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Neurological Rehabilitation
 
 

Neurological Rehabilitation, 1st Edition

 
Neurological Rehabilitation, 1st Edition,Michael Barnes,David Good,ISBN9780444595843
 
 
 

Barnes   &   Good   

Elsevier

9780444595843

9780444529015

680

A comprehensive reference on the current state of research and practice in neuro-rehabilitation

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Key Features

  • A volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, which has an unparalleled reputation as the world's most comprehensive source of information in neurology
  • International list of contributors including the leading workers in the field
  • Describes the advances which have occurred in clinical neurology and the neurosciences, their impact on the understanding of neurological disorders and on patient care

Description

Neurological Rehabilitation is the latest volume in the definitive Handbook of Clinical Neurology series. It is the first time that this increasing important subject has been included in the series and this reflects the growing interest and quality of scientific data on topics around neural recovery and the practical applications of new research. The volume will appeal to clinicians from both neurological and rehabilitation backgrounds and contains topics of interest to all members of the multidisciplinary clinical team as well as the neuroscience community. The volume is divided into five key sections. The first is a summary of current research on neural repair, recovery and plasticity. The authors have kept the topics readable for a non-scientific audience and focused on the aspects of basic neuroscience that should be most relevant to clinical practice. The next section covers the basic principles of neurorehabilitation, including excellent chapters on learning and skill acquisition, outcome measurement and functional neuroimaging. The key clinical section comes next and includes updates and reviews on the management of the main neurological disabling physical problems, such as spasticity, pain, sexual functioning and dysphagia. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural problems are just as important and are covered in the next section, with excellent chapters, for example, on memory and management of executive dysfunction. The final part draws the sections on symptom management together by discussing the individual diseases that are most commonly seen in neurorehabilitation and providing an overview of the management of the disability associated with those disorders. The volume is a definitive review of current neurorehabilitation practice and will be valuable to a wide range of clinicians and scientists working in this rapidly developing field.

Readership

Clinical neurologists and research neuroscientists

Michael Barnes

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Neurological Rehabilitation, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

David Good

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chair, Department of Neurology, PennState Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA

Neurological Rehabilitation, 1st Edition

Series Page

Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series

Foreword

Preface

Contributors

Chapter 1. Neural plasticity and its contribution to functional recovery

Definition

Sites of plasticity

Window of opportunity

Functional relevance

Plasticity, metaplasticity, and homeostatic plasticity

Genetic Influences

Noninvasive techniques capable of evaluating neuroplasticity in humans

Modulation of neuroplasticity

Conclusions

References

Chapter 2. Plasticity of cerebral functions

Introduction

Natural history of recovery after stroke

Mechanisms underlying recovery after cortical injury

Plasticity in the somatotopy of cortical motor maps as a reflection of vicarious function

Premotor cortex as a potential locus for vicarious function

Structural changes in motor cortex after stroke

Summary

References

Chapter 3. Neuroplasticity in the spinal cord

Introduction

Spinal cord injury

Mechanisms of plasticity in recovery from spinal cord injury

References

Chapter 4. Neural tissue transplantation, repair, and rehabilitation

Introduction

Cell replacement and structural repair by neural transplantation

Mechanisms of functional recovery after neural transplantation

Transplant-derived plasticity

Behavioral experience affects transplant integration and function

Learning (and relearning) to use the transplant

Rehabilitation strategies to promote transplant function

References

Chapter 5. Clinical trials in neurorehabilitation

Introduction

Complexity of human randomized clinical trials

Beyond randomized controlled trials

Translation of evidence from clinical trials in neurorehabilitation to clinical practice

Summary

References

Chapter 6. Brain–computer interfaces

Introduction

The definition of a brain–computer interface

The brain signals used in bcis

Current bcis

Signal processing

Bci users

Bci applications

Bcis in neurorehabilitation

Bci research and development

References

Chapter 7. Epidemiology of neurologically disabling disorders

Introduction

Sudden Onset

Progressive Disorders

Intermittent disorders

Stable Disorders

conclusion

References

Chapter 8. Motor learning principles for neurorehabilitation

Introduction

Motor adaptation

Skill learning

Motor learning in patients

References

Chapter 9. Outcome measures in stroke rehabilitation

Introduction

Factor 1: conceptual framework

Factor 2: psychometric properties

Factor 3: mode of administration and source of information

Factor 4: respondent burden and feasibility

Generic or disease-specific measures

Cognitive outcome measures

Barriers to outcome measurement

Reporting outcomes

Outcomes case study

References

Chapter 10. Organization of rehabilitation services

Introduction

Areas addressed by rehabilitation

Rehabilitation team structures

Models of team working in rehabilitation

Components of the rehabilitation process

Models of service delivery

Complex specialized rehabilitation services for neurological conditions

Outpatient and community rehabilitation

Residential rehabilitation

Vocational rehabilitation

Conclusions

References

Chapter 11. Functional neuroimaging

Introduction

Stroke alters brain activation patterns

Anatomical substrates of motor system reorganization after stroke

The functional relevance of lesion-induced brain reorganization

Predicting recovery with neuroimaging

Conclusions

References

Chapter 12. Gait disorders

Introduction

Physiological basis of human locomotion

Gait disorder in parkinson disease

Spastic gait disorder

Other gait disorders

Target for rehabilitation: plasticity of the central nervous system

Outlook

References

Chapter 13. The diagnosis and management of adults with spasticity

Introduction

Definition of spasticity

Classification

Epidemiology

Pathophysiology of spasticity

Why Treat Spasticity?

Principles of spasticity treatment

Outcome measures

References

Chapter 14. Neurorehabilitation approaches to facilitate motor recovery

A Paradigmatic change

Evidence-based medicine

Advances ln knowledge about “motor learning”

Training approaches for the upper extremity

Training approaches for the lower extremity

The use of mechanical devices (robots)

Modular therapies

Where to go from here?

References

Chapter 15. Neuropathic pain

Introduction

Definition

Etiology

Classification

Epidemiology

Neuropathic pain pathophysiology

Assessment and diagnosis of neuropathic pain

Pharmacological management of neuropathic pain

Nonpharmacological treatment

Summary

References

Chapter 16. Balance

Introduction

Balance assessment

Balance rehabilitation

Efficacy of balance rehabilitation in neurological disorders

Falls prevention

Conclusion

References

Chapter 17. Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

Introduction

The bladder in health and neurological disease

Causes of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

Evaluation

Approach to neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

Treatment

Infections

Multidisciplinary approach

References

Chapter 18. Neurogenic bowel

Overview and impact on quality of life

Altered physiology

Implications for bowel function in central neurological conditions

Managing bowel dysfunction

Assessment

Alternative strategies for management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction

Conclusion

References

Chapter 19. Neurological rehabilitation

Introduction

The Role of counseling

Anatomy and physiology of sexual and reproductive functions

Myelopathy

Multiple sclerosis

The developmental neurological disorders (cerebral palsy, static encephalopathy, autism)

Stroke

Traumatic brain injury

Geriatrics

Secondary complications of neurological illness and their treatment

Medications and sexual dysfunction

Conclusion

References

Chapter 20. Autonomic dysfunction

Introduction

Classification of autonomic dysfunction

Clinical features in autonomic disorders

Investigations in autonomic disorders

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction causing orthostatic hypotension

Additional considerations in the management of msa and parkinson disease

References

Chapter 21. Dysphagia

Introduction: swallowing-related definitions and impact

Healthy swallowing

Neural control of healthy adult swallowing

Aging swallowing: presbyphagia

Dysphagia: types/causes and typical symptoms

The dysphagia team

Evaluation of dysphagia

Treatment of dysphagia

References

Chapter 22. Disorders of communication

Disorders of communication

Dysarthria

Conclusion

References

Chapter 23. Rehabilitation Robotics

Introduction

Dirty, Dangerous, Distant

Academia, National Interest, And Corporation

Orthotics

Rehabilitation Robotics

References

Chapter 24. Neurogenic respiratory failure

Introduction

Ventilation

Neurological disorders affecting ventilatory control

Neurological disorders affecting the mechanics of respiration

Clinical manifestations

Treatment

Respiratory failure of acute onset

Respiratory failure of chronic onset

Summary

References

Chapter 25. Chronic fatigue syndrome

Introduction

Is CFS a postviral illness?

The neurobiology of CFS

Predisposing factors

Precipitating factors

Maintainin/perpetuating factors

Rehabilitation in chronic fatigue syndrome

References

Chapter 26. Other physical consequences of disability

Introduction

Immobility

Osteoporosis

Pressure ulcers

Venous thromboembolism

Heterotopic ossification

Nutrition

Ataxia

Tremor

References

Chapter 27. Rehabilitation of aphasia

Introduction

Epidemiology

Overview of the history of aphasia therapy

Present approaches

Efficacy of aphasia therapy

Conclusions

References

Chapter 28. Apraxia

Introduction

Neural mechanisms and assessment of apraxia

A definition of ideomotor limb apraxia

Cognitive-process model of limb apraxia

Assessment of ideomotor apraxia

Lateralization and lesion localization of limb apraxia

Recovery of apraxia in stroke patients

Real world effects of limb apraxia: treatment strategies

Summary

References

Chapter 29. Rehabilitation of spatial neglect

Definitions and scope of the health problem

Clinical characteristics of spatial neglect

Treatment theory and treatment for spatial neglect

Pharmacological treatment of spatial neglect

Conclusions and future directions

References

Chapter 30. Memory deficits

Introduction

General principles for helping people with memory deficits

Modifying the environment for those with severe and widespread cognitive deficits

New learning for memory-impaired people

Compensatory external memory aids

Emotional consequences of memory impairment

Planning a memory rehabilitation program

Conclusions

References

Chapter 31. Rehabilitation and management of executive function disorders

Overview

Assessing clinical signs and symptoms of EF disorders

Specific intervention approaches

Pharmacological approaches

Summary

References

Chapter 32. Neurobehavioral disorders

Neurobehavioral disorders: an overview

Localization-related syndromes

Affective disorders

Psychotic disorders

Delirium

Personality disorders

Awareness disorders

Assessment of neurobehavioral disorders

Treatment of neurobehavioral disorders

Concluding remarks and future directions

References

Chapter 33. Emotional disorders in neurological rehabilitation

Introduction

Features of emotional disorders

Incidence and prevalence

Etiology

Course and prognosis

Diagnosing emotional disorders

Management

Conclusion

References

Chapter 34. Traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury

Acquired brain injury

Epidemiology

Pathophysiology

Rehabilitation

Evaluation scale in brain injury

Complications

Prognostic criteria

Future research perspectives

Conclusions

References

Chapter 35. Traumatic spinal cord injury

Introduction

Epidemiology

Management

Assessment

Prognosis

Posttraumatic syringomyelia

Spinal shock

Autonomic dysreflexia

Bladder

Bowel

Dysphagia

Deep vein thrombosis

Pain

Spasticity

Upper extremities

Locomotion

Respiration

Physical fitness

Fatigue

Contractures

Muscular atrophy

Heterotopic ossification

Osteoporosis

Pressure ulcers

Sexuality

Affective disorders

Quality of life

References

Chapter 36. Stroke

Epidemiology

Diagnosis and etiology

Stroke types

Stroke subtypes

Acute treatment

Maintenance or restoration of homeostasis

Stroke units

Case notes

Rehabilitation after stroke

Assessment of swallowing

Nutrition and hydration

Continence and skin care

Positioning, mobilization, activities of daily living

Capacity to understand and communicate

Concentration and memory

Spatial awareness and inattention

Mood

Pain and spasticity

Information provision and carer support

Transfer of care

Early supported discharge

Long term support

References

Chapter 37. Neurorehabilitation in Parkinson disease

Introduction

Physiotherapy

Occupational therapy

Speech and language therapy

Dietetics

Driving

Factors limiting rehabilitation

Summary

References

Chapter 38. Cerebral palsy

Diagnosis

Functional measurement

Associated disabilities

Managing “progression” in Cerebral Palsy

Survival in adults with Cerebral Palsy

Medical complications of Cerebral Palsy in adulthood

Rehabilitation modalities in adults with Cerebral Palsy

Spasticity

Physical therapies in Cerebral Palsy

Bulbar function and speech therapy

Secondary prevention and surveillance

Psychological interventions

Conclusion

References

Chapter 39. Multiple sclerosis

Introduction

Pathology of Multiple Sclerosis

Epidemiology and genetics

Diagnosis and investigation of Multiple Sclerosis

Measuring Multiple Sclerosis

Natural history of Multiple Sclerosis

Treatment options in Multiple Sclerosis

Symptomatic treatments in Multiple Sclerosis

Nonpharmacological treatments for Multiple Sclerosis

Conclusions

References

Chapter 40. Rehabilitation of the muscular dystrophies

Goals of rehabilitation

Conditioning

Musculoskeletal complications

Development and cognition

Steroid usage

Nutritional status

Respiration

Wheelchair seating

End of life considerations

Future of muscular dystrophy rehabilitation

References

Chapter 41. Rehabilitation of motor neuron disease

Introduction

Quality of life

Therapies

Respiratory function

Mental health

Symptom management

Cognitive changes

Spirituality and religion

End-of-life concerns

Conclusions

References

Chapter 42. Rehabilitation of brachial plexus and peripheral nerve disorders

Introduction

Brachial plexopathy

Focal Neuropathies of the upper extremities

Focal neuropathies of the lower extremity

Conclusion

References

Index

 
 
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