash Inscription

14.17.4 The Ivory Pomegranate

14.17.5 Iron Age Ostraca

14.17.6 Dust

14.17.7 Conclusions

References

14.18. Trace Evidence: Glass, Paint, Soil, and Bone

Abstract

14.18.1 Introduction

14.18.2 Elemental Analysis Techniques

14.18.3 Man-Made Matrices

14.18.4 Natural Matrices

14.18.5 Interpretation

14.18.6 Conclusion

References

Glossary

14.19. Stable Isotopes in Forensics Applications

Abstract

14.19.1 Stable Isotope Geochemistry as a Science-Based Forensic Application

14.19.2 Nonspatial Applications of Stable Isotope Analysis

14.19.3 Spatial Applications of Stable Isotope Analysis

14.19.4 Plant-Related Forensic Applications of Stable Isotope Analysis

14.19.5 Human-Related Forensic Applications of Stable Isotope Analysis

14.19.6 Animal-Related (Nonhuman) Forensic Applications of Stable Isotope Analysis

14.19.7 Archaeological and Gem Origin Investigations Utilizing Stable Isotope Analysis

14.19.8 Isotope Geochemists as Contributors to the Forensic Sciences

References

14.20. Reconstructing Aquatic Resource Exploitation in Human Prehistory Using Lipid Biomarkers and Stable Isotopes

Abstract

Acknowledgments

14.20.1 Introduction

14.20.2 Reconstructing Diet and Economy from Organic Residues Preserved in Archeological Pottery

14.20.3 The Lipid Composition of Aquatic Fats and Oils

14.20.4 Early Attempts to Detect Aquatic Lipids in the Archeological Record

14.20.5 New Aquatic Resource Biomarkers

14.20.6 Stable Isotope Proxies

14.20.7 Experimental Approaches and Protocols

14.20.8 Detecting Evidence for Marine Product Processing in Prehistory Using Biomarker and Stable Isotope Proxies

14.20.9 Conclusions

References

Glossary

14.21. Investigating Ancient Diets Using Stable Isotopes in Bioapatites

Abstract

14.21.1 Introduction

14.21.2 A Few Basics

14.21.3 Development of the Field

14.21.4 Practical Issues

14.21.5 Applications

14.21.6 Conclusions

References

14.22. Human Physiology in Relation to Isotopic Studies of Ancient and Modern Humans

Abstract

14.22.1 Introduction

14.22.2 Molecular Constituents of Human Tissues

14.22.3 Tissues Preserved Postmortem

14.22.4 Homeostasis, Mineral Stability

14.22.5 Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases

References

14.23. Hair as a Geochemical Recorder: Ancient to Modern

Abstract

14.23.1 Introduction

14.23.2 Survival of Hair in Archaeological and Forensic Contexts

14.23.3 Studies of Isotope Ratios in Animal Hair

14.23.4 Anthropological Studies on Modern and Historically Collected Hair

14.23.5 Health and Medical Applications of Hair Analysis

14.23.6 Archaeological Hair

14.23.7 Applications to Forensic Investigations

14.23.8 Geography and Temporal Dynamics in Hair Oxygen Isotope Ratios

14.23.9 Future Directions

References

Volume 15: Analytical Geochemistry/Inorganic INSTR. Analysis

Dedication

Volume Editor’s Introduction

The First Step: Sampling Strategies and Getting Ready for the Lab

Uncertainties, Reference Materials, and Isotope Dilution

Digesting and Preparing Samples in the Clean Lab

Analyzing the Sample: Photons and Atomic Masses

Analyzing the Planet: New Developments

15.1. Basic Considerations: Sampling, the Key for a Successful Applied Geochemical Survey for Mineral Exploration and Environmental Purposes

Abstract

Acknowledgments

15.1.1 Introduction and Background Information

15.1.2 Design of a Geochemical Sampling Campaign

15.1.3 Randomization of Samples

15.1.4 Quality Control – Duplicate Field Samples and Control Samples

15.1.5 Sampling

15.1.6 Sampling in the Laboratory

15.1.7 Conclusions

References

15.2. Error Propagation

Abstract

Acknowledgments

15.2.1 Introduction

15.2.2 Accuracy, Precision, and Types of Errors

15.2.3 Statistical Treatment of Random Errors

15.2.4 Probability Distributions

15.2.5 Calibration Curves, Blank Standard Deviation, and Instrumental Analysis

15.2.6 Error Propagation

References

15.3. Reference Materials in Geochemical and Environmental Research

Abstract

Acknowledgments

15.3.1 Introduction

15.3.2 ISO Guidelines and IAG Certification Protocol

15.3.3 Rock Reference Materials

15.3.4 Environmental Reference Materials

15.3.5 Microanalytical Reference Materials

15.3.6 Isotopic Reference Materials

15.3.7 GeoReM Database

15.3.8 Successes and Needs

References

Relevant Websites

15.4. Application of Isotope Dilution in Geochemistry

Abstract

Acknowledgment

15.4.1 Introduction

15.4.2 Applications of Isotope Dilution

15.4.3 Principles of Isotope Dilution

15.4.4 Applying Isotope Dilution

15.4.5 Double and Triple Spiking

15.4.6 Conclusions

References

15.5. Sample Digestion Methods

Abstract

Acknowledgements

15.5.1 Introduction

15.5.2 General Considerations

15.5.3 Sample Digestion Methods

15.5.4 Summary and Overview

References

15.6. Developments in Clean Lab Practices

Abstract

Acknowledgments

15.6.1 Introduction

15.6.2 Detection and Quantification Limits

15.6.3 Design of a Clean Room

15.6.4 Clean Lab Equipment, Labware, and Reagents

15.6.5 Examples of Low-Level Blank Studies

15.6.6 Concluding Remarks

References

15.7. Basics of Ion Exchange Chromatography for Selected Geological Applications

Abstract

15.7.1 Introduction

15.7.2 Basic Principles of Ion Chromatography

15.7.3 Cation Exchange Versus Anion Exchange Chromatography

15.7.4 Applications of Anion and Cation Exchange Chromatography for Element Enrichment and Purification Prior to High-Precision Isotope Analyses by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS

15.7.5 Concluding Remarks

References

Glossary

15.8. Separation Methods Based on Liquid–Liquid Extraction, Extraction Chromatography, and Other Miscellaneous Solid Phase Extraction Processes

Abstract

15.8.1 Introduction

15.8.2 Separations by Liquid–Liquid Extraction

15.8.3 Extraction Chromatography

15.8.4 Other Element-Specific SPE Materials

15.8.5 Suggestions for Future Trends

References

15.9. Principles of Atomic Spectroscopy

Abstract

15.9.1 Introduction and Terminology

15.9.2 Some History

15.9.3 Principles of Atomic Spectroscopy: Electromagnetic Radiation

15.9.4 Origin of Atomic Spectra

15.9.5 Analytical Applications of Atomic Spectroscopy

15.9.6 Characteristics of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry Instruments

References

15.10. x-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Geochemistry

Abstract

15.10.1 Principles

15.10.2 Instrumentation

15.10.3 Sample Preparation

15.10.4 Qualitative Analysis

15.10.5 Quantitative Analysis

15.10.6 Further Techniques

References

15.11. Raman and Nuclear Resonant Spectroscopy in Geosciences

Abstract

Acknowledgments

15.11.1 Introduction

15.11.2 Raman Spectroscopy

15.11.3 Synchrotron MS and NRIXS

15.11.4 Prospective Directions

References

15.12. Synchrotron x-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis

Abstract

Acknowledgments

15.12.1 Introduction

15.12.2 High-Energy Synchrotrons

15.12.3 Synchrotron Radiation Sources

15.12.4 Synchrotron Beamlines

15.12.5 XAFS Analysis

15.12.6 XRM Analysis

15.12.7 Computed Microtomography

15.12.8 Surface and Interface Methods

15.12.9 Other Synchrotron Methods

15.12.10 Future Directions

References

15.13. Transmission Electron Microscope-Based Spectroscopy

Abstract

15.13.1 Introduction

15.13.2 TEM Design Considerations

15.13.3 Energy-Dispersive x-Ray Spectroscopy and Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Instrumentation

15.13.4 Sample Preparation

15.13.5 Energy-Dispersive x-Ray Spectroscopy Examples

15.13.6 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Examples

References

Glossary

15.14. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Abstract

Acknowledgments

15.14.1 Introduction and Overview

15.14.2 The LIBS Analysis

15.14.3 LIBS Fundamentals

15.14.4 Laboratory, Field-Portable, and Standoff LIBS Analysis

15.14.5 Example Applications of LIBS for Natural Material Analysis

15.14.6 Statistical Signal Processing for LIBS

15.14.7 Conclusions – The Path Forward

References

15.15. Nuclear Spectroscopy

Abstract

15.15.1 Introduction

15.15.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity

15.15.3 The Atomic Nucleus, Isotopes, and Radionuclides

15.15.4 Radioactive Decay

15.15.5 Nuclear Reactions

15.15.6 Irradiation Sources

15.15.7 Interactions Between Radiation and Matter

15.15.8 Radiation Detection and Measurement

15.15.9 Applications for Nuclear Spectroscopy

References

15.16. Stable Isotope Techniques for Gas Source Mass Spectrometry

Abstract

15.16.1 Introduction

15.16.2 Mass Spectrometers

15.16.3 Standardization

15.16.4 Methods of Analysis

15.16.5 Laser Absorption Spectrometry

References

15.17. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometers

Abstract

15.17.1 Introduction

15.17.2 Sample Preparation

15.17.3 Sample Introduction and Ion Production

15.17.4 Sampler/Skimmer Interface

15.17.5 ICP-MS with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers

15.17.6 Spectral Overlaps in ICP-MS

15.17.7 Collision/Reaction Cells to Overcome Spectral Overlaps in ICP-Quadrupole MS

15.17.8 ICP-MS Instrument Designs with a Quadrupole Mass Analyzer

15.17.9 ICP-Sector Field Mass Spectrometers

15.17.10 ICP-MS Instruments with Simultaneous Detection of the Mass Spectrum

15.17.11 Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometers

References

Glossary

15.18. Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Abstract

Acknowledgments

15.18.1 Introduction

15.18.2 Why TIMS Survives

15.18.3 Thermal Ionization

15.18.4 The Physical TIMS Instrument

15.18.5 Measuring Isotope Ratios by TIMS

15.18.6 Conclusions and Future Prospects

References

15.19. Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry

Abstract

Acknowledgments

15.19.1 Introduction

15.19.2 Characteristics of Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry

15.19.3 Types of Samples, Noble Gas Extraction and Purification

15.19.4 Ionization, Mass Separation, and Ion Detection

15.19.5 Calibration

15.19.6 Blank and Interference Corrections

15.19.7 Mass Spectrometer Memory and Ion Pumping

15.19.8 Outlook

References

15.20. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

Abstract

15.20.1 Introduction

15.20.2 The AMS Instrument

15.20.3 Ion Source

15.20.4 Injection Magnet and Bouncer

15.20.5 Tandem Particle Accelerator and Stripper

15.20.6 High-Energy Particle Analysis

15.20.7 Particle Detection

15.20.8 Development of Smaller Machines

15.20.9 Conclusion

References

15.21. Ion Microscopes and Microprobes

Abstract

15.21.1 Overview

15.21.2 Primary Ion Beams

15.21.3 Secondary Ions

15.21.4 Mass Spectrometry

15.21.5 Instrumentation

15.21.6 Measurement

15.21.7 Chemical Analysis

15.21.8 Stable Isotope Analysis

15.21.9 Radiogenic Isotopes

15.21.10 Isotopic Anomalies

15.21.11 Future Developments and Issues

References

15.22. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry, and Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Abstract

15.22.1 Introduction

15.22.2 Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

15.22.3 Organic TOF-SIMS

15.22.4 New Developments of TOF-SIMS

15.22.5 Postionization

References

15.23. Laser Ablation ICP-MS and Laser Fluorination GS-MS

Abstract

15.23.1 Introduction

15.23.2 Laser Processing

15.23.3 Laser Ablation ICP-MS Methodology

15.23.4 Laser Fluorination Mass Spectrometry

15.23.5 Conclusions

References

15.24. Geoneutrino Detection

Abstract

15.24.1 Introduction

15.24.2 Neutrino Physics

15.24.3 Neutrino Detector Technologies

15.24.4 Existing and Planned Geoneutrino Detectors

15.24.5 Desired Future Developments

15.24.6 Conclusions

References

Volume 16: Indexes

Index

Author Index

Quotes and reviews

"This landmark 10-volume publication is a comprehensive review of the many-faceted field of geochemistry. (...)
The Treatise will be an indispensable reference not only to academics but to contamination cleanup professionals, resource managers, and environmental regulators as well."
David W. Morganwalp, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
 
 
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