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Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals
 
 

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 4th Edition

 
Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 4th Edition,Gunnar Nordberg,Bruce Fowler,Monica Nordberg,ISBN9780444594532
 
 
 

Nordberg   &   Fowler   &   Nordberg   

Academic Press

9780444594532

9780123973399

1542

276 X 216

This multidisciplinary resource integrates both human and environmental toxicology and is considered the foremost resource on metal toxicology available today!

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Key Features

  • Contains 61 peer reviewed chapters dealing with the effects of metallic elements and their compounds on biological systems
  • Includes information on sources, transport and transformation of metals in the environment and on certain aspects of the ecological effects of metals to provide a basis for better understanding of the potential for adverse effects on human health
  • Covers the toxicology of metallic nanomaterials in a new comprehensive chapter
  • Metal toxicology in developing countries is dealt with in another new chapter emphasizing the adverse effects on human health by the inadequate handling of "ewaste”
  • Other new chapters in the 4th edition include:  Toxic metals in food; Toxicity of metals released from medical devices; Gene-environment interactions; Neurotoxicology of metals; Cardiovascular disease; Renal effects of exposure to metals; Gold and gold mining; Iridium; Lanthanum; Lithium and Rhodium

Description

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fourth Edition bridges the gap between established knowledgebase and new advances in metal toxicology to provide one essential reference for all those involved in the field. This book provides comprehensive coverage of basic toxicological data, emphasizing toxic effects primarily in humans, but also those of animals and biological systems in vitro. The fourth edition also contains several new chapters on important topics such as nanotoxicology, metals in prosthetics and dental implants, gene-environment interaction, neurotoxicology, metals in food, renal, cardiovascular, and diabetes effects of metal exposures and more.

Volume I covers “General Considerations” and Volume II is devoted to “Specific Metals.” A multidisciplinary resource with contributions from internationally-recognized experts, the fourth edition of the Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals is a prominent and indispensable reference for toxicologists, physicians, pharmacologists, engineers, and all those involved in the toxicity of metals.

Readership

The main audience includes toxicologists, physicians, pharmacologists and engineers in the fields of environmental and occupational health. Those working in governmental regulatory agencies, research labs, pharmaceutical and biotech companies and public health fields may also find this book valuable.

Gunnar Nordberg

Dr Gunnar F. Nordberg, MD, PhD, is an emeritus Professor at Umea University, Umea, Sweden, where he served as chairman of the Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine for many years. He has also worked as a scientist at the International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France and as a Professor and chairman at the Department of Environmental Medicine, Odense University, Denmark. He has published more than 270 papers in Scientific Journals and International Handbooks. In addition, he edited or co-edited 23 Scientific Books and participated in International Task Groups evaluating Risks of Environmental Agents which resulted in 25 international books. Some of these publications resulted from his activities as a chairman of the Scientific Committee on the Toxicology of Metals, International Commission on Occupational Health. He is presently the Task Group Chairman of Cadmium Risk Assessment in the Toxicology and Risk Assessment Group of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. His Scientific Publications are mainly on Toxicology and Epidemiology of environmental agents, particularly metals. He has coordinated EU- projects on Environmental Epidemiology and Toxicology of Metals and participated as an active scientist in several such projects. He has been the principal investigator of many research projects funded by Swedish funding Agencies and is presently actively involved in such research. He is one of the editors of a Textbook in Swedish “Arbets- och Miljömedicin”, latest (3rd) Edition 2010. Chief Editor, Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 3rd Ed, published 2007 by Academic Press/Elsevier, new 4th edition publishing October 2014. He has extensive experience as an expert serving Swedish and International Authorities such as the Swedish National Board of Health (Socialstyrelsen), Japan Food Safety Agency, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Environmental Health Studies (NIEHS), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) USA, World Health Organization HQ, Geneva/International Program on Chemical Safety; International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC, Lyon, France, World Health Organization, Europe/European Environment Agency, Copenhagen; European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Umeå University, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sweden

Bruce Fowler

Dr. Fowler began his scientific career at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences prior to becoming Director of the University of Maryland System-wide Program in Toxicology and Professor at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. He then served as Associate Director for Science in the Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine at Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). He is currently a private consultant and Co-owner of Toxicology Risk Assessment Consulting Services (TRACS), LLC. In addition, Dr. Fowler serves as an Adjunct Professor, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health and Presidents Professor of Biomedical Sciences, Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) at the University of Alaska- Fairbanks. Dr. Fowler, is an internationally recognized expert on the toxicology of metals and has served on a number of State, National and International Committees in his areas of expertise. These include the Maryland Governor’s Council on Toxic Substances (Chair), various National Academy of Sciences / National Research Council Committees, the USEPA Science Advisory Board and Fulbright Scholarship review committee for Scandinavia (Chair, 2000-2001). ). In 2016, he became an Inaugural Member of the Fulbright 1946 Society. He has also served as a temporary advisor to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for Research Against Cancer (IARC) for a number of toxicology and risk assessment issues and has been recently appointed as a member of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) for the period 2016-2020. Dr. Fowler has been honored as a Fellow of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), a Fulbright Scholar and Swedish Medical Research Council Visiting Professor at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden and elected as a Fellow of the Academy of Toxicological Sciences. His more recent awards include a CDC/ATSDR, Honor Award for Excellence in Leadership Award 2010, The USP Toxicology Committee 2010-2015. The USP Elemental Impurities Panel and the 2014 U.S. Pharmacopea Award for an Innovative Response to Public Health Challenges (Group Award). He was appointed to the USP Nanotechnology Subcommittee in 2015- .Dr. Fowler was previously elected to the Council of the Society of Toxicology (2005-2007), the Board of Directors of the Academy of Toxicological Sciences (2006-2009), and more recently, to the Council of the Society for Risk Analysis (2014-2017He is the Federal Legislative and National Active and Retired Federal Employees Association (NARFE)-PAC Chair for the Rockville Maryland Chapter of NARFE. Dr. Fowler is the current President of the Rotary Club of North Bethesda, Maryland (2016-2017) and was selected as Rotarian of the Year in 2015 for his work in developing a taxi-based program to help persons with disabilities gain independence via reliable transportation to work. Dr. Fowler is the author of over 260 research papers and book chapters dealing with molecular mechanisms of metal toxicity, molecular biomarkers for early detection of metal-induced cell injury and application of computational toxicology for risk assessment. He has been the editor, co-editor or author of 8 books or monographs on metal toxicology and mechanisms of chemical - induced cell injury, molecular biomarkers and risk assessment and computational toxicology. Dr. Fowler is currently focused on the global problem of electronic waste in developing countries. He serves on the editorial boards of a number of scientific journals in toxicology and is an Associate Editor of the journal Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology and a past Associate Editor of Environmental Health Perspectives (2007-2016).

Affiliations and Expertise

Ph.D., A.T.S., Private Consulting Toxicologist, Adjunct Professor, Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health, and Presidents Professor of Biomedical Research, University of Alaska - Fairbanks

View additional works by Bruce A. Fowler

Monica Nordberg

Dr Monica Nordberg, Ph.D. is an emerita Professor at Karolinska Institutet (KI), Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden. She has served as chair of the Department of Environmental Hygiene, as member, Karolinska Institutet Study Program for Community Medicine, member of Education Policy Committee for Toxicology and Public Health, KI, Stockholm for many years. She has published 175 scientific articles, book chapters and review articles dealing with biochemical mechanisms and health effects related to exposure to metals mainly cadmium, lead and mercury and interaction with selenium. She is one of the editors of a Textbook in Swedish “Arbets- och Miljömedicin”, latest (3:rd) Edition 2010. Monica Nordberg is a co- editor and author, of the Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals 3rd edition, Academic Press/Elsevier, 2007 and, for the new 4th edition 2015. This work is within the framework of Scientific Committee on the Toxicology of Metals under International Commission on Occupational Health (SCTM/ICOH) which she served as secretary, chair and presently as former chair. She served as titular member of the Chemistry and Human Health of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry issuing recommendations regarding definitions and concepts. She was the Swedish representative in the Management Committee of COST Action, member EU Strategy Environment and Health, SCALE, Technical Working Group Indicators and Priority Diseases. She has experience as an expert serving Japan Food Safety Agency, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Environmental Health Studies (NIEHS), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) USA, World Health Organization HQ, Geneva/International Program on Chemical Safety. Monica Nordberg is a full member of different societies such as Society of Toxicology, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

PhD, Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 4th Edition

  • Preface
  • List of Contributors
  • List of Contributors
  • List of Reviewers
  • List of Reviewers
  • Volume I. General Considerations
    • Chapter 1. Toxicology of Metals: Overview, Definitions, Concepts, and Trends
      • 1. Metal Exposures and Global Burden of Disease
      • 2. International Historical Perspectives on Risks of Health Effects of Metals
      • 3. Metal Poisoning and Other Human Health Effects
      • 4. Human Exposures to Metallic Compounds, Risk Assessment, and Prevention
    • Chapter 2. General Chemistry, Sampling, Analytical Methods, and Speciation
      • 1. Definition of Metals
      • 2. The Periodic Table
      • 3. Compounds of Metallic Elements
      • 4. Solubility
      • 5. Properties of Metal Ions
      • 6. Other Aspects of Metal Chemistry of Biological and Toxicological Interest
      • 7. Metallomics, Total Element Analysis, and Elemental Speciation
      • 8. Sampling and Sample Preparation
      • 9. Separation Techniques
      • 10. Detection Methods
      • 11. Calibration
      • 12. Reference Materials
      • 13. Quality Assurance
      • 14. Conclusions
    • Chapter 3. Routes of Exposure, Dose, and Toxicokinetics of Metals
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Exposure
      • 3. Deposition and Absorption
      • 4. Transport, Biotransformation, and Distribution
      • 5. Pathways and Mechanisms of Excretion
      • 6. Toxicokinetic Models and Their Use in Establishing Dose-Response and Dose-Effect Relationships
      • 7. Use of Indicator Media for Estimating Exposure or Critical Organ Concentration
    • Chapter 4. Toxicity of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles
      • 1. Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles
      • 2. Principles of Nanoparticle-Induced Toxicity
      • 3. Physicochemical Characterization
      • 4. Methods for Toxicity Testing of Nanoparticles
      • 5. Gold Nanoparticles
      • 6. Silver Nanoparticles
      • 7. Platinum and Palladium Nanoparticles
      • 8. Aluminum and Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles
      • 9. Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles
      • 10. Nickel and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles
      • 11. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
      • 12. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
      • 13. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
      • 14. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles
      • 15. Silicon Dioxide or Silica Nanoparticles
      • 16. Semiconductor Nanocrystals
      • 17. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 5. Toxicity of Metals Released from Implanted Medical Devices
      • 1. Background
      • 2. Toxicological Issues Associated with Metal Release from Specific Types of Implanted Medical Devices
      • 3. Challenges and Future Directions
    • Chapter 6. Toxic Metals in Food
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Cadmium
      • 3. Lead
      • 4. Mercury
      • 5. Arsenic
      • 6. Health-Based Guidance Values and Benchmark Dose (Lower Confidence Limit) for Cadmium, Mercury, Lead, and Arsenic
      • 7. Food Contamination from Packaging
      • 8. Conclusion
    • Chapter 7. Exposure Assessment, Forward and Reverse Dosimetry
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. General Principles
      • 3. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling
      • 4. Biomonitoring and Its Interpretation
      • 5. Human PBPK Tool Kit Development: The General Approach
      • 6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 8. Biological Monitoring and Biomarkers
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Sources of Preanalytical and Analytical Error
      • 3. Quality Assurance: Reference Materials
      • 4. Specimens in Use
      • 5. Reference Values and Biomonitoring Guidance Values
      • 6. Biomarkers of Exposure
      • 7. Biomarkers of Effects
      • 8. Ethical Considerations
      • 9. Biomonitoring in Health Risk Assessment and Management
      • 10. Future Trends
    • Chapter 9. Selected Molecular Mechanisms of Metal Toxicity and Carcinogenicity
      • 1. Transport of Toxic Metals by Molecular/Ionic Mimicry of Essential Compounds
      • 2. Interference with The Functions of Essential Metals by Toxic Metals
      • 3. Toxic Metal-Binding Molecules
      • 4. Mutagenic and Genotoxic Effects of Metals
      • 5. Epigenetic Effects of Metal Compounds
      • 6. Effects of Metals on Cell Signaling Pathways and Gene Expression
    • Chapter 10. General Considerations of Dose-Effect and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 1. General Aspects of Dose-Response Relationships
      • 2. Modeling of Dose-Response Relationships
      • 3. Modeling the Data
      • 4. Species-to-Species Extrapolations
      • 5. Risk Assessment and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 6. Dose Response in an Era of “omics”
    • Chapter 11. Interactions and Mixtures in Metal Toxicology
      • 1. Introduction and General Considerations
      • 2. Age, Gender, Drugs, and Other Factors
      • 3. Joint Metal-Metal Actions (Noncarcinogenic Effects)
      • 4. Joint Metal Actions in Carcinogenesis
      • 5. Risk Assessment of Mixtures of Metals
      • 6. Perspectives and Future Needs
    • Chapter 12. Gene-Environment Interactions for Metals
      • 1. Gene-Environment Interactions for Metals
      • 2. Interactions of Specific Metals
      • 3. Conclusions
    • Chapter 13. Epidemiological Approaches to Metal Toxicology
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Epidemiological Terms
      • 3. Study Design
      • 4. Study Population
      • 5. Exposure Assessment
      • 6. Assessment of Effects
      • 7. Data Analysis and Assessment of The Benchmark Dose
      • 8. Inference
    • Chapter 14. Essential Metals: Assessing Risks from Deficiency and Toxicity
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Basic Concepts
      • 3. Effects of Deficiency and Toxicity
      • 4. Summary of the Principles of Human Risk Assessment for Exposures to Essential Metals
      • 5. Estimation of the AROI
      • 6. Conclusions and Recommendations
    • Chapter 15. Neurotoxicology of Metals
      • 1. From Neurophysiology to Neurotoxicology
      • 2. Central Nervous System Development and Windows of Vulnerability
      • 3. Mechanistic Bases of Metal Neurotoxicity
    • Chapter 16. Cardiovascular Disease
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Aluminum
      • 3. Arsenic
      • 4. Beryllium
      • 5. Cadmium
      • 6. Chromium
      • 7. Cobalt
      • 8. Iron
      • 9. Lead
      • 10. Magnesium
      • 11. Manganese
      • 12. Mercury
      • 13. Nickel
      • 14. Selenium
      • 15. Uranium
      • 16. Zinc
      • 17. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 17. Renal Effects of Exposure to Metals
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Function of the Kidneys and Indicators of Injury
      • 3. Renal Effects of Exposure to Metals
    • Chapter 18. Carcinogenicity of Metal Compounds
      • 1. Principal Metals Showing Carcinogenic Effects
      • 2. Potential Mechanisms of Metal Carcinogenesis
      • 3. Epigenetic Effects of Metals
    • Chapter 19. Immunotoxicology of Metals
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Immunosuppression Induced By Metals
      • 3. Nutritionally Essential Metals and The Immune System
      • 4. Hypersensitivity Induced by Metals
      • 5. Metals Causing Hypersensitivity Reactions
      • 6. Interaction between Metals and Proteins
      • 7. Other Interactions between Metals and Proteins: Implications for Autoimmunity
      • 8. Immunostimulation Induced By Metals: The Examples of PB, HG, and NI
      • 9. Metal-Induced Autoimmunity
      • 10. Acceleration and Aggravation of Autoimmunity by Xenobiotics
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 20. Effects of Metallic Elements on Reproduction and Development
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. How to Measure Dose and Effect
      • 3. Gender Differences
      • 4. Mechanism of Action in Male and Female Germinal Cells
      • 5. The Role of Hormones: Metallic Elements as Endocrine Disruptors
      • 6. Conception
      • 7. Other Effects on Pregnancy
      • 8. Developmental Effects
      • 9. Concluding Remarks and The Need for Future Research
    • Chapter 21. Ecotoxicology of Metals—Sources, Transport, and Effects on the Ecosystem
      • 1. Sources of Metal Emissions
      • 2. The Biogeochemical Transport of Metals
      • 3. Uptake and Accumulation of Metals
      • 4. Defense Against and Storage of Metals
      • 5. Toxicity of Metals in Ecosystems
      • 6. Risk Assessment of Metals
      • 7. Monitoring Metal Pollution: Biomonitoring
      • 8. Ecotoxicology Of Individual Metals
    • Chapter 22. Risk Assessment
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Exposure and Dose Assessment
      • 3. Hazard Identification
      • 4. Dose-Effect and Dose-Response Assessment
      • 5. Risk Characterization
      • 6. Risk Management and Risk Communication
    • Chapter 23. Diagnosis and Treatment of Metal Poisoning: General Aspects
      • 1. Clinical Effects
      • 2. Diagnosis of Metal Poisoning
      • 3. Treatment
    • Chapter 24. Principles for Prevention of the Toxic Effects of Metals
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. General Principles for Prevention of the Toxic Effects of Metals
      • 3. Prevention of the Effects of Metal Toxicity in the Work Environment
      • 4. Prevention of the Effects of Metal Toxicity in the General Environment
      • 5. Perspectives on Precaution and Prevention
    • Chapter 25. Metal Toxicology in Developing Countries
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Overview of Public Health Problem Areas
      • 3. Developing Countries as Global Sources of Metals
      • 4. Artisanal Gold Mining (MERCURY—Occupational Exposures/Subsistence Fishing)
      • 5. Uranium Mining
      • 6. Agricultural Fertilizers
      • 7. Methods for the Removal of Toxic Metals from Wastewater Streams in Developing Countries
      • 8. Needed Preventive Action and Research into the Toxicity of Metals in Humans
  • Volume II. Specific Metals
    • Chapter 26. Aluminum
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Use
      • 4. Dietary, Environmental, and Occupational Exposures
      • 5. Kinetics
      • 6. Effects
      • 7. Other Aluminum Compounds
      • 8. Guidelines
    • Chapter 27. Antimony
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Carcinogenic and Genotoxic Effects
    • Chapter 28. Arsenic
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects
      • 8. Dose-Effect and Dose-Response Relationship in Arsenic Poisoning
      • 9. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis
      • 10. Arsine
    • Chapter 29. Barium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Kinetics
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Treatment
    • Chapter 30. Beryllium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Kinetics
      • 6. Levels in Tissues and Biological Fluids
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Diagnosis and Treatment
    • Chapter 31. Bismuth
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Treatment of Bismuth Poisoning
    • Chapter 32. Cadmium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Toxicokinetics
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Dose-Response Relationships and Risk Characterization
      • 9. Life Prognosis
      • 10. Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, and Prevention
    • Chapter 33. Chromium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods of Chemical Analysis
      • 3. Manufacture and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Chromium Concentrations
      • 5. Work-Related Exposure
      • 6. Uptake and Metabolism
      • 7. Dose and Outcome Effects
      • 8. Biological Monitoring
      • 9. Cellular Mechanisms of Toxicity and Carcinogenicity
      • 10. Prevention (Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis)
    • Chapter 34. Cobalt
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Analytical Methods
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Kinetics
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
    • Chapter 35. Copper
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Levels in Tissues and Biological Fluids
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Preventive Measures and Treatment
    • Chapter 36. Gallium and Gallium Semiconductor Compounds
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Levels in Biological Fluids
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
    • Chapter 37. Germanium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Toxicokinetics
      • 6. Levels in Tissues and Biological Fluids: Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Cancer AND OTHER Treatment
    • Chapter 38. Gold and Gold Mining
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Kinetics and Metabolism
      • 6. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 7. Biological Monitoring
      • 8. Gold Mining
    • Chapter 39. Indium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Levels in Tissues and Biological Fluids
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
    • Chapter 40. Iridium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Analysis: Methods and Problems
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposure
      • 5. Kinetics and Metabolism
      • 6. Levels in Human Tissues and Biological Fluids
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
    • Chapter 41. Iron
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Biological Function and Metabolism
      • 6. Pathophysiology of Iron Metabolism
      • 7. “Carcinogenic” Effects
      • 8. Iron Poisoning
      • 9. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 42. Lanthanum
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposure
      • 5. Metabolism and Metabolic Interactions
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Treatment of Lanthanum Poisoning and its Prevention
    • Chapter 43. Lead
      • 1. Background
      • 2. Inorganic Lead
      • 3. Organic Lead
    • Chapter 44. Lithium
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 3. Analytical Methods
      • 4. Levels in the Environment
      • 5. Sources of Exposure
      • 6. Metabolism
      • 7. Acute Effects
      • 8. Chronic Effects
      • 9. Biomonitoring
      • 10. Treatment and Prevention of Lithium Intoxication
    • Chapter 45. Manganese
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 3. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 4. Occurrence, Production and Uses
      • 5. Levels and Fate in the Environment and Exposure
      • 6. Toxicokinetics
      • 7. Health Effects
      • 8. Guidelines and Regulations
      • 9. Biomarkers of Exposure and Effects
    • Chapter 46. Mercury
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 3. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 4. Production and Uses
      • 5. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 6. Metabolism and Toxic Effects of Elemental Mercury and Inorganic Mercury Compounds
      • 7. Metabolism and Toxic Effects of Organic Mercury Compounds
      • 8. Prevention, Prognosis, and Treatment
    • Chapter 47. Molybdenum
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
    • Chapter 48. Nickel
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Toxicological Effects
      • 8. Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
      • 9. Effects on Gene Expression and Signaling Pathways
      • 10. Epigenetic Effects of Nickel
      • 11. Treatment of Nickel Carbonyl Poisoning
    • Chapter 49. Palladium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Levels in Tissues and Biological Fluids
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, and Prevention
    • Chapter 50. Platinum
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposure
      • 5. Kinetics and Metabolism
      • 6. Effects in Animals and Humans, and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 7. Risk Assessment
    • Chapter 51. Rhodium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Kinetics and Metabolism
      • 6. Levels in Human Tissues and Biological Fluids
      • 7. Effects and Dose-response Relationships
      • 8. Carcinogenicity
    • Chapter 52. Selenium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposure
      • 5. Biological Function and Metabolism
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Prevention, Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment
    • Chapter 53. Silver
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Kinetics
      • 6. Levels in Tissues and Biological Fluids—Reference Values
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention
    • Chapter 54. Tellurium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity
      • 9. Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Tellurium Poisoning
      • 10. Standards: Threshold Limit Values
    • Chapter 55. Thallium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposure
      • 5. Toxicokinetics
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Preventive Measures
      • 9. Prognosis
    • Chapter 56. Tin
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Levels in Tissue and Biological Fluids
      • 7. Effects and dose-Response Relationships
    • Chapter 57. Titanium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Kinetics
      • 6. Levels in Tissues and Biological Fluids
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
    • Chapter 58. Tungsten
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Metabolism
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
    • Chapter 59. Uranium
      • 1. Physical, Chemical, and Radiological Properties
      • 2. Analytical Methods
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels and Exposures
      • 5. Toxicokinetics
      • 6. Mechanisms of Action
      • 7. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 8. Biomarkers
      • 9. Treatment Methods for Reducing Toxic Effects
    • Chapter 60. Vanadium
      • 1. Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 2. Methods and Problems of Analysis
      • 3. Production and Uses
      • 4. Environmental Levels
      • 5. Human Exposures
      • 6. Toxicokinetics
      • 7. Biological Monitoring
      • 8. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships
      • 9. Treatment of Vanadium Poisoning
    • Chapter 61. Zinc
      • 1. Identity and Physical/Chemical Properties
      • 2. Analytical Methods
      • 3. Sources of Human and Environmental Exposure
      • 4. Environmental Transport, Distribution, and Transformation
      • 5. Environmental Levels and Human Exposure
      • 6. Biological Monitoring
      • 7. Human Zinc Nutriture
      • 8. Effects Evaluation
  • Index

Quotes and reviews

"The handbook is a weighty collection of 47 essays in the fields of toxicology and ecology of metals, reflecting a wide range of specialist knowledge from authors of several parts of theworld. It promotes awareness of health threats of the general public as well as of professionals in various occupations, constituting a valuable reference source for physicians, toxicologists, scientists in several areas, legislators and managers of environmental and occupational safety organizations. The scope of the handbook is wide and multidisciplinary, integrating human and environmental ecology. It is desireable that the handbook will find its way to many bookshelves at hospitals, industrial and governmental libraries and several research institutes in every part of the world."--Science of The Total Environment
 
 
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