Radiative Heat Transfer, 3rd Edition

About the Author

Dedication

Preface to the Third Edition

List of Symbols

Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Thermal Radiation

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Nature of Thermal Radiation

1.3 Basic Laws of Thermal Radiation

1.4 Emissive Power

1.5 Solid Angles

1.6 Radiative Intensity

1.7 Radiative Heat Flux

1.8 Radiation Pressure

1.9 Visible Radiation (Luminance)

1.10 Radiative Intensity In Vacuum

1.11 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Opaque Surfaces

1.12 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Gases

1.13 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Solids and Liquids

1.14 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Particles

1.15 The Radiative Transfer Equation

1.16 Outline of Radiative Transport Theory

References

Problems

Chapter 2. Radiative Property Predictions From Electromagnetic Wave Theory

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Macroscopic Maxwell Equations

2.3 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation In Unbounded Media

2.4 Polarization

2.5 Reflection And Transmission

2.6 Theories For Optical Constants

References

Problems

Chapter 3. Radiative Properties of Real Surfaces

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Definitions

3.3 Predictions From Electromagnetic Wave Theory

3.4 Radiative Properties Of Metals

3.5 Radiative Properties Of Nonconductors

3.6 Effects Of Surface Roughness

3.7 Effects Of Surface Damage And Oxide Films

3.8 Radiative Properties Of Semitransparent Sheets

3.9 Special Surfaces

3.10 Experimental Methods

Reflection Measurements

References

Problems

Chapter 4. View Factors

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Definition Of View Factors

4.3 Methods For The Evaluation Of View Factors

4.4 Area Integration

4.5 Contour Integration

4.6 View Factor Algebra

4.7 The Crossed-Strings Method

4.8 The Inside Sphere Method

4.9 The Unit Sphere Method

References

Problems

Chapter 5. Radiative Exchange Between Gray, Diffuse Surfaces

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Radiative Exchange Between Black Surfaces

5.3 Radiative Exchange Between Gray, Diffuse Surfaces

5.4 Electrical Network Analogy

5.5 Radiation Shields

5.6 Solution Methods For The Governing Integral Equations

References

Problems

Chapter 6. Radiative Exchange Between Partially Specular Gray Surfaces

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Specular View Factors

6.3 Enclosures With Partially Specular Surfaces

6.4 Electrical Network Analogy

6.5 Radiation Shields

6.6 Semitransparent Sheets (Windows)

6.7 Solution Of The Governing Integral Equation

References

Problems

Chapter 7. Radiative Exchange Between Nonideal Surfaces

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Radiative Exchange Between Nongray Surfaces

7.3 Directionally Nonideal Surfaces

7.4 Analysis For Arbitrary Surface Characteristics

References

Problems

Chapter 8. The Monte Carlo Method for Surface Exchange

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Numerical Quadrature By Monte Carlo

8.3 Heat Transfer Relations For Radiative Exchange Between Surfaces

8.4 Random Number Relations For Surface Exchange

8.5 Surface Description

8.6 Ray Tracing

8.7 Efficiency Considerations

References

Problems

Chapter 9. Surface Radiative Exchange in the Presence of Conduction and Convection

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Conduction and Surface Radiation—Fins

9.3 Convection and Surface Radiation

References

Problems

Chapter 10. The Radiative Transfer Equation in Participating Media (RTE)

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Attenuation By Absorption And Scattering

10.3 Augmentation By Emission And Scattering

10.4 The Radiative Transfer Equation

10.5 Formal Solution To The Radiative Transfer Equation

10.6 Boundary Conditions For The Radiative Transfer Equation

10.7 Radiation Energy Density

10.8 Radiative Heat Flux

10.9 Divergence Of The Radiative Heat Flux

10.10 Integral Formulation Of The Radiative Transfer Equation

10.11 Overall Energy Conservation

10.12 Solution Methods For The Radiative Transfer Equation

References

Problems

Chapter 11. Radiative Properties of Molecular Gases

11.1 Fundamental Principles

11.2 Emission and Absorption Probabilities

11.3 Atomic and Molecular Spectra

11.4 Line Radiation

11.5 Nonequilibrium Radiation

11.6 High-Resolution Spectroscopic Databases

11.7 Spectral Models for Radiative Transfer Calculations

11.8 Narrow Band Models

11.9 Narrow Band k-Distributions

11.10 Wide Band Models

11.11 Total Emissivity and Mean Absorption Coefficient

11.12 Experimental Methods

References

Problems

Chapter 12. Radiative Properties of Particulate Media

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Absorption and Scattering From A Single Sphere

12.3 Radiative Properties of A Particle Cloud

12.4 Radiative Properties of Small Spheres (Rayleigh Scattering)

12.5 Rayleigh-Gans Scattering

12.6 Anomalous Diffraction

12.7 Radiative Properties of Large Spheres

12.8 Absorption and Scattering By Long Cylinders

12.9 Approximate Scattering Phase Functions

12.10 Radiative Properties of Irregular Particles and Aggregates

12.11 Radiative Properties of Combustion Particles

12.12 Experimental Determination of Radiative Properties of Particles

References

Problems

Chapter 13. Radiative Properties of Semitransparent Media

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Absorption by Semitransparent Solids

13.3 Absorption by Semitransparent Liquids

13.4 Radiative Properties of Porous Solids

13.5 Experimental Methods

References

Problems

Chapter 14. Exact Solutions for One-Dimensional Gray Media

14.1 Introduction

14.2 General Formulation for A Plane-Parallel Medium

14.3 Plane Layer of A Nonscattering Medium

14.4 Plane Layer of A Scattering Medium

14.5 Radiative Transfer in Spherical Media

14.6 Radiative Transfer in Cylindrical Media

14.7 Numerical Solution of the Governing Integral Equations

References

Problems

Chapter 15. Approximate Solution Methods for One-Dimensional Media

15.1 The Optically Thin Approximation

15.2 The Optically Thick Approximation (Diffusion Approximation)

15.3 The Schuster–Schwarzschild Approximation

15.4 The Milne–Eddington Approximation (Moment Method)

15.5 The Exponential Kernel Approximation

References

Problems

Chapter 16. The Method of Spherical Harmonics (PN-Approximation)

16.1 Introduction

16.2 General Formulation of the PN-Approximation

16.3 The PN-Approximation for a One-Dimensional Slab

16.4 Boundary Conditions for the PN-Method

16.5 The P1-Approximation

16.6 P3- and Higher-Order Approximations

16.7 Simplified PN-Approximation

16.8 The Modified Differential Approximation

16.9 Comparison of Methods

References

Problems

Chapter 17. The Method of Discrete Ordinates (SN-Approximation)

17.1 Introduction

17.2 General Relations

17.3 The One-Dimensional Slab

17.4 One-Dimensional Concentric Spheres and Cylinders

17.5 Multidimensional Problems

17.6 The Finite Volume Method

17.7 The Modified Discrete Ordinates Method

17.8 Even-Parity Formulation

17.9 Other Related Methods

17.10 Concluding Remarks

References

Problems

Chapter 18. The Zonal Method

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Surface Exchange — No Participating Medium

18.3 Radiative Exchange in Gray Absorbing/Emitting Media

18.4 Radiative Exchange in Gray Media with Isotropic Scattering

18.5 Radiative Exchange Through A Nongray Medium

18.6 Determination of Direct Exchange Areas

References

Problems

Chapter 19. Collimated Irradiation and Transient Phenomena

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Reduction of the Problem

19.3 The Modified P1-Approximation with Collimated Irradiation

19.4 Short-Pulsed Collimated Irradiation with Transient Effects

References

Problems

Chapter 20. Solution Methods for Nongray Extinction Coefficients

20.1 Introduction

20.2 The Mean Beam Length Method

20.3 Semigray Approximations

20.4 The Stepwise-Gray Model (Box Model)

20.5 General Band Model Formulation

20.6 The Weighted-Sum-of-gray-Gases (WSGG) Model

20.7 k-Distribution Models

20.8 The Full Spectrum k-Distribution (FSK) Method for Homogeneous Media

20.9 The Spectral-Line-Based Weighted Sum of Gray Gases (SLW)

20.10 The FSK Method for Nonhomogeneous Media

20.11 Evaluation of k-Distributions

References

Problems

Chapter 21. The Monte Carlo Method for Participating Media

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Heat Transfer Relations for Participating Media

21.3 Random Number Relations for Participating Media

21.4 Treatment of Spectral Line Structure Effects

21.5 Overall Energy Conservation

21.6 Discrete Particle Fields

21.7 Efficiency Considerations

21.8 Backward Monte Carlo

21.9 Direct Exchange Monte Carlo

21.10 Example Problems

References

Problems

Chapter 22. Radiation Combined with Conduction and Convection

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Combined Radiation and Conduction

P1-Approximation

Additive Solutions

Other Work

22.3 Melting and Solidification with Internal Radiation

22.4 Combined Radiation and Convection in Boundary Layers

22.5 Combined Radiation and Free Convection

22.6 Combined Radiation and Convection in Internal Flow

22.7 Combined Radiation and Combustion

22.8 Interfacing Between Turbulent Flow Fields and Radiation

22.9 Interaction of Radiation with Turbulence

22.10 Radiation in Concentrating Solar Energy Systems

References

Problems

Chapter 23. Inverse Radiative Heat Transfer

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Solution Methods

23.3 Regularization

23.4 Gradient-Based Optimization

23.5 Metaheuristics

23.6 Summary of Inverse Radiation Research

References

Problems

Chapter 24. Nanoscale Radiative Transfer

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Coherence of Light

24.3 Evanescent Waves

24.4 Radiation Tunneling

24.5 Surface Waves (Polaritons)

24.6 Fluctuational Electrodynamics

24.7 Heat Transfer Between Parallel Plates

24.8 Experiments on Nanoscale Radiation

References

Problems

Appendix A. Constants and Conversion Factors

Appendix B. Tables for Radiative Properties of Opaque Surfaces

Appendix C. Blackbody Emissive Power Table

Appendix D. View Factor Catalogue

References

Appendix E. Exponential Integral Functions

Appendix F. Computer Codes

References

Acknowledgments

Index