The Electrical Engineering Handbook, 1st Edition

Contributors

Preface

Editor-in-Chief

Part I: Circuit Theory

INTRODUCTION TO CIRCUIT THEORY

Chapter 1: Linear Circuit Analysis

1.1 Definitions and Terminology

1.2 Circuit Laws

1.3 Circuit Analysis

1.4 Equivalent Circuits

1.5 Network Theorems

1.6 Time Domain Analysis

1.7 Laplace Transform

1.8 State Variable Analysis

1.9 Alternating Current Steady State Analysis

1.10 Alternating Current Steady State Power

Chapter 2: Circuit Analysis: A Graph-Theoretic Foundation

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Basic Concepts and Results

2.3 Graphs and Electrical Networks

2.4 Loop and Cutset Systems of Equations

2.5 Summary

Chapter 3: Computer-Aided Design

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Modified Nodal Analysis

3.3 Formulation of MNA Equations of Nonlinear Circuits

3.4 A Direct Current Solution of Nonlinear Circuits

3.5 Transient Analysis of Nonlinear Circuits

Chapter 4: Synthesis of Networks

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Elementary Networks

4.3 Network Functions

4.4 Frequency Domain Responses

4.5 Normalization and Scaling

4.6 Approximations for Low-Pass Filters

4.7 Transformations of Inductor Capacitor Low-Pass Filters

4.8 Realizability of Functions

4.9 Synthesis of LC One-Ports

4.10 Synthesis of LC Two-Port Networks

4.11 All-Pass Networks

4.12 Summary

Chapter 5: Nonlinear Circuits

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Models of Physical Circuit Elements

5.3 Voltages and Currents in Nonlinear Circuits

5.4 Open Problems

Part II: Electronics

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRONICS

Chapter 1: Investigation of Power Management Issues for Future Generation Microprocessors

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Limitations of Today’s Technologies

1.3 Advanced VRM Topologies

1.4 Future VRMs

1.5 Conclusions

Chapter 2: Noise in Analog and Digital Systems

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Analog (Small-Signal) Noise

2.3 Digital (Large-Signal) Noise

Chapter 3: Field Effect Transistors

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Metal-Oxide-Silicon Capacitor

3.3 Metal-Oxide-Silicon Field Effect Transistor

3.4 Junction Field Effect Transistor

3.5 Metal-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

3.6 Modulation-Doped Field Effect Transistor

Chapter 4: Active Filters

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Realization Methods

Chapter 5: Junction Diodes and Bipolar Junction Transistors

5.1 Junction Diodes

5.2 Bipolar Junction Transistor

Chapter 6: Semiconductors

6.1 History of Semiconductors

6.2 Dielectrics, Semiconductors, and Metals

6.3 Electron and Hole Velocities and Mobilities

6.4 Important Semiconductor Materials

Chapter 7: Power Semiconductor Devices

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Breakdown Voltage

7.3 P-i-N Diode

7.4 Schottky Diode

7.5 Power Bipolar Transistor

7.6 Thyristor

7.7 Gate Turn-Off Thyristor

7.8 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

7.9 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

7.10 Other MOS-Gate Devices

7.11 Smart Power Technologies

7.12 Other Material Technologies

Part III: VLSI SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION TO VLSI SYSTEMS

Chapter 1: Logarithmic and Residue Number Systems for VLSI Arithmetic

1.1 Introduction

1.2 LNS Basics

1.3 The Residue Number System

Chapter 2: Custom Memory Organization and Data Transfer: Architectural Issues and Exploration Methods

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Custom Memory Components

2.3 Off-Chip and Global Hierarchical Memory Organization

2.4 Code Rewriting Techniques to Improve Data Reuse and Access Locality

2.5 How to Meet Real-Time Bandwidth Constraints

2.6 Custom Memory Organization Design

2.7 Data Layout Reorganization for Reduced Memory Size

Chapter 3: The Role of Hardware Description Languages in the Design Process of Multinature Systems

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Design Process and Levels of Abstraction

3.3 Fundamentals of VHDL–AMS

3.4 Systems Modeling: A Multinature Example

3.5 Conclusion and Further Readings

Chapter 4: Clock Skew Scheduling for Improved Reliability

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Background

4.3 Clock Scheduling for Improved Reliability

4.4 Derivation of the QP Algorithm

4.5 Practical Considerations

4.6 Experimental Results

Chapter 5: Trends in Low-Power VLSI Design

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Importance of Low-Power CMOS Design

5.3 Sources of Power Consumption in CMOS

5.4 Power Consumption Considerations

5.5 Energy Versus Power

5.6 Optimization Metrics

5.7 Techniques for Power Reduction

Acknowledgments

Chapter 6: Production and Utilization of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Overview of MEMS

6.3 From Design to Reliable MEMS Devices

6.4 Diversity of MEMS Applications

6.5 Summary

Chapter 7: Noise Analysis and Design in Deep Submicron Technology

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Noise Sources

7.3 Noise Reduction Techniques

7.4 Noise Analysis Algorithms

Acknowledgments

Chapter 8: Interconnect Noise Analysis and Optimization in Deep Submicron Technology

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Interconnect Noise Models

8.3 Noise Minimization Techniques

8.4 Interconnect Noise in Early Design Stages

8.5 Case Study Pentium 4

Acknowledgments

Part IV: Digital Systems and Computer Engineering

INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: Computer Architecture

1.1 Microprogramming

1.2 Memory Hierarchy in Computer Systems

1.3 Bus and Interface

1.4 Input/Output

Chapter 2: Multiprocessors

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Architecture of Multiprocessor Systems

2.3 Cache Coherence

2.4 Software Development and Tools

2.5 Recent Advances

2.6 Summary

Chapter 3: Configurable Computing

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Approach

3.3 Overview

3.4 Current and Future Trends

3.5 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 4: Operating Systems

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Operating System Concepts

4.3 Operating Systems History

4.4 A Model Operating System

4.5 Case 1: UNIX

4.6 Case 2: MS-DOS

Chapter 5: Expert Systems

5.1 Overview

5.2 Knowledge Representation

5.3 Reasoning

5.4 Knowledge Acquisition

5.5 Explanation

Chapter 6: Multimedia Systems: Content-Based Indexing and Retrieval

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Multimedia Storage and Encoding

6.3 Multimedia Indexing and Retrieval

6.4 Conclusions

Chapter 7: Multimedia Networks and Communication

7.1 Preface

7.2 Introduction to Multimedia

7.3 Best-Effort Internet Support for Distributed Multimedia Traffic Requirements

7.4 Enhancing the TCP/IP Protocol Stack to Support Functional Requirements of Distributed Multimedia Applications

7.5 Quality of Service Architecture for Third-Generation Cellular Systems

Chapter 8: Fault Tolerance in Computer Systems—From Circuits to Algorithms

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Fault Detection and Tolerance for Arithmetic Circuits

8.3 Fault Tolerance in Field-Programmable Gate Arrays

8.4 Control Flow Checking With a Watchdog Processor

8.5 Microrollback—A Fault-Tolerance Mechanism for Processor Systems

8.6 Algorithm-Based Fault Tolerance

8.7 Conclusions

Chapter 9: High-Level Petri Nets—Extensions, Analysis, and Applications

9.1 Introduction

9.2 High-Level Petri Nets

9.3 Temporal Predicate Transition Nets

9.4 PZ Nets

9.4.3 PZ Net Analysis

9.5 Hierarchical Predicate Transition Nets

9.6 Fuzzy-Timing High-Level Petri Nets

Part V: Electromagnetics

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROMAGNETICS

Chapter 1: Magnetostatics

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Direct Current

1.3 Governing Equations of Magnetostatics

1.4 Magnetic Force and Torque

1.5 Magnetic Materials

1.6 Inductance

1.7 Stored Energy

1.8 Magnetic Circuits

Chapter 2: Electrostatics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Sources and Fields

2.3 Boundary Conditions and Laplace’s Equation

2.4 Capacitance

Chapter 3: Plane Wave Propagation and Reflection

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Basic Properties of a Plane Wave

3.3 Propagation of a Homogeneous Plane Wave

3.4 Plane Wave Reflection and Transmission

3.5 Example: Reflection of an RHCP Wave

Chapter 4: Transmission Lines

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Equivalent Circuit

4.3 Alternating Current Analysis

4.4 Smith Chart

4.5 Summary

Chapter 5: Guided Waves

5.1 Definition of Guiding Structure or Waveguide

5.2 Classification and Definitions

5.3 Rectangular Waveguide

5.4 Partially Filled Metallic Rectangular Waveguide

5.5 Circular Metal Waveguide

5.6 Microstrip Line

5.7 Slot Line

5.8 Coplanar Waveguide

5.9 Dielectric Circular Waveguide and Optical Fiber

5.10 Line-Type Waveguide

Chapter 40: Antennas and Radiation

I Antenna Fundamentals

Chapter 6: Antenna Elements and Arrays

6.6 Introduction

6.7 Antenna Elements

6.8 Antenna Array

Chapter 7: Microwave Passive Components

7.1 General Concepts and Basic Definitions

7.2 Basic Passive Elements and Circuits

7.3 Impedance Transformers and Matching Networks

7.4 Hybrids, Couplers, and Power Dividers/Combiners

7.5 Resonators and Cavities

7.6 Filter Circuits

7.7 Ferrite Components

7.8 Other Passive Components

Chapter 8: Computational Electromagnetics: The Method of Moments

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Basic Principle

8.3 Integral Equations

8.4 Basis Functions

8.5 Testing Functions

8.6 Solution of Matrix Equations

Chapter 9: Computational Electromagnetics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Maxwell’s Equations

9.3 The Yee Algorithm

9.4 Numerical Dispersion

9.5 Numerical Stability

9.6 Perfectly Matched Layer Absorbing Boundary Conditions

9.7 Examples of FDTD Modeling Applications

9.8 Summary and Conclusions

Chapter 10: Radar and Inverse Scattering

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Parameters of a Pulsed Radar

10.3 Radar Equation

10.4 Radar Cross Section

10.5 Radar Transmitters

10.6 Radar Receivers and Displays

10.7 Radar Antennas

10.8 Clutter

10.9 Radar Detection

10.10 Continuous Wave Radars

10.11 Moving Target Indicator and Pulse Doppler Radars

10.12 Tracking Radar

10.13 High-Resolution Radar

10.14 High Cross-Range Resolution Radar

10.15 Inverse Scattering

Chapter 11: Microwave Active Circuits and Integrated Antennas

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Device Technology and Concepts

11.3 Active Microwave Circuits

11.4 Planar Antenna Technology

11.5 Active Integrated Antennas

Part VI: Electric Power Systems

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

The Importance of the Electric System

Chapter 1: Three-Phase Alternating Current Systems

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Two-Wire and Three-Wire Systems: Current

1.3 Voltages

Chapter 2: Electric Power System Components

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Generators and Transformers

Chapter 3: Power Transformers

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Transformers: Description and Use

3.3 Transformers: Theory and Principle

3.4 Cooling Methods

3.5 Transformer Applications

3.6 Cores and Windings

3.7 Transformer Performance

3.8 Acceptance Tests

Chapter 4: Introduction to Electric Machines

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Direct Current Machines

4.3 Three-Phase Induction Motor

4.4 Synchronous Machines

4.5 Single-Phase Induction Machines

Chapter 5: High-Voltage Transmission

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Design Considerations for Overhead Lines

5.3 Stresses Encountered in Service

5.4 Insulator Performance

5.5 Established Methods Employed for Installations In-Service

5.6 Newer Developments to Improve Performance of Installations In-Service

5.7 Methods for Improving Contamination Performance of New Installations

5.8 Underground Transmission Cables

Chapter 6: Power Distribution

6.1 Distribution System

6.2 Quality of Service and Voltage Standards

Chapter 7: Power System Analysis

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Steady-State Analysis

7.3 Dynamic Analysis

7.4 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Power System Operation and Control

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Generation Dispatch

8.3 Frequency Control

8.4 Conclusion: Contemporary Issues

Chapter 9: Fundamentals of Power System Protection

9.1 Fundamentals of Power System Protection

9.2 Relaying Systems, Principles, and Criteria of Operation

9.3 Protection of Transmission Lines

9.4 Protection of Power Transformers

9.5 Protection of Synchronous Generators

9.6 Bus Protection

9.7 Protection of Induction Motors

Chapter 10: Electric Power Quality

10.1 Definition

10.2 Types of Disturbances

10.3 Measurement of Electric Power Quality

10.4 Instrumentation Considerations

10.5 Analysis Techniques

10.6 Nomenclature

Part VII: Signal Processing

INTRODUCTION TO SIGNAL PROCESSING

Chapter 1: Signals and Systems

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Signals

1.3 Systems

1.4 Analysis in Frequency Domain

1.5 The z-Transform and Laplace Transform

1.6 Sampling and Quantization

1.7 Discrete Fourier Transform

1.8 Summary

Chapter 2: Digital Filters

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Digital Signal Processing Systems

2.3 Sampling of Analog Signals

2.4 Digital Filters and Linear Systems

2.5 Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters

2.6 Infinite Impulse Response Filters

2.7 Digital Filter Realizations

2.8 FIR Filter Approximation Methods

2.9 FIR Filter Design by Optimization

2.10 IIR Filter Approximations

2.11 Quantization in Digital Filters

2.12 Real-Time Implementation of Digital Filters

2.13 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Methods, Models, and Algorithms for Modern Speech Processing

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Modeling Speech Production

3.3 Fundamental Methods and Algorithms Used in Speech Processing

3.4 Specialized Speech Processing Methods and Algorithms

3.5 Summary and Conclusions

Chapter 4: Digital Image Processing

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Image Sampling

4.3 Image Quantization

4.4 Image Enhancement

4.5 Image Restoration

4.6 Image Coding

4.7 Image Analysis

4.8 Summary

Chapter 5: Multimedia Systems and Signal Processing

5.1 Introduction

5.2 MPEG-7 UMA

5.3 MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation

5.4 Transcoding Optimization

5.5 Multimedia Content Selection

5.6 Summary

Chapter 6: Statistical Signal Processing

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Bayesian Estimation

6.3 Linear Estimation

6.4 Fisher Statistics

6.5 Signal Detection

6.6 Suggested Readings

Chapter 7: VLSI Signal Processing

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Algorithm to Hardware Synthesis

7.3 Hardware Implementation

7.4 Conclusion

Part VIII: Digital Communication and Communication Networks

INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL COMMUNICATION AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

Chapter 1: Signal Types, Properties, and Processes

1.1 Signal Types

1.2 Energy and Power of a Signal

1.3 Random Processes

1.4 Transmission of a Random Signal Through a Linear Time-Invariant Filter

1.5 Power Spectral Density

1.6 Relation Between the psd of Input Versus the psd of Output

Chapter 2: Digital Communication System Concepts

2.1 Digital Communication System

2.2 Messages, Characters, and Symbols

2.3 Sampling Process

2.4 Aliasing

2.5 Quantization

2.6 Pulse Amplitude Modulation

2.7 Sources of Corruption

2.8 Voice Communication

2.9 Encoding

Chapter 3: Transmission of Digital Signals

3.1 Transmission of Digital Data

3.2 Detection of Binary Signals in Gaussian Noise

3.3 Error Probability

3.4 The Matched Filter

3.5 Error Probability Performance of Binary Signaling

3.6 Equalizer

Chapter 4: Modulation and Demodulation Technologies

4.1 Modulation and Demodulation

4.2 Introduction to Modulation

4.3 Phase Shift Keying

4.4 Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

4.5 The π/4 Differential Phase Shift Keying

4.6 Minimum Shift Keying

4.7 Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying

4.8 Synchronization

4.9 Equalization

4.10 Summary of Modulation and Demodulation Processes

Chapter 5: Data Communication Concepts

5.1 Introduction to Data Networking

Chapter 6: Communication Network Architecture

6.1 Computer Network Architecture

6.2 Local Networking Technologies

6.3 Local Network Internetworking Using Bridges or Routers

6.4 Conclusion

Glossary

Chapter 7: Wireless Network Access Technologies

7.1 Access Technologies

7.2 Comparisons of FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA

Chapter 8: Convergence of Networking Technologies

8.1 Convergence

8.2 Optical Networking

Part IX: Controls and Systems

INTRODUCTION TO CONTROLS AND SYSTEMS

Chapter 1: Algebraic Topics in Control

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Vector Spaces Over Fields and Modules Over Rings

1.3 Matrices and Matrix Algebra

1.4 Square Matrix Functions: Determinants and Inverses

1.5 The Algebra of Polynomials

1.6 Characteristic and Singular Values

1.7 Nonassociative Algebras

1.8 Biosystems Applications

Chapter 2: Stability

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Stability Concepts

2.3 Stability Criteria

2.4 Lyapunov Stability Concepts

2.5 Lyapunov Stability of Linear Time-Invariant Systems

2.6 Lyapunov Stability Results

Chapter 3: Robust Multivariable Control

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Modeling

3.3 Performance Analysis

3.4 Stability Theorems

3.5 Robust Stability

3.6 Linear Quadratic Regulator and Gaussian Control Problems

3.7 H∞ Control

3.8 Passivity-Based Control

3.9 Conclusion

Chapter 4: State Estimation

4.1 Introduction

4.2 State-Space Representations

4.3 Recursive State Estimation

4.4 State Estimator Design Approaches

4.5 Performance Analysis

4.6 Implementation Issues

4.7 Example: Inertial Navigation System Error Estimation

4.8 Further Reading

Chapter 5: Cost-Cumulants and Risk-Sensitive Control

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian Control

5.3 Cost-Cumulant Control

5.4 Risk-Sensitive Control

5.5 Relationship Between Risk-Sensitive and Cost-Cumulant Control

5.6 Applications

5.7 Conclusions

Chapter 6: Frequency Domain System Identification

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Frequency Domain Curve-Fitting

6.3 State-Space System Realization

6.4 Application Studies

6.5 Conclusion

Chapter 7: Modeling Interconnected Systems: A Functional Perspective

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Component Connection Model

7.3 System Identification

7.4 Simulation

7.5 Fault Analysis

7.6 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 8: Fault-Tolerant Control

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Overview of Fault Diagnosis and Accommodation

8.3 Problem Statement

8.4 Online Fault Accommodation Control

8.5 Architecture of Multiple Model-Based Fault Diagnosis and Accommodation

8.6 Simulation Study and Discussions

8.7 Conclusion

Chapter 9: Gain-Scheduled Controllers

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Gain-Scheduling Design Through Linearization

9.3 Gain Scheduling for Linear Parameter Varying Systems

9.4 Conclusions

Chapter 10: Sliding-Mode Control Methodologies for Regulating Idle Speed in Internal Combustion Engines

10.1 Introduction

10.2 SMC for Systems with Delay

10.3 Discrete Adaptive Sliding-Mode Control

10.4 Application: IC Engine Idle Speed Control

10.5 Application of SMC for Point-Delayed Systems

10.6 Application of Adaptive DSMC

10.7 Summary

Chapter 11: Nonlinear Input/Output Control: Volterra Synthesis

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Problem Definition Using Total Synthesis

11.3 Plant Representation

11.4 Controller Design

11.5 Simplified Partial Linearization Controller Design

11.6 SDOF Base-Isolated Structure Example

11.7 Conclusion

Chapter 12: Intelligent Control of Nonlinear Systems with a Time-Varying Structure

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Direct Adaptive Control

12.3 Application: Direct Adaptive Wing Rock Regulation with Varying Angle of Attack

12.4 Conclusion

Chapter 13: Direct Learning by Reinforcement

13.1 Introduction

13.2 A General Framework for Direct Learning Through Association and Reinforcement

13.3 Analytical Characteristics of an Online NDP Learning Process

13.4 Example 1

13.5 Example 2

13.6 Conclusion

Chapter 14: Software Technologies for Complex Control Systems

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Objects and Components: Software Technologies

14.3 Layered Architectures

14.4 Networked Communications

14.5 Middleware

14.6 Real-Time Applications

14.7 Software Tools for Control Applications

Acknowledgments

Index