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The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System
 
 

The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System, 1st Edition

 
The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System, 1st Edition,Bertha Madras,Michael Kuhar,ISBN9780124186798
 
 
 

Madras   &   Kuhar   

Academic Press

9780124186798

9780124186859

624

235 X 191

A detailed reference on the impact of common drug addiction on the brain and central nervous system

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Key Features

*A comprehensive reference on the effects of drug addiction on the human nervous system
*Focuses on core drug addiction issues from nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, alcohol, and other commonly abused drugs
*Includes foundational science chapters on the biology of addiction
*Details challenges in diagnosis and treatment options

Description

Drug use and abuse continues to thrive in contemporary society worldwide and the instance and damage caused by addiction increases along with availability. The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System presents objective, state-of-the-art information on the impact of drug abuse on the human nervous system, with each chapter offering a specific focus on nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA, sedative-hypnotics, and designer drugs. Other chapters provide a context for drug use, with overviews of use and consequences, epidemiology and risk factors, genetics of use and treatment success, and strategies to screen populations and provide appropriate interventions. The book offers meaningful, relevant and timely information for scientists, health-care professionals and treatment providers.

 

Readership

Clinical Neurology, Clinical Research Neurologists, Clinical Psychologists, Psychiatry, Neuroscience

Bertha Madras

Dr. Madras is Professor of Psychobiology at Harvard Medical School (HMS), is cross-appointed at the Massachusetts General Hospital and founded the Division of Neurochemistry at the HMS Primate Center. She served as Deputy Director for Demand Reduction in the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), a Presidential appointment confirmed unanimously by the Senate. Her discoveries in addiction neurobiology and pharmacology informed her development of candidate medications and brain imaging probes, the latter widely used in clinical research of drug mechanisms, neurotoxicity, Parkinson’s disease diagnosis, ADHD, other neuropsychiatric disorders. The Division also developed naturalistic primate genotype/phenotype models of psychiatric disorders. Her current research focuses on molecular adaptations which conceivably alter the trajectory of brain development in adolescent drug users. She has authored numerous scientific manuscripts, co-edited the “The Cell Biology of Addiction”, and received 19 patents with collaborators. Her commitment to academic and public education is reflected in her mentorship of students, creation of courses on addiction biology (HMS, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) and a Boston Museum of Science exhibit and CD (licensed by Disney Corp. in 2006) on how drugs affect the brain. At ONDCP, her public health approach to Demand Reduction featured medicalization of Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) services. She spearheaded approval of SBIRT CPT® Medicaid and Medicare billing codes, web-based screening/training, and a UN endorsement of SBIRT. Recognition includes NIH-NIDA MERIT, Public Service and Career Scientist awards, an American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry Founders’ Award, Marian Fischman Award, and designation of the imaging agent altropane in “The Better World Report, 2006”, as one of “25 technology transfer innovations that changed the world”. She has delivered hundreds of presentations on addiction and related topics to various groups nationally and globally.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA

Michael Kuhar

Michael J Kuhar, PhD, is currently Candler Professor in the Emory University School of Medicine, a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar, and Professor at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. His general areas of interest have been the structure and function of the brain, mental illness, and the drugs that affect the brain. Addiction has been his major focus for many years, and he is one of the most productive and highly cited scientists worldwide. He has trained a large cadre of students, fellows and visitors, received a number of prestigious awards for his work, and remains involved in many aspects of addiction research and education. In June, he received the Eddy lifetime achievement award from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence.

Affiliations and Expertise

Neuropharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA

The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System, 1st Edition

List of Contributors

Chapter One. Drug Use and Its Consequences

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Drugs and Consequences

2.2 Consequences of Use

2.3 Biology

2.4 public Policy

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Two. Genetics of Substance Use, Abuse, Cessation, and Addiction: Novel Data Implicate Copy Number Variants

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Working Hypothesis I: Genomic Variants of Several Classes and Differing Frequencies Contribute to Vulnerability to Addiction and Ability to Quit

2.2 Working Hypothesis II: Genomic Variants that Contribute to Vulnerability to Addiction and Ability to Quit Provide Largely Additive Influences

2.3 Working Hypothesis III: Most Genomic Variants that Contribute to Dependence or Ability to Quit Exert Effects of Small Size, Though There are Larger Influences in Specific Populations and for Addiction-Associated Phenotypes

2.4 Working Hypothesis IV: There are Robust Overall Genetic Influences on Vulnerability to Dependence, Many Shared across Vulnerabilities to Different Substances. There are Robust Overall Genetic Influences on Ability to Quit, Some of Which Overlap with Those that Determine Degree of Dependence

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Three. Epidemiology of Drug Abuse: Building Blocks for Etiologic Research

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 Epidemiology

2.2 Etiology

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Four. Detection of Populations At-Risk or Addicted: Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in Clinical Settings

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Use of Alcohol

2.2 Substance Abuse

2.3 Prevention and Intervention

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Five. Cocaine: Mechanism and Effects in the Human Brain

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Cocaine Use in Humans

2.2 Imaging Cocaine Abuse in the Human Brain

2.3 Imaging Cocaine: Behavioral Correlates

2.4 Dopamine Transmission in Striatal Subdivisions

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Six. Stress, Anxiety, and Cocaine Abuse

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Neurotransmitter Systems in Cocaine Withdrawal-Induced Anxiety and Stress-Induced Relapse

2.2 Serotonin

2.3 Corticotropin Releasing Factor

2.4 Norepinephrine

2.5 Endogenous Opioids

2.6 Other Neuropeptides

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Seven. The Neuropathology of Drug Abuse

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Neurobiological Basics of Drug Abuse

2.2 CNS Alterations of the Major Drugs of Abuse

2.3 Opioids and Derivatives

2.4 Cocaine

2.5 Amphetamines, Methamphetamine, and Designer Drugs

2.6 Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Derivatives

2.7 Neuropathological Investigations of (Poly-) Drug Abusers

2.8 Neurodegeneration and Drugs of Abuse

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Eight. The Pathology of Methamphetamine Use in the Human Brain

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 Does Methamphetamine, a Dopamine Releaser, Cause Loss of Dopamine Neuronal Markers in Human Brain as Observed in Animal Studies?

2.2 Nondopaminergic Changes in Brain of Methamphetamine Users

2.3 Does Methamphetamine Cause Oxidative Stress in Human Brain?

2.4 Does Methamphetamine Cause Gliosis (Activated Microgliosis and Reactive Astrogliosis), a Reputed Index of Neurotoxicity, in Human Brain?

2.5 Does Methamphetamine Cause Holes in Human Brain or a Larger (Glial-filled) Brain?

2.6 Does Methamphetamine Cause Parkinson’s Disease or Persistent Psychosis Pathologies?: Epidemiological Findings

3 Conclusions

Recommendations for Future Studies

References

Chapter Nine. The Effects of Alcohol on the Human Nervous System

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 The Neurobiology of Alcohol

2.2 Acute Intoxication

2.3 Alcohol Withdrawal

2.4 Alcohol and Seizures

2.5 Wernicke–Korsakoff’s Syndrome

2.6 Neuroimaging and Alcohol-Induced Brain Changes

2.7 Alcohol-Related Neuropathy

2.8 Psychiatric Sequalae

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Ten. The Nicotine Hypothesis

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Schizophrenia

2.2 nAChR Radiotracers

2.3 Alzheimer’s Disease

3 Conclusions

Appendix

References

Chapter Eleven. Smoking Effects in the Human Nervous System

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

2.2 The Effects of Nicotine on naChRs in the Human Brain

2.3 Effect of nAChr Activation on Other Neurotransmitters in Human CNS

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Twelve. Cognitive Effects of Nicotine

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 Cognitive Effects of Nicotine in Humans

2.2 Neurobiology of the Cognitive Effects of Nicotine

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Thirteen. Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids in the Human Nervous System

Abstract

1. Introduction

2.1 Actions and Effects of Endocannabinoids and Cannabis

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Fourteen. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Association with Psychosis

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2.1 Transient Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Cannabinoids: Nonexperimental Evidence

2.2 Transient Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Cannabinoids: Experimental Evidence

2.3 Effects of Cannabinoids on Schizophrenia Patients

2.4 Effects of Cannabinoids on Brain Structure and Function

2.5 Persistent Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Cannabinoids

2.6 Cannabinoids, Psychosis, and Causality

2.7 The Effects of Cannabinoids on Neurodevelopment

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Fifteen. Effects of MDMA on the Human Nervous System

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Mechanism of Action

2.2 Pharmacology

2.3 Neurotoxicology

2.4 Lasting Consequences of MDMA Exposure

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Sixteen. Sedative Hypnotics

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Historical Perspective

2.2 Mechanism of Action of Sedative Hypnotics

2.3 Clinical Use of Benzodiazepines

2.4 Abuse and Misuse

2.5 Introduction to the Z-Drugs: Nonbenzodiazepine GABA Receptor Agonists

2.6 Barbiturates

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Seventeen. Hallucinogens

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Pharmacology, Antagonists, and Neuroanatomy of Hallucinogen Action

2.2 Neuroanatomy of Hallucinogens

2.3 Hallucinogens in Medicine

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Eighteen. Inhalants: Addiction and Toxic Effects in the Human

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 How and Why Are They Used?

2.2 Epidemiology Data

2.3 What Are the Medical Consequences of Abuse?

2.4 Pharmacological Properties/Effects

2.5 Screening

2.6 Recovery Potential and Treatment

3. Conclusions

References

Chapter Nineteen. Emerging Designer Drugs

Abstract

1 Introduction

2.1 Types of Designer Drugs

2.2 Psychostimulants

2.3 Synthetic Cannabinoids

2.4 Salvinorin

2.5 Dissociatives

3 Conclusions

References

Index

 
 
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