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Oil Well Testing Handbook
 
 

Oil Well Testing Handbook, 1st Edition

 
Oil Well Testing Handbook, 1st Edition,Amanat Chaudhry,ISBN9780750677066
 
 
 

  

Gulf Professional Publishing

9780750677066

9780080479798

525

229 X 152

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Key Features

*Covers real-life examples and cases

*The most up-to-date information on oil well testing available

*The perfect reference for the engineer or textbook for the petroleum engineering student

Description

This is a valuable addition to any reservoir engineer's library, containing the basics of well testing methods as well as all of the latest developments in the field. Not only are "evergreen" subjects, such as layered reservoirs, naturally fractured reservoirs, and wellbore effects, covered in depth, but newer developments, such as well testing for horizontal wells, are covered in full chapters.

Readership

Drilling Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, Reservoir Engineers, Wellsite Engineers, Geologists, Geophysicists, and Technical Managers. Also: Students and professors in petroleum engineering departments.

Amanat Chaudhry

Amanat Chaudhry is President and Engineering Manager with Advanced Twpsom Petroleum Systems, Inc. in Houston, Texas. He founded Twpsom in 1995. The company is involved in the development of PC-based well simulation and management software support models and programs in reservoir and production engineering. He has more than 20 years of international and domestic experience in reservoir engineering reservoir simulation development and applications, well testing, water flooding, EOR techniques, reservoir studies and operations. Mr. Chaudhry formally worked as a Senior Reservoir Engineering Advisor an Senior Staff Reservoir Engineer of Pertamina, the state Owned Oil Company of Indonesia. He also worked as Senior Reservoir Engineer with Core Lab Inc. - now Western Atlas in Reservoir Simulation Application Group in Dallas. He has started his career in the oil industry with Reservoir PVT & EOR Lab Inc. (subsidiaries of Core Lab Inc.) in Houston, Texas, as a Research Associate. Her holds MS degrees in Petroleum Engineering and Chemical Engineering both from the University of Pittsburgh, PA.

Affiliations and Expertise

President & Engineering Manager, Advanced TWPSOM Petroleum Systems Inc., Houston, TX, USA

Oil Well Testing Handbook, 1st Edition

CHAPTER 1
Introduction
1.1 Role of Oil Well Tests and Information in Petroleum Industry
1.2 History of Oil Well Testing
1.3 Uses of Oil Well Tests
1.4 Oil Well Data Acquisition, Analysis and Management
Efficient Oil Well Test Analysis Programs
1.5 Selecting Oil Wells for Optimum Stimulation Treatment
1.6 Reservoir System Characterization Process
Most Common Oil Well Test Interpretation Methods
1.7 Scopes and Objective
1.8 Orginization
1.9 Units Systems and Conversions
References for Additional Reading

CHAPTER 2
Fundamentals of Reservoir Oil Flow Analysis
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Basic Fluid Flow Equations in Oil Reservoir
Steady-State Flow Equations and Their Practical Applications
Ideal Steady-State Flow Equations - Radial Flow
Pseudo-Steady-State Flow Equations
Flow Equations for Different Flow Regimes
Time to Reach Pseudo-Steady State
Unsteady-State (Transient) Flow Equations
Radial Diffusivity Equation
Various Dimensional Flow Geometry
2.3 Dimensionless Form of Flow Equations, Groups and Variables
2.4 Analytical Solutions of Fluid Flow Equations
Bounded (Finite) Cylindrical Reservoir
Infinite-Acting Reservoir With Line Source Well
Pseudo-Steady State Flow
Wellbore Storage Effects and Solutions
Flow Analysis in Generalized Reservoir Geometry
Wellbore Damage Analysis and Stimulation
Time and Radius of Investigation Equations
2.5 Application of Superposition Techniques
Effects of More Than One Well
Rate Change Effects
Pressure Change Effects
Simulation Boundary Effects
Use of Horner's Approximation
2.6 Numerical Models and Their Applications
Purpose and Objective of Reservoir Simulation
Reservoir Model Development Process
Selection of Numerical Simulation Models and Applications
2.7 Formulation and Numerical Solutions of Reservoir Simulation Equations
Single Phase Flow
Three Phase Oil-Gas-Water Flow
Two-Phase Oil-Gas Flow in Fractured Reservoir
2.8 Steady State and Semi-Steady State Pressure Distribution Calculations
2.9 Pressure Distribution Calculations Unsteady-State Conditions
Infinite External Boundary Conditions
Finite External Boundary Conditions
2.10 Unsteady-State Pressure Distribution Calculations in Directional Well
2.11 Summary
References for Additional Readings

CHAPTER 3
Transient Well Testing Methods For Horizontal Oil Wells
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Flow Equations for Horizontal Oil Wells
Steady State Flow Equations and Solutions
Unsteady State Equations and Solutions
Calculating Effective Wellbore Radius for Horizontal Oil Well
Effect of Formation Damage on Horizontal Well Productivity
Investigating Effect of Sv and b on Horizontal Well Productivity Ratio
Pseudo-Steady State Equations and Solutions
Shape Related Skin Factor for Vertical and Fractured Oil Wells
Shape Factors for Horizontal Oil Wells
Calculation of Skin Factor for Horizontal Oil Wells
Pseudo-Steady State Productivity Calculation Methods
3.3 Horizontal Oil Well Performance During Transient State
3.4 Transient Well Testing Techniques in Horizontal Oil Wells
Early Time Radial Flow Equation
Intermediate Time Linear Flow Equation
Late Time Radial Flow Equation
Late Time Linear Flow Equation
Possible Flow Regimes and Analytical Solutions
3.5 Flow Time Equations and Solutions
3.6 Pressure Response Equations and Methods of Analysis
Under Condition of Pressure Drawdown Test
Under Condition of Pressure Buildup Test
3.7 Horizontal Well Pressure and Normalized Pressure Derivative
3.8 Effects of Wellbore Storage
3.9 Summary
References for Additional Reading

CHAPTER 4
Pressure Drawdown Testing Techniques For Oil Wells
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Pressure Time History for Constant Rate Drawdown Test
4.3 Transient Analysis - Infinite Acting Reservoirs
4.4 Late Transient Analysis - Bounded (Developed) Reservoirs
4.5 Semi-Steady State Analysis - Reservoir Limit Test
4.6 Two-Rate Flow Test Analysis
When Initial Pressure is Not Known
When Initial Pressure is Known
4.7 Variable Rate Flow Tests
Modified Variable Rate Case
Transient Case
Average Reservoir Pressure Calculations
Semi-Steady State Case
4.8 Multi-Rate Flow Test Analysis
Multi-Rate, Single Phase Test
Multi Rate, Multi-Phase Test
4.9 Drawdown Rate Normalization Equations and Solutions
Analysis Methods, Their Applications and Limitations
Drawdown Rate Normalization Equations and Solutions
4.10 Summary
References for AdditionalReading

CHAPTER 5
Pressure Buildup Analysis Techniques For Oil Wells
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Ideal Pressure Buildup Test
5.3 Actual Buildup Test - Infinite Reservoir
5.4 Pressure Buildup Test Analysis - Infinite Acting Reservoir
Effects and Duration of After-Flow Test
Calculating Flow Capacity and Formation Permeability
Estimating Skin Factor
Pressure Drop Due to Skin
Determining Effective Wellbore Radius
Flow Efficiency and Damage Ratio
Estimating Skin Effects of Incompletely Perforated Interval
Determining Skin Effects in a Partially Completed Damaged Well
Estimating Reservoir Size from Two Pressure Buildup Tests
Typical Shapes of Buildup Curves
5.5 Pressure Buildup Testing Methods for Finite (Bounded) Reservoir
Horner and MBH Method
Miller-Dyes-Hutchinson (MDH) Method
Extended Muskat Method
Slider's Technique for Analyzing Buildup Test
5.6 Multiphase Buildup Test Analysis
5.7 Afterflow Analysis Using Russell's Techniques
5.8 Pressure Buildup Tests Proceeded by Two Different Flow Rates
5.9 Variable Rate Pressure Buildup Analysis
5.10 Multiphase Multirate Buildup Test Analysis
5.11 Rate Normalization Techniques and Procedures - Pressure Buildup Data
Analysis Methods, Their Uses and Limitations
Buildup Rate Normalization Equations and Solutions
Normalized Pressure Modified MDH Plot Analysis
Normalized Pressure Squarer Root Time plot
Average Reservoir Pressure Equation
5.12 Summary
References for AdditionaReading

CHAPTER 6
Original and Average Reservoir Pressure Estimation Methods
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Original Reservoir Pressure in Infinite Reservoirs
6.3 Estimating Average and Initial Pressure
Horner and MBH Method
MDH Method
Dietz Method
Ramey and Cobb Methods
Modified Muskat Method
Arps and Smith Method
6.4 Estimating Constant Pressure at Aquifer in Water Drive Reservoirs
Boundary and Average Pressure Estimating Methods
6.5 Summary
References for Additional Reading

CHAPTER 7
Well Testing Methods for Naturally Fractured Oil Reservoirs
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Identification of Natural Fractures
7.3 Characteristics of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
7.4 Typical Pressure Drawdown Behavior Curve Shapes
7.5 Pressure Buildup Behavior Characteristics
7.6 Well Test Interpretation Methods, Uses and Limitations
Pseudo Steady-State Model
Transient State Model
Pressure Gradient Models
Type Curve Matching Technique
Pressure Derivative Method
7.7 Buildup Analysis Techniques For Tight Reservoir Matrix
7.8 Interpretation of Interference Tests in Matrix and Fractured Reservoirs
Uses of Interference Tests
Dimensionless Fracture Pressure Solution
Dimensionless Matrix Pressure Solution
Interference Test Analysis Using Type Curve Match Equations
7.9 Horizontal Well Pressure Behavior Curve Shapes
Identification of Various Flow Periods
Well Test Analysis Equations and Solutions
7.9 Horizontal Well Production Forecasting for Dual Porosity Reservoir
7.10 Summary
References for Additional Reading

CHAPTER 8
Fundamentals of Type Curve Matching Methods For Oil Wells
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Application to Conventional Tests
Ramey's Type Curves
Earlougher and Kersch Type Curves
McKinley's Type Curves
8.3 Fracture Type Curve Matching Techniques
Type Curves - Vertical Fractured Oil Wells
8.4 Types Curves - Horizontal Fractured Oil Wells
Using Pressure Drawdown Data
Estimation of Upper Limit of Permeability Thickness Product
8.5 Summary
References for Additional Reading

CHAPTER 9
Flow Regime Identification and Analysis Using Special Methods
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Fracture Linear Flow Period
9.3 Bilinear Flow
9.4 Formation Linear Flow
9.5 Pseudo-Radial Flow
9.6 Type Curve Matching Methods - Field Case Studies
Case 1 - Bilinear Flow Type of Analysis
Case 2 - Pressure Data Partially Match Curve for the Pseudo-Radial Flow Period
Case 3 - Pressure Exhibit a Half Slope Line on a Log-Log Plot
Case 4 - Pressure Data Partially Falling in the Pseudo-Radial Flow Period
9.7 Summary
References for Additional Reading


CHAPTER 10
Applications of Pressure Derivative in Oil Well Test Analysis
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Determining Pressure Derivative Functions
10.3 Log-Log Pressure and Pressure Derivative Diagnostic Plots
10.4 Pressure Derivative Trends For Other Common Flow Regimes
10.5 Pressure Derivative Applications to Well Test Analysis
10.6 Pressure derivative Analysis Methods
Pressure Buildup Test Data Matching Procedure
Pressure Drawdown Test Data Matching Procedures
10.7 Fractured Reservoir Systems
Pseudo-State Interporosity Flow
Transient Interporosity Flow
10.8 Summary
References for Additional Reading

CHAPTER 11
Massive Hydraulic Fractured Oil Well Behavior Analysis
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Methods of Evaluating MHF Fractured Oil Wells
11.3 Analyzing Infinite Flow Capacity Fractures
11.4 Analyzing Finite Flow Capacity Fractures
Constant Wellbore Pressure Case
Constant Rate Case
11.5 Estimating Formation Characteristics - Finite Conductivity Vertical Fractures
Curve Matching Procedures
Conventional Method of Analysis
11.6 Pretreatment Testing of Hydraulically Fractured Candidate
Horner Analysis
Linear Flow Analysis - High Conductivity Fractures
Type Curve Analysis
Bilinear Flow Analysis - Low Conductivity Fractures
11.7 Summary
References for Additional Reading


CHAPTER 12
Drill-Stem Testing Methods
12.1 Introduction
12.2 DST Equipment and Operational Procedures
Basics of DST Operations
DST Pressure Behavior
12.3 Recommended Flow and Shut-in Time for Drill-Stem Tests
12.4 Trouble Shooting DST Pressure Charts 444
DST Charts for Barrier Detection
12.5 Checking Validity and Consistency of Reported DST Data
12.6 Estimating Average Flow Rate
12.7 DST Analysis Methods, Uses and Their Limitations
Horner's Plot Method
Type Curve Matching Methods
Correa and Ramey's Method
Drill-Stem Buildup Test Analysis With Limited Data
12.8 Wireline Formation Test Data Evaluation
Open-Hole Formation Test
Closed-Hole Formation Test
Empirical Interpretation Charts for Formation Tester Results
Reservoir Rock's Porosity Distribution System Analysis
Matrix Pore Volume Calculation
Fracture Pore Volume Calculation
Partitioning Coefficient Estimation
Well Skin Effects
12.9 Summary
References for Additional Reading

CHAPTER 13
Oil Well Potential Evaluation and IPR Relationships
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Classification and Identifying Values of Permeability-Thickness Product
13.3 Isochronal and Flow After-Flow Tests
13.4 Wellbore Restriction Analysis
Procedure and Method of Analysis Well Test
Effect of Changing Completion Zone on Well IPR
13.5 Factors Affecting IPR Curves
13.6 Criteria for Identifying Type of Drives
13.7 Classifications to Predict IPR Curves
13.8 Basic Assumptions to Predict IPR Curves
13.9 Well Inflow Performance Calculation Methods for Vertical Oil Wells
From Limited Information
Single Phase Liquid and Two Phase Flow
When Flow Efficiency Not Equal to One
Two Phase Flow Producing Water
13.10 Inflow Performance (IPR) Relationship
Solution Gas Drive - Vertical and Horizontal Oil Wells
13.11 Development Procedure for Preparation of Future IPR Curves
IPR Calculating for Future Conditions
13.12 Summary
References for Additional Reading

CHAPTER 14
Interference and Pulse Testing and Analysis Methods
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Interference Test Analysis Techniques
Interference Test Analysis by Type Curve Matching
14.3 Analysis of Pulse Test Pressure Response
Characteristics of Pressure Response
Pulse Test Responses With Flow and Shut-in Time
Pulse Test Analysis Methods
Horizontal Pulse Test Analysis
14.4 Vertical Pulse Test Design and Analysis Methods
Vertical Pulse Test Design Calculations
14.5 Design and Analysis of Unequal Pulses
Pulse Test Designing Methods
Pulse Test Analysis Methods
14.6 Summary
References for Additional Reading


CHAPTER 15
Injection Well Transient Testing and Analysis
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Injectivity Test Analysis Methods
Under Steady State Conditions
Waterflood Reservoir With M.R =1
Liquid Filled Unit-Mobility-Ratio Reservoirs
15.3 Pressure Fall-off Test Analysis Methods
Liquid Filled Unit-Mobility-Ratio Reservoirs
Prior to Reservoir Fillup (Unit Mobility Ratio)
Prior to Reservoir Fillup (Non Unit Mobility Ratio)
15.4 Two Rate Injection Test Analysis
15.5 Step Rate Injectivity Testing Techniques
Estimation of Formation Fracture Pressure
15.6 Summary
References for Additional Reading

CHAPTER 16
Well Testing Methods in Multilayered Oil Reservoir Systems
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Identification of Layered Oil Reservoir Systems
16.3 Analyzing Pressure Behavior Multilayered Systems
Layered Reservoir With Crossflow
Layered Reservoir Without Crossflow
Composite Reservoirs
Interlayer Crossflow Reservoirs
16.4 Concept of Reservoir Layer Fracture Conductivity
16.5 Pressure-Production Performance Response Equations
Constant Producing Pressure
Constant Producing Rate
16.6 Investigating Degree of Communication and Type of Crossflow
16.7 Pressure Buildup Response Characteristics in Layered Reservoir Systems
16.8 Pressure Analysis Methods for Oil Wells Producing Commingled Zones
Conventional Analysis Method (Horner Plot)
MDH Method
Extended Muskat Plot
Other Methods
16.9 Factors Effecting Multilayered Reservoir Performance
16.10 Economic Aspects of Interlayer Crossflow 595
References for additional reading

CHAPTER 17
Pressure Analysis Methods in Heterogeneous Oil Reservoir Systems
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Effect of Pressure on Rock Properties
17.3 Major Causes of Heterogeneities
17.4 Pressure Responses Near No Flow Boundaries
Methods of Estimating Distance to a Linear Discontinuity
17.5 Effect of Hydraulic Diffusivity on Reservoir Behavior
17.6 Simple Procedures and Guidelines to Determine Reservoir Heterogeneity Properties
17.7 Simple Approach to Estimate Fracture Trends or Heterogeneities
17.8 Determination of Reservoir Parameters and Fracture Orientation
17.9 Defining Reservoir Heterogeneity By Multiple Well Testing Techniques
Homogeneous Isotropic Reservoir Systems
Anisotropic Reservoir Systems
Heterogeneous Reservoir Systems
17.10 Method for Calculating Fracture Orientation
17.11 Estimating Two Dimensional Permeability With Vertical Interference Testing
17.12 Application of Pulse Tests to Describe Reservoir Heterogeneity
Homogeneous Isotropic Reservoir Systems
Anisitropic Reservoir Systems
17.13 Validity of Various Models and Steps to Obtain Reservoir Descriptions
17.14 Summary
References for Additional Reading

CHAPTER 18
Oil Well Testing - Field Case Studies
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Oil Well Test Evaluation Sheet
18.3 Method to Convert Bottom Hole Pressure at Instrument Depth To Reservoir Datum
18.4 Determining Average Depth of Oil Reservoirs
18.5 Stimulation Efforts Evaluation, Summary and Results
Low Pressure Reservoirs -Multiphase Pressure Buildup Test Analysis
Field Case Studies
18.6 Transient Pressure Drawdown Test Analysis
General Equations
Method of Analysis
Field Case Studies
18.7 Skin Effect, Skin Factor, and Flow Efficiency
Positive (+) and Negative (-) Skins
Skin Factor Equations and Their Relationships
Causes of Positive and Negative Skins
Relationships With Flow Efficiency
18.8 Factors Responsible For Reduction in Formation Permeability
18.9 Improvement Analysis As a Result of Fracture Treatment
References for Additional Reading


CHAPTER 19
Decline Curve Analysis Methods
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Transient Decline Behavior Analysis
Transient Drainage Radius During Infinite-Acting Period
Characteristics of Exponent b During Transient Period
Production Characteristics During Transient Period
Constant Pressure Rate Decline
Constant Rate Production, Pressure Declining
19.3 Pseudo-Steady State Decline
Forecasting Rate Decline
19.4 Characteristics and Classification of Production Decline Curves
Hyperbolic Decline Behavior
Exponential Decline Behavior
Harmonic Decline Behavior
Characteristics and Decline Exponent b Estimating Techniques
Harmonic Decline Curve
19.5 Decline Response Behavior in Fractured Reservoirs
Classifications and Limitations of Log Log Type Curves
Type Curve Matching Methods
19.6 Summary
References for Additional Reading

CHAPTER 20
Overall Skin Effects and Impact On Oil Well Performance
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Concept of Skin Factor
20.3 Wellbore Damage Effects
20.4 Effective Wellbore Radius Concepts and Productivity Index Calculation Techniques
Vertical Wells
Horizontal Wells
20.5 Skin Factor Due to Partial Penetration
20.6 Skin Factor Due to Perforation
20.7 Skin from Partial Completion and Slant
20.8 Skin Factor Due to Reduced Crushed Zone Permeability
20.9 Slant Well Damage Skin Effect on Well Productivity
20.10 Horizontal Well Damage Skin Effects
Impact of Skin Effect on Horizontal Oil Well Performance
20.21 Summary
References for Additional Reading

APPENDIX A
Conversion Factors Between Unit Systems

APPENDIX B
Correlation Tables and Charts for Dimensionless Functions
References for Additional Readings

APPENDIX C
Pressure Drop Through Vertical, Inclined and Horizontal Oil Wells
C.1 Hagedorn and Brown Method - Vertical Oil Wells
C.2 Beggs and Brill Method - Inclined and Horizontal Pipes

References for Additional Readings

APPENDIX D
Oil and Water PVT Properties and Correlation Equations
D.1 Oil PVT Properties and Correlations
Bubble Point (Saturation) Pressure
Factors Affecting Saturation Pressure
Correlations For Saturation Pressure Calculation
D.2 Solution Gas Oil Ratio
D.3 Oil Formation Volume Factor (FVF)
Correlations to Determine Oil FVF
D.4 Total Formation Volume Fcator
D.5 Oil Density
D.6 Oil Viscosity
Factors Affecting Oil Viscosity
Methods to Estimate Oil Viscosity
D.7 Oil Compressibility
D.8 Reservoir Rock Properties
D.9 Reservoir PVT Water Properties
Use of New Tables to Determine Formation Water PVT Properties

References for Additional Readings

APPENDIX E
Substantial Set of Problems Without Solution
E.1 Routine exercises to Practical Applications

Nomenclature 7
Bibliography
Subject Index
 
 
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