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Scallops, 3rd Edition

Biology, Ecology, Aquaculture and Fisheries

 
Scallops, 3rd Edition,Sandra Shumway,Jay Parsons,ISBN9780444627100
 
 
 

Shumway   &   Parsons   

Elsevier Science

9780444627100

848

276 X 216

Print Book

Hardcover

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USD 274.95
 
 

Key Features

  • Offers over 30 detailed chapters on the developments and ecology of scallops
  • Provides chapters on various cultures of scallops in China, Japan, Scandinivia, Eastern North American, Europe, and Eastern North America
  • Includes details of their reproduction, nervous system and behavior, genetics, disease and parasites, and much more
  • Complete updated version of the first edition

Description

Scallops are among the better known shellfish and are widely distributed throughout the world. They are of great economic importance, support both commercial fisheries and mariculture efforts and occupy a unique niche in the marine environment. Contributions from world leaders in scallop research and culture cover all facets of scallop biology including anatomy, taxonomy, physiology, ecology, larval biology and neurobiology. Chapters are also devoted to diseases and parasites, genetics, population dynamics and the adductor muscle, with extensive reference lists provided for each chapter.

Since the publication of the first edition of Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture in 1991, commercial interest in scallops has grown globally and this is reflected in the seventeen extensive chapters covering both fisheries and aquaculture for all species of scallops in all countries where they are fished or cultured. The Second Edition is the only comprehensive treatise on the biology of scallops and is the definitive reference source for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, mariculturists, managers and researchers. It is a valuable reference for anyone interested in staying abreast of the latest advances in scallops.

Readership

Fisheries, marine biologists, researchers studying shellfish and the ocean environment

Sandra Shumway

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Connecticut, Department of Marine Sciences, Groton, Connecticut, U.S.A.

Jay Parsons

Affiliations and Expertise

Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Aquaculture Science Branch, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Scallops, 3rd Edition

Table of Contents

Dedication               v
Preface             vii
Preface from first edition              ix
List of contributors              xi

Chapter 1.  New Phylogenies of the Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Reconciling Morphological and Molecular Approaches
Thomas R. Waller

1.1 Introduction               1
1.1.1 Molecular genetic studies               1
1.1.2 Methods and materials               7
1.2 New observations             10
1.2.1 Subfamily Camptonectinae Habe, 1977             10
1.2.2 Subfamily Palliolinae Korobkov in Eberzin, 1960             10
1.2.2.1 Tribe Pseudentoliini, new tribe             12
1.2.2.2 Tribe Adamussiini Habe, 1977             13
1.2.2.3 Tribe Eburneopectinini, new tribe             14
1.2.2.4 Tribe Serripectinini, new tribe             15
1.2.2.5 Tribe Palliolini Korobkov in Eberzin, 1960             17
1.2.2.6 Tribe Mesopeplini, new tribe             20
1.2.3 Origins of the Decatopecten and Pecten Groups             22
1.2.4 Eastern Atlantic Pecten             28
1.3 Conclusions             30
Acknowledgments             32
References             32
Appendix             43

Chapter 2.  Development, Physiology, Behaviour and Ecology of Scallop Larvae
Simon M. Cragg

2.1 Introduction             45
2.2 Scallop life history characteristics             45
2.3 Larval development             55
2.3.1 Embryogenesis             55
2.3.2 Development of the larval shell             56
2.3.3 Organogenesis             59
2.3.3.1 Development of ciliation, the prototroch and the velum             59
2.3.3.2 Larval mantle             64
2.3.3.3 Musculature             64
2.3.3.4 Digestive tract             68
2.3.3.5 Sense organs             68
2.3.3.6 Apical organ             68
2.3.3.7 Statocysts             73
2.3.3.8 Eye spots             73
2.3.3.9 Mantle ciliation             74
2.3.3.10 Foot             77
2.3.3.11 Nervous system             78
2.3.3.12 Other organs             79
2.3.4 Metamorphosis             79
2.4 Comparative anatomy             81
2.5 Functional morphology             84
2.5.1 Locomotion             84
2.5.2 Feeding             85
2.5.3 Respiration             85
2.5.4 Sensory reception             86
2.6 Physiology and effects of environmental variables             87
2.6.1 Energy reserves and feeding             87
2.6.2 Respiration             88
2.6.3 Growth             89
2.6.4 Biochemical events during metamorphosis             90
2.7 Behaviour and larval distribution             90
2.7.1 Characteristics of locomotion during larval development             90
2.7.2 Responses to stimuli             91
2.7.3 Distribution of larvae             94
2.7.4 Development and the larval environment             98
2.7.5 Tolerance of environmental variables             99
2.8 Rearing methods           101
2.8.1 Spawning and manipulation of zygotes           101
2.8.2 Feeding           102
2.8.3 Control of disease in cultures           103
2.8.4 Collection of spat from wild stocks           104
References           105

Chapter 3.  Structure and Function in Scallops
Peter G. Beninger and Marcel Le Pennec

3.1 Introduction           123
3.1.1 An overview of the scallop body           123
3.2 The mantle and its derivatives           126
3.2.1 Gross functional anatomy           127
3.2.2 Microanatomy and functions           130
3.3 Pallial organs and particle processing           132
3.3.1 Gills           132
3.3.1.1 Gill axis and arch           135
3.3.1.2 Principal filaments and dorsal expansion           135
3.3.1.3 Ordinary filament           137
3.3.1.4 Haemolymph circulation in the gill           141
3.3.1.5 Particle processing on the gill           141
3.3.1.6 Particle selection at the gill           141
3.3.1.7 Particle retention lower size limit           143
3.3.1.8 Ingestion volume regulation on the gill           143
3.3.2 Labial palps and lips           144
3.3.2.1 Labial palps           144
3.3.2.2 Particle processing on the labial palps           144
3.3.2.3 Lips           147
3.4 Digestive system and digestion           150
3.4.1 Mouth and oesophagus           150
3.4.2 Stomach, crystalline style and gastric shield           150
3.4.3 The digestive gland           154
3.4.4 Intestine, rectum and anus           157
3.4.5 Digestive sites and postingestive selection           159
3.5 Cardio-Vascular system           159
3.5.1 General circulation           160
3.5.1.1 The arterial system           160
3.5.1.1.1 Anterior aorta           160
3.5.1.1.2 Posterior aorta           160
3.5.1.2 The venous system           162
3.5.2 The heart           162
3.5.2.1 The ventricle           162
3.5.2.2 The auricles and their excretory structures           163
3.5.2.3 Structure and ultrastructure of heart cells           163
3.5.2.4 Contraction           165
3.5.2.4.1 Refilling           165
3.5.2.4.2 Coordination of alternate AV beat           166
3.5.2.4.3 Pacemaker mechanism           166
3.5.2.4.4 Regulation of pacemaker           167
3.5.3 Haemolymph           167
3.5.3.1 Plasma           168
3.5.3.2 Haemocytes           168
3.5.3.2.1 Haemocyte types           169
3.5.3.2.2 Functions of haemocytes           169
3.6 Excretory system           170
3.6.1 Pericardial (auricular) glands           170
3.6.2 Kidney           172
3.6.3 Functions of the kidney and pericardial glands           173
3.7 Reproductive system           173
3.7.1 Sexuality:  Gonochory, hermaphroditism and their variants           173
3.7.2 Origin and formation of the gonad           176
3.7.3 Anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the adult gonad           177
3.7.3.1 Outer epithelium           177
3.7.3.2 Perigonadal connective tissue           179
3.7.3.3 Inter-acinal connective tissue           179
3.7.3.4 Haemolymph sinuses           179
3.7.3.5 Acini           180
3.7.3.6 Evacuating ducts           180
3.7.4 Gametogenesis           180
3.7.4.1 Oogenesis           180
3.7.4.1.1 Premeiotic stage           180
3.7.4.1.2 Previtellogenic stage           181
3.7.4.1.3 Vitellogenesis and metabolite transport to the oocyte           181
3.7.5 Oocyte atresia           185
3.7.6 Spermatogenesis, spermatozoon ultrastructure and taxonomy           188
3.7.7 Fertilisation           190
3.8 Nervous and sensory systems           191
3.8.1 General organisation of the nervous system and functional
anatomy of principal ganglia           191
3.8.1.1 Cerebral and pedal ganglia           191
3.8.1.2 The parietovisceral ganglion and its nerves           191
3.8.1.3 Histology and neurosecretions of the ganglia           196
3.8.1.4 The circumpallial nerve           198
3.8.2 Sensory structures           198
3.8.2.1 Visual system           198
3.8.2.2 Epithelial sensory cells and tentacles           198
3.8.2.3 Abdominal sense organ           199
3.8.2.4 Osphradia           201
3.8.2.5 Statoreceptors           204
3.8.3 Neurotransmitters and neurohormones           204
3.9 Foot-byssal complex           205
3.9.1 External morphology and development of the foot-byssal complex           207
3.9.2 Anatomy and histology of the foot-byssal gland complex           208
3.9.2.1 The protein gland           208
3.9.2.2 The enzyme gland           208
3.9.2.3 The byssus           210
3.9.3 Functioning of the foot-byssal complex           210
Acknowledgments           210
References           211

Chapter 4.  Scallop Adductor Muscles: Structure and Function
Peter D. Chantler

4.1 Introduction           229
4.2 Structure of the striated adductor muscle           231
4.2.1 Fibre microanatomy           231
4.2.2 Actin and thin filament structure           233
4.2.3 Thick filament structure           240
4.3 Structure of the smooth adductor muscle           243
4.3.1 Fibre microanatomy           243
4.3.2 Thin filament structure           245
4.3.3 The structure of paramyosin-rich thick filaments           247
4.4 Myosin           253
4.5 Function of the striated adductor           271
4.5.1 Mechanics           271
4.5.2 The interaction of myosin with actin           272
4.5.3 The crossbridge cycle           277
4.5.4 Myosin-linked regulation           282
4.6 Function of the smooth adductor           289
4.6.1 Physiology           289
4.6.2 Catch mechanism           292
4.7 Achievements and goals           296
Acknowledgments           298
References           298

Chapter 5.  Neurobiology and Behaviour of the Scallop
Lon A. Wilkens

5.1 Introduction           317
5.2 The visual system           317
5.2.1 Functional anatomy of the eyes           317
5.2.2 Retinal physiology           322
5.2.3 Receptor potential biophysics           324
5.2.4 Anatomy and physiology of vision in the central nervous system           328
5.2.5 Visual behaviours           332
5.3 The locomotory system           335
5.3.1 Escape responses and swimming           335
5.3.2 Sensory and motor functions of the mantle           341
5.3.3 Innervation and neuromuscular physiology of the adductor muscle           345
5.3.4 Coordination of locomotory behaviour by the central nervous
system           348
Acknowledgments           352
References           352

Chapter 6.  Reproductive Physiology
Bruce J. Barber and Norman J. Blake

6.1 Introduction           357
6.2 Gametogenic cycles           358
6.2.1 Definition           358
6.2.2 Means of assessment           358
6.2.2.1 Visual observation           360
6.2.2.2 Gonad mass and index           360
6.2.2.3 Histology           367
6.2.2.4 Abundance of larvae and spat           369
6.2.3 Variations in gametogenic cycles           370
6.2.3.1 Intra-specific variations           370
6.2.3.2 Inter-specific variations           375
6.3 Regulation of gametogenic cycles           375
6.3.1 Gametogenesis and fecundity           376
6.3.1.1 Exogenous regulation           376
6.3.1.2 Endogenous regulation           381
6.3.2 Spawning and spawning synchrony           385
6.3.2.1 Exogenous regulation           385
6.3.2.2 Endogenous regulation           389
6.4 Energy metabolism           390
6.4.1 Tissue weights and indices           391
6.4.2 Tissue biochemical composition           392
6.4.3 Physiological indices           395
6.4.4 Radiotracer experiments           398
6.4.5 Ultrastructure and histochemistry           398
6.4.6 Mechanisms           400
6.5 Applications to aquaculture           401
6.5.1 Broodstock conditioning           401
6.5.2 Spawning           403
6.5.3 Larval growth and survival           403
6.6 Summary           404
6.6.1 Gametogenic cycles           404
6.6.2 Regulation of gametogenesis           404
6.6.3 Energy metabolism           405
6.6.4 Applications to aquaculture           406
References           406

Chapter 7.  Physiology: Energy Acquisition and Utilisation
Bruce A. MacDonald, V. Monica Bricelj and Sandra E. Shumway

7.1 Introduction           417
7.2 Energy acquisition           417
7.2.1 Food sources           417
7.2.2 Feeding currents and mechanisms of particle capture           420
7.2.3 Particle retention efficiency           421
7.2.4 Feeding rates           424
7.2.5 Clearance rate in relation to food concentration           427
7.2.6 Influence of temperature on feeding rates           430
7.2.7 Pseudofeces production, pre- and post-ingestive particle selection           432
7.2.8 Absorption efficiency           436
7.2.9 Effects of suspended sediments on feeding and growth           439
7.2.10 Effects of flow on feeding and growth           445
7.2.11 Effects of harmful and toxic algae           447
7.3 Energy utilisation: Metabolic expenditure           453
7.3.1 Metabolic rate and oxygen availability           455
7.3.2 Metabolic cost of reproduction           458
7.3.3 Metabolic rate in relation to temperature and latitude           460
7.3.4 Metabolic rate in relation to activity levels           461
7.3.5 Anaerobic metabolism           463
7.4 Energy utilisation           467
7.4.1 Excretion and byssus secretion           467
7.4.2 Growth           468
References           474

Chapter 8.  Physiological Integrations and Energy Partitioning
Raymond J. Thompson and Bruce A. MacDonald

8.1 Introduction           493
8.2 Energy balance, physiological integrations and the partitioning of
energy between growth and reproduction           493
8.2.1 Energy budgets           493
8.2.2 Scope for growth           494
8.2.3 Growth efficiency and turnover ratio           494
8.2.4 Growth of shell and somatic tissue           495
8.2.5 Reproductive effort           496
8.3 Changes related to age of individuals           498
8.3.1 Scope for growth           498
8.3.2 Growth efficiency and turnover ratio           498
8.3.3 Somatic growth and maximum size           499
8.3.4 Somatic production and reproductive output           500
8.3.5 Reproductive effort           502
8.4 Environmental influence on production           504
8.4.1 Scope for growth and growth efficiency           504
8.4.2 Growth of shell and somatic tissue           506
8.4.3 Reproductive effort           509
8.5 Reproductive value and cost           511
8.5.1 Residual reproductive value           511
8.5.2 Reproductive cost           512
8.6 Population production           514
Acknowledgments           516
References           516

Chapter 9.  Nutrition in Pectinids
Ana Farías and Iker Uriarte

9.1 Introduction           521
9.2 Pectinid feeding           521
9.3 Nutritional requirements during reproductive conditioning           528
9.4 Nutritional requirements of the larvae           529
9.5 Post-metamorphic nutritional requirements           533
9.6 Summary           536
References           536

Chapter 10.  Genetics
Andy Beaumont

10.1 Introduction           543
10.2 Chromosomal genetics and ploidy manipulation           544
10.2.1 Chromosome numbers and karyotypes           544
10.2.2 Ploidy manipulation           548
10.3 Genetic markers and population genetics           550
10.3.1 Genetic markers           550
10.3.1.1 Allozymes           551
10.3.1.2 DNA methods           551
10.3.1.3 DNA based markers           552
10.3.1.3.1 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)           552
10.3.1.3.2 Random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPDs)           552
10.3.1.3.3 Microsatellites           553
10.3.1.3.4 Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)           553
10.3.1.4 Mitochondrial DNA in scallops           554
10.3.1.5 Types of data produced by different markers           555
10.3.1.6 Analysis of data           555
10.3.2 Overall genetic variation           557
10.3.3 Genetic differentiation of populations           559
10.3.3.1 Placopecten magellanicus           559
10.3.3.2 Patinopecten (= Mizuhopecten) yessoensis           561
10.3.3.3 Pecten maximus           562
10.3.3.4 Aequipecten opercularis           563
10.3.3.5 Chlamys islandica           564
10.3.3.6 Chlamys farreri           565
10.3.3.7 Mimachlamys varia           565
10.3.3.8 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac           565
10.3.3.9 Argopecten gibbus           565
10.3.3.10 The Argopecten irradians species complex           566
10.3.4 Genetic differences at species level and above           567
10.3.5 Heterozygote deficiency           568
10.3.6 Heterozygosity and growth           571
10.4 Quantitative genetics           575
10.4.1 Heritability and artificial selection           575
10.4.2 Inbreeding and hybridisation           577
10.5 Genome mapping and gene sequences           579
10.6 Conclusion           580
Acknowledgments           581
References           581

Chapter 11.  Diseases and Parasites of Scallops
Sharon E. McGladdery, Susan M. Bower and Rodman G. Getchell

11.1 Introduction           595
11.2 Microbial diseases           595
11.2.1 Viruses           595
11.2.2 Prokaryota           605
11.2.2.1 Vibrionaceae           605
11.2.2.2 Intracellular prokaryotes (Rickettsiales; Chlamydiales
and Mycoplasma)           607
11.2.2.3 Other bacterial pathogens of scallops           610
11.2.2.4 Bacterial management under hatchery conditions           611
11.3 Mycota           612
11.4 Protista           614
11.4.1 Sarcomastigophorea (Amoebae and Flagellates)           614
11.4.2 Labyrinthomorpha (Thraustochytrids and Labythinuloids)           615
11.4.3 Apicomplexa           615
11.4.3.1 Perkinsorida           615
11.4.3.2 Eucoccidiia           617
11.4.3.3 Eugregarinida           618
11.4.4 Microspora           619
11.4.5 Ascetospora           620
11.4.5.1 Marteiliida           621
11.4.5.2 Balanosporida           621
11.4.6 Ciliates           621
11.5 Platyhelminths           623
11.5.1 Trematodes           623
11.5.2 Cestodes           626
11.5.3 Turbellaria           626
11.5.4 Nematodes           628
11.6 Polychaetes           629
11.7 Crustacea           632
11.7.1 Pinnotheriidae           632
11.7.2 Copepodidae           632
11.8 Gastropods           633
11.9 Algae           635
11.10 Foraminiferans           636
11.11 Porifera           636
11.12 Cnidaria           637
11.13 Non-Infectious diseases           638
11.14 Summary           638
Acknowledgments           639
References           639

Chapter 12.  Scallop Ecology: Distributions and Behaviour
Andrew R. Brand

12.1 Introduction           651
12.2 Geographical distribution           653
12.2.1 Geographical distribution of commercially important species           653
12.2.1.1 North Atlantic species           653
12.2.1.1.1 Pecten maximus and P. jacobaeus           653
12.2.1.1.2 Aequipecten opercularis           655
12.2.1.1.3 Mimachlamys varia           655
12.2.1.1.4 Placopecten magellanicus           655
12.2.1.1.5 Argopecten irradians           657
12.2.1.1.6 Argopecten gibbus           659
12.2.1.2 Sub-arctic species           659
12.2.1.2.1 Chlamys islandica           659
12.2.1.3 North Pacific species           661
12.2.1.3.1 Patinopecten caurinus           661
12.2.1.3.2 Mizuhopecten yessoensis           661
12.2.1.3.3 Pecten albicans, Mimachlamys nobilis and
Chlamys farreri           662
12.2.1.4 Southern hemisphere species           662
12.2.1.4.1 Pecten fumatus           662
12.2.1.4.2 Mimachlamys asperrima and Equichlamys bifrons           663
12.2.1.4.3 Amusium balloti and A. pleuronectes           664
12.2.1.4.4 Pecten novaezelandiae           664
12.2.1.4.5 Argopecten purpuratus and A. ventricosus           665
12.2.1.4.6 Aequipecten tehuelchus           665
12.2.1.4.7 Zygochlamys patagonica           665
12.2.2 Factors affecting geographical distribution           666
12.3 Local distribution           669
12.3.1 Spatial distribution           669
12.3.2 Year-class separation           676
12.3.3 Factors affecting local distribution           677
12.3.3.1 Depth           678
12.3.3.2 Substrate type           678
12.3.3.3 Currents           679
12.3.3.4 Turbidity           680
12.3.3.5 Salinity           681
12.3.3.6 Competitors and predators           684
12.4 Scallop behaviour - aspects affecting distribution           689
12.4.1 Byssus attachment           689
12.4.2 Recessing           692
12.4.3 Orientation           695
12.4.4 Swimming           698
12.4.5 Reactions to predators           707
12.4.6 Dispersal and migrations           709
12.5 Further study           712
Acknowledgments           713
References           713

Chapter 13.  Scallops and Marine Contaminants
Peter J. Cranford

13.1 Introduction           745
13.2 Trace metals           746
13.3 Trace organics           748
13.4 Offshore oil and gas operations           750
13.5 Scallops as sentinel organisms           754
Acknowledgments           759
References           759

Chapter 14.  Dynamics, Assessment and Management of Exploited Natural Populations
J.M. (Lobo) Orensanz, Ana M. Parma, Teresa Turk and Juan Valero

14.1 Introduction           765
14.2 Spatial scales           765
14.3 Population structure and dynamics           769
14.3.1 Aggregate stocks           769
14.3.1.1 Patterns of fluctuation           769
14.3.1.2 Climatic forcing           771
14.3.1.3 Correlation between consecutive life-history stages           773
14.3.1.4 The relation between aggregate stock and settlement/
recruitment           774
14.3.2 Macroscale           777
14.3.2.1 Patterns of connectivity: metapopulation structure           777
14.3.2.2 Metapopulation structure and geographic genetic
differentiation           780

14.3.2.3 Larval retention/dispersal: mechanisms and oceanographic
scenarios           782
14.3.2.4 Metapopulation models            784
14.3.3 Mesoscale           785
14.3.3.1 Persistence, extinction and resurgence of subpopulations           785
14.3.3.2 Relation between abundance and area occupied by a
subpopulation           785
14.3.4 Microscale           786
14.3.4.1 Density, neighbourhoods and concentration           786
14.3.4.2 Concentration profiles           788
14.3.4.3 Density- vs. concentration-dependence; compensation vs.
depensation           789
14.4 The fishing process           795
14.4.1 Types of fishing gear used in scallop fisheries           796
14.4.2 Effort and fishing mortality           797
14.4.2.1 Effort data           797
14.4.2.2 Effort units           797
14.4.2.3 Components of fishing mortality under homogeneity
assumptions           798
14.4.2.4 Relative fishing power and standardisation of effort           799
14.4.3 Spatial patterns of effort allocation           799
14.4.4 The depletion process           803
14.4.5 Vulnerability and selectivity           805
14.4.6 Gear performance           806
14.4.7 Incidental fishing mortality and sub-lethal damage           808
14.5 Assessment           811
14.5.1 Macroscale           811
14.5.2 Mesoscale           812
14.5.2.1 Estimation of aggregated abundance: methods based on
sampling           812
14.5.2.2 Mapping           815
14.5.2.3 Methods based on modelling the depletion process           816
14.5.3 Microscale           819
14.5.3.1 Small-scale spatial data           819
14.5.3.2 Spatial pattern           820
14.5.3.3 Scaling problems           821
14.6 Management           823
14.6.1 Types of scallop fisheries           823
14.6.2 Overfishing           824
14.6.2.1 Growth overfishing: yield-per-recruit (Y/R) analysis           824
14.6.2.2 Recruitment overfishing           826
14.6.2.3 A special case: recruitment fisheries           829
14.6.3 Sustainability           830

14.6.3.1 The precautionary approach to fisheries management
(PAFM) and risk assessment (RA)            830
14.6.3.2 Marine protected areas (MPAs)            832
14.6.3.3 Ecosystem management concerns           834
14.6.3.4 Strategic structures: use and property rights           835
14.6.3.5 Diversification of the resource-base           837
14.6.4 Tactics           838
14.6.4.1 Size limits           838
14.6.4.2 Quota regulations           840
14.6.4.3 Escapement regulations           840
14.6.4.4 Direct effort regulations           840
14.6.4.5 Rotation           841
14.6.4.6 Direct interventions to enhance productivity           842
14.6.4.7 Experimental management           844
Acknowledgments           844
References           844
Endnotes           867

Chapter 15.  Fisheries Sea Scallop, Placopecten magellanicus
K.S. Naidu and G. Robert

15.1 Introduction           869
15.2 Distribution           871
15.3 History of fishery           874
15.4 Population biology           878
15.5 Growth and yield per recruit           880
15.6 Gear and boats           883
15.7 Exploitation and resource management           886
15.8 Outlook           895
References           897

Chapter 16.  Sea Scallop Aquaculture in the Northwest Atlantic
G. Jay Parsons and Shawn M. C. Robinson

16.1 Introduction           907
16.2 History of sea scallop culture           908
16.3 Hatchery spat production           909
16.3.1 Broodstock conditioning           909
16.3.2 Spawning methods           910
16.3.3 Egg and larval development           910
16.3.4 Settlement and metamorphosis           911
16.3.5 Spat husbandry           911
16.4 Wild spat collection           912
16.4.1 Spat collection techniques           912
16.4.2 Settlement intensity           913
16.4.3 Maximising spat collection           914
16.4.4 Spat growth           916
16.4.5 Spat sorting           916
16.5 Intermediate culture           916
16.5.1 Growth           917
16.5.2 Stocking density           917
16.5.3 Depth           919
16.5.4 Season           919
16.5.5 Location           919
16.5.6 Survival           920
16.5.7 Gear selection           920
16.5.8 Strategies for intermediate culture           921
16.6 Final grow-out           922
16.6.1 Suspension culture           922
16.6.2 Bottom culture           922
16.6.3 Growth           923
16.7 Scheduling and strategies           924
16.8 Site selection           924
16.8.1 Environmental criteria           925
16.8.1.1 Temperature and salinity regime           925
16.8.1.2 Ice coverage           925
16.8.1.3 Wind           925
16.8.1.4 Bottom type           925
16.8.1.5 Turbidity           926
16.8.2 Biological constraints           926
16.8.2.1 Predators           926
16.8.2.2 Fouling organisms           926
16.8.2.3 Phycotoxins           926
16.8.2.4 Diseases and parasites           927
16.9 Products and marketing           928
16.10 Economics           928
16.11 Social issues           929
16.12 Future prospects           930
Acknowledgments           930
References           930

Chapter 17.  Bay Scallop and Calico Scallop Fisheries, Culture and Enhancement in Eastern North America
Norman J. Blake and Sandra E. Shumway

17.1 Introduction           945
17.2 Fisheries           945
17.2.1 Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians           945
17.2.1.1 Distribution           945
17.2.1.2 Biology           948
17.2.1.3 Fishery           950
17.2.2 Calico scallop, Argopecten gibbus           952
17.2.2.1 Distribution           952
17.2.2.2 Biology           953
17.2.2.3 Fishery           955
17.3 Aquaculture and enhancement           958
17.4 Future           961
References           961

Chapter 18.  Scallops of the West Coast of North America
Raymond B. Lauzier and Neil F. Bourne

18.1 Introduction           965
18.2 Fisheries           967
18.2.1 Weathervane scallop           967
18.2.1.1 Biology           967
18.2.1.2 Fishery           971
18.2.1.3 Gear           973
18.2.1.4 Management           973
18.2.2 Rock scallop           973
18.2.2.1 Biology           974
18.2.2.2 Fishery           975
18.2.3 Pink and spiny scallops           975
18.2.3.1 Biology           975
18.2.3.2 Fisheries           977
18.2.3.3 Management           979
18.3 Aquaculture           979
18.3.1 Pink and spiny scallops           980
18.3.2 Weathervane scallop           980
18.3.3 Rock scallops           981
18.3.4 Japanese weathervane scallop           982
18.3.5 Pacific calico scallop           983
18.4 Future           983
Acknowledgments           984
References           984

Chapter 19.  The European Scallop Fisheries for Pecten maximus, Aequipecten opercularis and Mimachlamys varia
Andrew R. Brand

19.1 Introduction           991
19.2 Biology and ecology           993
19.2.1 The great scallop, Pecten maximus (L.)           993
19.2.2 The queen scallop, Aequipecten opercularis (L.)         1006
19.2.3 The black or variegated scallop, Mimachlamys varia (L.)         1011
19.3 Fisheries         1014
19.3.1 Isle of Man         1017
19.3.2 Scotland         1023
19.3.3 England and Wales         1025
19.3.4 Northern Ireland         1027
19.3.5 Republic of Ireland         1027
19.3.6 France         1029
19.3.7 Spain         1031
19.4 The future         1031
Acknowledgments         1035
References         1035

Chapter 20.  European Aquaculture
Mark Norman, Guillermo Román and Øivind Strand

20.1 Introduction         1059
20.2 Pecten maximus         1060
20.3 Aequipecten opercularis         1062
20.4 Chlamys varia         1063
20.5 Summary         1063
References         1063

Chapter 21.  Scandinavia
Øivind Strand and G. Jay Parsons

21.1 Introduction         1067
21.2 Chlamys islandica         1067
21.2.1 Biology         1067
21.2.2 Fishery         1073
21.2.3 Aquaculture         1076
21.3 Pecten maximus         1077
21.3.1 Biology         1077
21.3.2 Fishery         1078
21.3.3 Aquaculture         1079
21.4 Aequipecten opercularis         1085
Acknowledgments         1086
References         1086

 


Chapter 22.  Japan
Yoshinobu Kosaka and Hiroshi Ito

22.1 Introduction         1093
22.2 Patinopecten (Mizuhopecten) yessoensis         1099
22.2.1 Biology         1099
22.2.2 Fishery         1104
22.2.3 Culture         1111
22.2.4 Seed production         1111
22.2.5 Spat collection         1111
22.2.6 Intermediate culture         1116
22.2.7 Hanging culture         1116
22.2.8 Fouling         1118
22.2.9 Sowing culture         1120
22.2.10 Enemy clearance         1120
22.2.11 Seed sowing         1120
22.2.12 Care         1121
22.2.13 Recapture         1121
22.2.14 Value         1124
22.2.15 Processing         1127
22.2.16 Occurrence of shellfish poisoning         1130
22.3 Future         1130
22.3.1 Technology         1130
22.3.2 Control of culture         1133
22.3.3 Cost-reduction         1133
22.3.4 Concept         1133
22.4 Pecten albicans         1134
22.4.1 Biology         1134
22.4.2 Fishery         1134
22.4.3 Culture         1135
22.5 Chlamys (Mimachlamys) nobilis         1135
22.5.1 Biology         1135
22.5.2 Culture         1135
Acknowledgments         1136
References         1136

Chapter 23.  Scallop Culture in China
Ximing Guo and Yousheng Luo

23.1 Introduction         1141
23.2 Zhikong scallop         1146
23.2.1 Shell morphology         1146
23.2.2 Distribution         1146
23.2.3 Growth         1147
23.2.4 Reproduction         1149
23.3 Other scallop species         1151
23.3.1 Huagui scallop         1151
23.3.2 Non-native species         1152
23.4 Fishery         1153
23.5 Aquaculture         1154
23.5.1 Species and history         1154
23.5.2 Collection of natural seed for Zhikong scallop         1155
23.5.3 Hatchery production of bay scallop         1155
23.5.4 Grow-out         1158
23.6 Harvest, processing and marketing         1160
Acknowledgments         1160
References         1161

Chapter 24.  Scallops Fisheries and Aquaculture of Northwestern Pacific, Russian Federation
Victor V. Ivin, Vasily Z. Kalashnikov, Sergey I. Maslennikov and Vitaly G. Tarasov

24.1 Introduction         1163
24.2 Taxonomic status         1163
24.3 Biology and ecology         1164
24.3.1 Chlamys albida         1164
24.3.2 Chlamys asiatica         1166
24.3.3 Chlamys behringiana         1167
24.3.4 Chlamys chosenica         1168
24.3.5 Chlamys farreri         1170
24.3.6 Chlamys swifti         1172
24.3.7 Delectopecten randolphi         1174
24.3.8 Mizuhopecten yessoensis         1174
24.3.8.1 Total populations and biomass         1175
24.3.8.2 Distribution in Primorye         1176
24.3.8.3 Distribution over depths         1176
24.3.8.4 Age structure of scallop settlements         1176
24.3.8.5 Scallop growth         1177
24.3.8.6 Sex structure of settlements         1178
24.3.8.7 Replenishment         1181
24.3.8.8 Spawning         1181
24.3.8.9 Larvae morphology         1182
24.3.8.10 Development in plankton         1182
24.3.8.11 Migration behaviour         1184
24.3.8.12 Risk factors         1184
24.3.8.12.1 Abiotic factors         1184
24.3.8.12.2 Storms         1184
24.3.8.12.3 Predators         1185
24.3.8.12.4 Parasites         1187
24.3.8.12.5 Bacterial contamination         1189
24.3.8.12.6 Epibionts         1189
24.4 Fishing and aquaculture         1189
24.4.1 Fishing         1189
24.4.1.1 History         1189
24.4.1.2 Fishing gear         1191
24.4.1.3 Yesso scallop landings         1191
24.4.1.3.1 Primorsky territory         1191
24.4.1.3.2 Sakhalin-Kurile region         1192
24.4.1.4 Yesso scallop commercial stock         1192
24.4.1.4.1 Primorsky territory         1192
24.4.1.4.2 Sakhalin-Kurile region         1192
24.4.1.4.2.1 Aniva Bay         1194
24.4.1.4.2.2 Terpenie Bay         1194
24.4.1.4.2.3 Kuriles         1194
24.4.1.5 Commercial Chlamys scallops         1194
24.4.1.5.1 Primorye         1194
24.4.1.5.2 Kurile Islands         1195
24.4.1.5.3 In Bering Sea         1196
24.4.1.6 Other Chlamys species         1196
24.4.1.6.1 Chlamys farreri         1196
24.4.1.6.2 Chlamys swifti         1196
24.4.2 Aquaculture         1196
24.4.2.1 History         1196
24.4.2.2 Present situation         1197
24.4.2.3 Marketing         1198
24.4.2.4 The culture methods         1198
24.4.2.4.1 Spat collection         1198
24.4.2.4.2 Intermediate culture         1199
24.4.2.4.3 Transport of scallop seed         1199
24.4.2.4.4 Sowing or on-bottom culture         1200
24.4.2.4.5 Hanging or off-bottom culture         1201
24.4.2.4.6 Obstacles to mariculture development         1201
24.4.2.4.7 Ecological constraints associated with cultivation         1202
24.4.2.4.7.1 Predation         1202
24.4.2.4.7.2 Epibionts         1202
24.4.2.4.7.3 Biofouling of cultivation structures         1203
24.4.2.4.8 Effect of scallop mariculture on coastal ecosystems         1204
24.4.2.5 Future prospects         1211
Acknowledgments         1213
References         1213


Chapter 25.  Scallop Aquaculture and Fisheries in Brazil
Guilherme S. Rupp and G. Jay Parsons

25.1 Introduction         1225
25.2 Nodipecten nodosus - biology, aquaculture and fisheries         1227
25.2.1 Taxonomy and distribution         1227
25.2.2 Ecology         1228
25.2.3 Reproduction         1231
25.2.4 Aquaculture         1232
25.2.4.1 Status         1232
25.2.4.2 Culture technology         1233
25.2.4.2.1 Wild seed collection         1233
25.2.4.2.2 Hatchery production         1234
25.2.4.2.3 Growout         1236
25.2.4.2.4 Constraints         1239
25.2.5 Fisheries and marketing         1239
25.2.6 Future prospects         1240
25.3 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac - biology, aquaculture and fisheries         1240
25.3.1 Taxonomy and distribution         1240
25.3.2 Ecology         1241
25.3.3 Reproduction         1241
25.3.4 Aquaculture         1242
25.3.4.1 Status         1242
25.3.4.2.Culture technology         1242
25.3.4.2.1 Wild seed collection         1242
25.3.4.2.2 Hatchery production         1242
25.3.4.2.3 Growout         1243
25.3.4.2.4 Constraints         1243
25.3.5 Fisheries         1243
25.3.6 Future prospects         1244
Acknowledgments         1244
References         1245

Chapter 26.  Argentina
Néstor F. Ciocco, Mario L. Lasta, Maite Narvarte, Claudia Bremec, Eugenia Bogazzi, Juan Valero and J.M. (Lobo) Orensanz

26.1 Introduction         1251
26.2 The Tehuelche scallop, Aequipecten tehuelchus         1251
26.2.1 Biology         1251
26.2.2 Population dynamics         1257
26.2.3 Fisheries         1258
26.2.3.1 The inshore dredge fishery of San Matías Gulf         1258
26.2.3.2 The commercial diving fishery of San José Gulf         1261
26.2.4 Aquaculture         1263
26.2.4.1 Spat collection         1263
26.2.4.1.1 Vertical distribution of settlement         1263
26.2.4.1.2 Temporal variation in settlement         1263
26.2.4.1.3 Type of collector         1263
26.2.4.1.4 Location         1265
26.2.4.1.5 Influence of depth, type of collector and location
on the average size of the ‘seed’         1265
26.2.4.2 Growth in suspended structures of spat obtained from
collectors         1266
26.2.4.3 Larval culture in the laboratory         1268
26.2.4.4 Prospects and problems         1268
26.3 The Patagonian scallop, Zygochlamys patagonica         1269
26.3.1 Biology and ecology         1269
26.3.2 Population dynamics and stock assessment         1273
26.3.3 The fishery         1275
26.3.3.1 Exploratory surveys and experimental fishing programs         1275
26.3.3.2 Management         1276
26.3.3.3 Development of the fishery         1277
26.3.3.4 Observers program         1280
26.3.3.5 Ecological effects of fishing         1281
26.3.3.6 Marketing         1283
Acknowledgments         1283
References         1283

Chapter 27.  Scallop Fishery and Aquaculture in Chile
Elisabeth von Brand, German E. Merino, Alejandro Abarca and Wolfgang Stotz

27.1 Introduction         1293
27.2 Species description         1293
27.2.1 Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck 1819) the northern scallop         1295
27.2.2 Zygochlamys patagonica (King and Broderip 1831) the
southern scallop         1295
27.2.3 Chlamys vitrea (King & Broderip, 1831) the southern scallop….         1296
27.3 Fisheries         1296
27.3.1 Argopecten purpuratus, the northern scallop         1296
27.3.2 Chlamys vitrea and Zygochlamys patagonica, the southern
scallop         1298
27.4 How scallop aquaculture started in Chile         1299
27.5 Aquaculture production         1301
27.5.1 Production stages         1303
27.5.1.1 Hatchery broodstock conditioning and spawning         1303
27.5.1.2 Larval stage         1303
27.5.1.3 Settlement, metamorphosis and postlarval stage         1304
27.5.1.4 Seed supply         1305
27.5.1.5 Ongrowing stage         1305
27.5.2 Constraints and opportunities for northern scallop hatcheries         1306
27.5.3 Interaction between natural beds and aquaculture         1307
27.5.4 Recovery of a natural bed of Argopecten purpuratus         1308
27.5.5 Final overview and projections of Chilean scallop farming         1308
Acknowledgments         1311
References         1311

Chapter 28.  Venezuela
César J. Lodeiros, Luis Freites, Maximiano Nuñez, Anibal Vélez and John H. Himmelman

28.1 Introduction         1315
28.2 Distribution, habitat and reproduction         1315
28.2.1 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac         1315
28.2.2 Argopecten nucleus         1319
28.2.3 Nodipecten (Lyropecten) nodosus         1319
28.2.4 Amusium papyraceum and Amusium laurenti         1320
28.3 Fisheries         1320
28.4 Aquaculture         1322
28.4.1 Euvola ziczac         1322
28.4.1.1 Gonad maturation and spawning         1322
28.4.1.2 Spat production         1322
28.4.1.3 Grow-out         1323
28.4.2 Nodipecten nodosus         1326
28.4.2.1 Gonad maturation and spawning         1326
28.4.2.2 Spat production         1326
28.4.2.3 Grow-out         1326
28.4.3 Argopecten nucleus         1329
28.5 Perspectives for culture         1330
References         1332

Chapter 29.  Mexico
Esteban Fernando Félix-Pico

29.1 Fishery         1337
29.1.1 Introduction         1337
29.1.2 Species and distribution of scallops         1338
29.1.3 History of the fishery         1339
29.1.4 Status of the resource         1340
29.1.4.1 Reproductive biology         1340
29.1.4.1.1 Size at maturity         1340
29.1.4.1.2 Fecundity         1341
29.1.4.1.3 Maturity and spawning         1341
29.1.4.2 Population biology         1344
29.1.4.3 Abundance and density         1345
29.2 Exploitation of the resource         1347
29.2.1 Fishing areas         1347
29.2.2 Fishing seasons         1348
29.2.3 Fishing operations and results         1349
29.2.4 The market value-landings data from 1970 to 2000         1349
29.3 Constraints         1350
29.3.1 Pollution         1350
29.3.2 Biological constraints         1352
29.3.3 Predation         1353
29.3.4 Resource management constraints         1354
29.4 Harvesting and transporting         1354
29.4.1 Methods         1354
29.4.2 Marketing         1355
29.5 Expected future         1356
29.6 Aquaculture         1357
29.6.1 Introduction         1357
29.6.2 Species         1358
29.6.3 History         1358
29.7 Hatchery techniques         1359
29.7.1 Conditioning         1359
29.7.2 Induction of spawning and fertilisation         1360
29.7.3 Larval culture and metamorphosis         1361
29.7.4 Genetic enhancement         1366
29.7.4.1 Selection         1366
29.7.4.2 Crossbreeding         1366
29.7.4.3 Triploidy         1367
29.7.5 Antibiotics         1368
29.8 Natural spat         1368
29.8.1 Methods employed         1368
29.8.2 Spat collection         1369
29.9 Growth         1372
29.9.1 Suspended cultures         1372
29.9.2 Bottom cultures         1375
29.9.3 Factors influencing growth         1376
29.10 Mortality         1377
29.10.1 Suspended culture         1377
29.10.2 Bottom culture         1378
29.11 Constraints         1379
29.12 Future prospects         1379
References         1380

Chapter 30.  Scallop Fisheries, Mariculture and Enhancement in Australia
Mike Dredge

30.1 Introduction         1391
30.2 History of the fisheries         1392
30.3 Biology of target species         1395
30.3.1 Pecten fumatus         1395
30.3.1.1 Distribution and life cycle         1395
30.3.1.2 Mortality         1396
30.3.1.3 Monitoring, abundance and population dynamics         1397
30.3.2 Amusium balloti         1398
30.3.2.1 Distribution and life cycle         1398
30.3.2.2 Mortality         1398
30.3.2.3 Monitoring, abundance and population dynamics         1399
30.4 Fisheries and their management         1400
30.4.1 Pecten fumatus         1400
30.4.1.1 Regulation         1400
30.4.1.2 Environmental management and sustainability issues         1402
30.4.2 Amusium balloti         1403
30.4.2.1 Regulation         1403
30.4.2.2 Environmental management and sustainability issues         1404
30.5 Culture of scallops in Australia         1405
30.5.1 Pecten fumatus         1405
30.5.1.1 Tasmania         1405
30.5.1.1.1 Spat production         1405
30.5.1.1.2 Culture operations         1405
30.5.1.2 Victoria         1406
30.5.1.3 New South Wales         1406
30.5.1.4 South Australia         1407
30.5.2 Amusium balloti         1407
30.6 Summary         1407
Acknowledgments         1408
References         1408

Chapter 31.  New Zealand
Islay D. Marsden and Michael F. Bull

31.1 Introduction         1413
31.2 Biology         1413
31.2.1 Morphology         1413
31.2.2 Distribution         1413
31.2.3 Life cycle         1414
31.2.4 Growth rates         1415
31.2.5 Mortality         1415

 
 

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