Handbook of Stem Cells, 2nd Edition

 
Handbook of Stem Cells, 2nd Edition,Anthony Atala,Robert Lanza,ISBN9780123859426
 
 
 

Atala   &   Lanza   

Academic Press

9780123859426

9780123859433

1080

276 X 216

A complete overview of the field of stem cells, providing the background, toolos, methods and experimental protocols needed for further research

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Key Features

  • Provides comprehensive coverage on this highly topical subject
  • Contains contributions by the foremost authorities and premiere names in the field of stem cell research
  • Companion website - http://booksite.elsevier.com/9780123859426/ - contains over 250 color figures in presentation format

Description

New discoveries in the field of stem cells increasingly dominate the news and scientific literature revealing an avalanche of new knowledge and research tools that are producing therapies for cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and a wide variety of other diseases that afflict humanity. The Handbook of Stem Cells integrates this exciting area of life science, combining in two volumes the requisites for a general understanding of adult and embryonic stem cells. Organized in two volumes entitled Pluripotent Stem Cells and Cell Biology and Adult and Fetal Stem Cells, this work contains contributions from the world’s experts in stem cell research to provide a description of the tools, methods, and experimental protocols needed to study and characterize stem cells and progenitor populations as well as a the latest information of what is known about each specific organ system.

Readership

Medical and research libraries; stem cell researchers professionals in the field of tissue engineering; bone biologists and cell biologists

Anthony Atala

The Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine was the first in the world to engineer and successfully implant an engineered organ in the lab -- bladders. As Director of the Institute, Dr. Atala oversees scientists working on therapies for more than 30 areas of the body, from heart valves and muscle tissue to livers and kidneys. Atala has received the Christopher Columbus Foundation Award, given to a living American who is currently working on a discovery that will significantly affect society. He is listed in Best Doctors in America.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Urology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

View additional works by Anthony Atala

Robert Lanza

Robert Lanza, M.D. is currently Chief Scientific Officer at Advanced Cell Technology, and Adjunct Professor of Surgical Sciences at Wake Forest University School of Medicine. He has several hundred scientific publications and patents, and over 30 books, including Principles of Tissue Engineering (1st through 4th Editions), Methods of Tissue Engineering, Principles of Cloning (1st and 2nd Editions), Essentials of Stem Cell Biology (1st and 2nd Editions), XENO, Yearbook of Cell & Tissue Transplantation, One World: The Health & Survival of the Human Species in the 21st Century (as editor, with forewords by C. Everett Koop and former President Jimmy Carter), and Medical Science & the Advancement of World Health. Dr. Lanza received his B.A. and M.D. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania, where he was both a University Scholar and Benjamin Franklin Scholar. He is a former Fulbright Scholar, and studied as a student in the laboratory of Richard Hynes (MIT), Jonas Salk (The Salk Institute), and Nobel laureates Gerald Edelman (Rockefeller University) and Rodney Porter (Oxford University). He also worked closely (and coauthored a series of papers) with the late Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner and heart transplant pioneer Christiaan Barnard. Dr. Lanza's current area of research focuses on the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Advanced Cell Technology, MA, USA

View additional works by Robert Lanza

Handbook of Stem Cells, 2nd Edition

Dedication

Foreword

Preface

Contributors

Contributors

VOLUME 1: Pluripotent Stem Cells

Chapter 1. Why Stem Cell Research? Advances in the Field

References

Chapter 2. “Stemness”: Definitions, Criteria, and Standards

Introduction

What Is a Stem Cell?

Where Do Stem Cells Come From?

How are Stem Cells Identified, Isolated, and Characterized?

Stemness: Progress Toward a Molecular Definition of Stem Cells

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 3. Pluripotential Stem Cells from Vertebrate Embryos: Present Perspective and Future Challenges

Introduction

Biology of ES and ESL Cells

Stem Cell Therapy

Summary

References

Further Reading

Chapter 4. Embryonic Stem Cells in Perspective

References

Chapter 5. The Molecular Circuitry Underlying Pluripotency in Embryonic Stem Cells and iPS Cells

Introduction

Signaling Networks Underlying Pluripotency

LIF and BMP Signaling Pathways Regulate Mouse ESC Self-Renewal

TGFβ and FGF Signaling Pathways Regulate Human ESC Self-Renewal

WNT Signaling is a Conserved Regulator of Pluripotency Across Species

Signaling Pathways Inhibit Differentiation and Converge on Core Transcriptional Circuitry to Maintain Pluripotency

Induced Pluripotency, Stochasticity, and Signaling Thresholds

Perspectives

References

Further Reading

Chapter 6. Molecular Organization of Cells

Introduction

Molecules that Organize Cells

The EMT Transcriptional Program

Molecular Control of the EMT

Conclusion

References

Chapter 7. Stem Cell Niches

Introduction

Stem Cell Niche Hypothesis

Stem Cell Niches in the Drosophila Germ Line

The Germ-Line Stem Cell Niche in the Drosophila Ovary

Germ-Line Stem Cell Niche in the Drosophila Testis

Coordinate Control of Germ-Line Stem Cell and Somatic Stem Cell Maintenance and Proliferation

Structural Components of the Niche

Stem Cell Niches within Mammalian Tissues

Mammalian Testis

Hematopoietic System

Mammalian Epidermis

Hair Follicle

Interfollicular Epidermis

GUT Epithelium

Neural Stem Cells

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 8. Mechanisms of Stem Cell Self-Renewal

Self-Renewal of Pluripotent Stem Cells

Summary

References

Chapter 9. Cell Cycle Regulators in Stem Cells

Introduction

Cell Cycle Kinetics of Stem Cells In Vivo

Stem Cell Expansion Ex Vivo

Mammalian Cell Cycle Regulation and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors

Roles of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors in Stem Cell Regulation

Roles of p21 in Stem Cell Regulation

Roles of p27 in Stem Cell Regulation

Other Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors and the Retinoblastoma Pathway in Stem Cell Regulation

Relation Between Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors and Transforming Growth Factor β-1

CKIS and Notch

Summary and Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 10. Cell Fusion and the Differentiated State

Introduction

Hybrid Cells and Differentiated Phenotypes

Hybrids of Pluripotent Cells

Reprogramming Somatic Cell Nuclei with EC, ES, or EG Cell Cytoplasm

Cell Fusion and the Demonstration of Stem Cell Plasticity

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Further Reading

Chapter 11. How Cells Change Their Phenotype

Introduction

Metaplasia and Transdifferentiation

Why Study Transdifferentiation?

Examples of the Phenomenon

Dedifferentiation as a Prerequisite for Transdifferentiation

How to Change a Cell’s Phenotype Experimentally

Summary

Acknowledgments

Further Reading

Chapter 12. Somatic Cloning and Epigenetic Reprogramming in Mammals

Introduction – Short History of Somatic Cloning

Technical Aspects of Somatic Nuclear Transfer

Success Rates of Somatic Cloning and the Question of Normality of Cloned Offspring

Epigenetic Reprogramming

Application of Somatic Nuclear Transfer

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS)

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 13. Engineered Proteins for Controlling Gene Expression

Introduction

Genetic Reprogramming and the Regulation of Gene Networks

Molecular Engineering of Natural Transcription Factors

Synthetic Transcription Factors for Targeted Gene Regulation

Delivery and Regulation

Conclusion

References

Chapter 14. Differentiation in Early Development

Preimplantation Development

From Implantation to Gastrulation

References

Chapter 15. Developmental Mechanisms of Regeneration

Introduction

Mechanisms of Regeneration

Specific Examples of Regenerative Mechanisms

How can these Regenerative Mechanisms be Applied to Regenerative Medicine?

References

Chapter 16. Primordial Germ Cells in Mouse and Human

Introduction

Origin of the Germ Cell Lineage

Migration

Germ Cells in the Genital Ridge

Embryonic Germ Cells

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 17. Cell–ECM Interactions in Repair and Regeneration

Introduction

Composition and Diversity of The ECM

Receptors for Extracellular Matrix Molecules

Signal Transduction Events During Cell–ECM Interactions

Cell–ECM Interactions During Healing of Skin Wounds

Cell–ECM Interactions During Regeneration

Implications for Regenerative Medicine

References

Chapter 18. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Introduction

Generation of iPS Cells

Molecular Mechanisms in iPS Cell Induction

Recapitulation of Disease Ontology and Drug Screening

iPS Cell Banking

Safety Concerns for Medical Application

Medical Application

Direct Fate Switch

Conclusion

References

Chapter 19. Feeder-Free and Defined Culture Conditions for hESC Growth

Introduction

1 Feeder-Free Culture Methods Using Conditioned Medium and Matrigel or Laminin

2 Feeder-Free Culture Methods Using Defined Conditions

3 Cryopreserving hESCS

4 Characterization of hESC Cultures

References

Chapter 20. Isolation and Maintenance of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

Introduction

Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cells

Media

SERA

Colony-Forming Assay for Testing Culture Conditions

Embryonic Stem Cell Passage Culture

Isolation of New Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

Method for Derivation of Embryonic Stem Cells

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 21. Isolation and Maintenance of Primate ES Cells

Introduction

What are Primate ES Cells?

Techniques for the Derivation of hES Cell Lines

“Late Stage” Embryos

Derivation of hES Cell Subclones

Methods for hES Cell Culture

Primate Versus mES Cells

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 22. Embryonic Stem Cells: Derivation and Properties

Introduction

Derivation of Embryonic Stem Cells

Culture of Embryonic Stem Cells

Developmental Potential of Embryonic Stem Cells

Conclusion

References

Chapter 23. Approaches for Derivation and Maintenance of Human ES Cells: Detailed Procedures and Alternatives

Introduction

Setting Up the Lab

Preparing and Screening Reagents

Mechanical Passaging of hES Cell Colonies

Derivation of hES Cells

Maintenance of Established hES Cell Cultures

Freezing hES Cells

Thawing hES Cells

hES Cell Quality Control

References

Chapter 24. Alternate Sources of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Introduction

Single Blastomere Biopsy

Organismically Dead Embryos

Conclusion

Addendum

References

Chapter 25. Genetic Approaches in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and their Derivatives: Prospects for Regenerative Medicine

Introduction

Maintaining Undifferentiated hESCS

Genetic Approaches to Manipulating hESCS

Differentiation of hESCS into Tissue-Specific Lineages and Transplantation of hESC-Derived Cells

Genetic Modifications of hESC-Derived Progenies

Potential Applications of Genetically Manipulated hESCS and their Derivatives

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 26. Genetic Manipulation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Introduction

Methods of Genetic Manipulation

Genetic Modification Approaches

Summary

Addendum

Refinement in Nucleic Acid Introduction Methodologies

Viral Infection

Gene Silencing – RNA Interference

Gene Targeting

Conditional Vectors

Summary

References

Chapter 27. Homologous Recombination in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Introduction

Targeted Ablation of the HPRT1 Gene as a Tool to Optimize Homologous Recombination Efficiency

Oct4 eGFP/NEO Knock-in

TH eGFP Knock-in

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 28. Derivation and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Germ Cells

Introduction

Human Embryonic Germ Cell Derivation

Embryoid Body-Derived Cells

Further Reading

Chapter 29. Growth Factors and the Serum-Free Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Introduction

Mouse Embryonal Carcinoma and Embryonic Stem Cells

Human Embryonal Carcinoma Cells

Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) and Knockout Serum Replacer

Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) and Platelet-Derived Growth Factor

Future Prospects

References

Chapter 30. Feeder-Free Culture

Introduction

Materials for Feeder-Free hES Cell Culture

Preparation of Conditioned Medium from MEFS

Culture of hES Cells on Matrigel or Laminin in CM

Characterization of Feeder-Free hES Cell Cultures

Acknowledgments

References

Further Reading

Chapter 31. Surface Antigen Markers

Introduction

Cell Surface Embryonic Antigens of the Laboratory Mouse

Human EC and ES Cells

Summary

Appendix: Methods

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 32. Lineage Marking

Definitions

Questions to Ask

Markers and Lineage Marking

Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 33. Genomic Reprogramming

Introduction

Genomic Reprogramming in Germ Cells

Reprogramming Somatic Nuclei

Conclusions

Further Reading

Chapter 34. Microarray Analysis of Stem Cells and Differentiation

Introduction

Overview of Microarray Technology

Experimental Design

Data Analysis

Postdata Analysis

Examples of Microarray Experiments

Stem Cell Niches

Future Directions

References

Chapter 35. Potential of ES Cell Differentiation Culture for Vascular Biology

Culture for Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation System for Vascular Biology Using Flk1 as Mesodermal Marker

Utility of Embryonic Stem Cell Culture for Cell Biology of Endothelial Cells

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 36. Use of Embryonic Stem Cells to Treat Heart Disease

Introduction

Cardiomyocyte Transplantation as a Paradigm for Treating Diseased Hearts

Cardiomyogenic Differentiation of ES Cells In Vitro

Transplantation of ES Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

Large-Scale Generation of ES Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

Summary and Challenges for the Clinical Implementation of ES Cell-Derived Cardiomyocyte Transplantation

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 37. Embryonic Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

Introduction

Tissue Engineering Principles and Perspectives

Limitations and Hurdles of Using ES Cells in Tissue Engineering

Summary

References

Chapter 38. Zebrafish and Stem Cell Research

Introduction

Zebrafish System

Acknowledgments

References

VOLUME 2: Adult and Fetal Stem Cells

Chapter 39. The Development of Epithelial Stem Cell Concepts

Introduction

A Definition of Stem Cells

Hierarchically Organized Stem Cell Populations

Skin Stem Cells

The Intestinal Stem Cell System

Stem Cell Organization on the Tongue

Generalized Scheme

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 40. Stem Cells Derived from Amniotic Fluid

Introduction

Amniotic Fluid – Function, Origin, and Composition

Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

Conclusions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 41. Update on “Stem and Progenitor Cells Isolated from Cord Blood”

Introduction

Addressing Delayed Time to Engraftment and Graft Failure with CB

Cryopreservation of CB Cells

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated from CB

Concluding Comments

References

Chapter 42. Stem Cells in Extraembryonic Lineages

Introduction

Trophoblast Lineage

TS Cell Lines

Extraembryonic Endoderm Lineage

Summary

References

Chapter 43. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

Introduction and History

New Insight

All MSCS are not Created Equal

Clinically Relevant Therapies using MSCS

Clinical Trials

The New MSCS

Medicinal Signaling Cells

Conclusion

References

Chapter 44. Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells

Pluripotent Stem Cells – Embryonic Stem Cells

Postnatal Tissue-Specific Stem Cells – Are Some More Than Multipotent?

Can Pluripotency be Acquired?

Isolation of Rodent MAPCS

Isolation of Human MAPCS

Recent Developments

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 45. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

The Definition of MSCs

The Stem Cell Nature of MSCs

Which Tissues Contain MSCS?

MSC Isolation Techniques

Immunomodulatory Effects of MSCS

Skeletal Tissue Regeneration by MSCS

Non-Skeletal Tissue Regeneration by MSCS

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 46. Stem Cells Derived from Fat – an Update

Therapeutic Use of ASCs

Conclusion

References

Chapter 47. Ontogeny of the Hematopoietic System

Historical Perspective

Sites of Initiation of Primitive and Definitive Hematopoiesis and Vasculogenesis

Cell Migration to Later Sites of Hematopoiesis

Cell Migration to Primary Lymphoid Organs

References

Chapter 48. Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Embryonic Stem Cells and Embryonic Hematopoiesis

Blood Formation in Embryoid Bodies

Transformation of an EB-Derived HSC by BCR/ABL

Promoting Hematopoietic Engraftment with STAT5 and HOXB4

Promoting Blood Formation in Vitro with Embryonic Morphogens

Further Reading

Chapter 49. Cell Therapy for Blood Substitutes

Introduction

Red Blood Cells

Megakaryocytes and Platelets

Perspectives

References

Chapter 50. Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

Introduction

Types and Source of Stem Cells in the Peripheral Blood

Endothelial Progenitor Cells

Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Therapeutic Applications of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter 51. Human Vascular Progenitor Cells

Human Vascular Development, Maintenance and Renewal

Human Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Source of Vascular Progenitors

References

Further Reading

Chapter 52. Stem Cells and the Regenerating Heart

Introduction

Recruiting Circulating Stem Cell Reserves

The Elusive Cardiac Stem Cell

Evolving Concepts of Regeneration

References

Chapter 53. Cardiac Stem Cells – Biology and Therapeutic Applications

Mammalian Cardiogenesis – Evidence for Progressive Lineage Restriction

Cell-Based Therapeutics for Heart Disease

Mechanisms of Action

Clinical Trials

Methods for Expansion of Cardiac Stem Cells

Recent Discoveries

Conclusions

References

Chapter 54. Stem Cells and Heart Disease

Heart: A Self-Renewing Organ

Distribution of CSCS in the Heart

Repair of Myocardial Damage by Nonresident Primitive Cells

Repair of Myocardial Damage by Resident Primitive Cells

Myocardial Regeneration in Humans

References

Chapter 55. Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

Introduction

The Original Muscle Stem Cell: The Satellite Cell

Functional and Biochemical Heterogeneity Among Muscle Stem Cells

Unorthodox Origins of Skeletal Muscle

The Muscle Stem Cell Niche

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 56. Stem Cells for the Treatment of Muscular Dystrophy

Introduction

Myoblast Transplantation – Past Failure and New Hope

Unconventional Myogenic Progenitors

Pluripotent Stem Cells for Future Cell-Based Therapies

Future Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 57. Myoblast Transplantation in Skeletal Muscles

Introduction

Myoblasts as Candidate Cells for Transplantation into Skeletal Muscles

Cell Implantation

Cell Graft Survival

Conclusions

References

Chapter 58. Neurogenesis in the Vertebrate Embryo

Introduction

Embryonic Induction and the Establishment of Neural Tissue

Neuralization of the Ectoderm

Neural Patterning

Proneural Gene Cascade: A Downstream Target of Neural Patterning

Potential Links Between Neural Patterning and Neurogenesis Control

Regulation of Proneural Protein Expression and Activity

Summary

References

Chapter 59. The Nervous System

Introduction

Neural Development

Neural Stem Cells

Neural Differentiation of Mouse ES Cells

Neural Differentiation of Human and Nonhuman Primate ES Cells

Developmental Perspectives

Therapeutic Perspectives

Summary

References

Chapter 60. Stem Cells in the Adult Brain

Introduction

History of Stem Cells in the Adult CNS

Glial Characteristics of Neural Stem Cells

Adult Neurogenesis in Vivo

Summary

References

Chapter 61. Neural Stem Cells – Therapeutic Applications in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Introduction

Definition of Neural Stem Cells

Therapeutic Potential of Neural Stem Cells

Gene Therapy Using Neural Stem Cells

Cell Replacement Using Neural Stem Cells

“Global” Cell Replacement Using Neural Stem Cells

Neural Stem Cells Display an Inherent Mechanism for Rescuing Dysfunctional Neurons

Neural Stem Cells as the Glue that Holds Multiple Therapies Together

Summary

References

Chapter 62. Spinal Cord Injury

Problem

Spinal Cord Organization

Injury

Spontaneous Regeneration

Limitations and Approaches to Repair and Redefining Goals

Spinal Cord Development

Embryonic Stem Cells

Novel Approaches to CNS Repair

Toward Human Trials

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 63. Sensory Epithelium of the Eye and Ear

Introduction

Introduction to Progenitor and Stem Cells in the Retina

The Optic Vesicle Generates Diverse Cell Types that can Undergo Transdifferentiation

In Vivo Neurogenesis in the Posthatch Chicken

Growth of Retinal Neurospheres from the Ciliary Margin of Mammals

Prospects for Stem Cell Therapy in the Retina

Development and Regeneration of Tissues Derived from the Inner Ear

In Vivo Neurogenesis in Postembryonic Animals

In Vitro Expansion of Otic Progenitors

Prospects for Therapy

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 64. Epithelial Skin Stem Cells

A Brief Introduction to Mouse Skin Organization

The Bulge as a Residence of Epithelial Skin Stem Cells

Models of Epithelial Stem Cell Activation

Molecular Fingerprint of the Bulge – Putative Stem Cell Markers

Cell Signaling in Multipotent Epithelial Skin Stem Cells

Commentary and Future Directions

References

Chapter 65. Regeneration of Epidermis from Adult Human Keratinocyte Stem Cells

Introduction

Keratinocyte Stem Cells of the Skin

Stem Cell Therapy

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 66. Burns and Skin Ulcers

Introduction

Burns and Skin Ulcers – the Problem

Epidermal Stem Cells

Stem Cells in Burns and Skin Ulcers – Current Use

Recent and Future Developments

Acknowledgments

References

Further Reading

Chapter 67. Stem Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Introduction

Gastrointestinal Mucosa Contains Multiple Lineages

Epithelial Cell Lineages Originate from a Common Precursor Cell

Single Intestinal Stem Cells Regenerate Whole Crypts Containing All Epithelial Lineages

Mouse Aggregation Chimeras Show that Intestinal Crypts are Clonal Populations

Somatic Mutations in Stem Cells Reveal Stem Cell Hierarchy and Clonal Succession

Human Intestinal Crypts Contain Multiple Epithelial Cell Lineages Derived from a Single Stem Cell

Bone Marrow Stem Cells Contribute to Gut Repopulation after Damage

Gastrointestinal Stem Cells Occupy a Niche Maintained by Isemfs in the Lamina Propria

Multiple Molecules Regulate Gastrointestinal Development, Proliferation, and Differentiation

Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway Controls Intestinal Stem Cell Function

Transcription Factors Define Regional Gut Specification and Intestinal Stem Cell Fate

Multiple Molecules Define Stem Cell Fate and Cell Position in the Villus–Crypt Axis

Gastrointestinal Neoplasms Originate in Stem Cell Populations

Summary

References

Chapter 68. Pancreatic Stem Cells

Introduction

Definition of Stem Cells and of Progenitor Cells

Progenitor Cells During Embryonic Development of the Pancreas

Progenitor Cells in the Adult Pancreas

Forcing Other Tissues to Adopt a Pancreatic Phenotype

In Vitro Studies

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 69. Adult Progenitor Cells as a Potential Treatment for Diabetes

Importance of β-Cell Replacement Therapy for Diabetes and the Shortage of Insulin-Producing Cells

Potential of Adult Stem– Progenitor Cells as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells

Defining β-Cells, Stem Cells, and Progenitor Cells

New β-Cells are Formed Throughout Adult Life

What is the Cellular Origin of Adult Islet Neogenesis?

Transdifferentiation of Nonislet Cells to Islet Cells

Pancreatic Acinar Cell Transdifferentiation

Bone Marrow Cells as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells

Liver as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells

Engineering Other Non-β-Cells to Produce Insulin

Attempts to Deliver Insulin Through Constitutive Rather than Regulated Secretion

Summary

References

Chapter 70. Islet Cell Therapy and Pancreatic Stem Cells

Introduction

Benefits of β-Cell Replacement Therapy

Current Limitations of β-Cell Replacement Therapies

Alternative Sources of Insulin-Producing Cells: Stem Cells and β-Cell Regeneration

Pancreatic Development

Islet Neogenesis from ES Cells

Islet Neogenesis from Adult Stem Cells

Transdifferentiation

What the Future may Hold

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 71. Cell Therapy of Liver Disease: From Hepatocytes to Stem Cells

Introduction

Background Studies

Integration of Hepatocytes Following Transplantation

Clinical Hepatocyte Transplantation

Hepatocyte Bridge

Hepatocyte Transplantation in Acute Liver Failure

Hepatocyte Transplantation for Metabolic Liver Disease

Hepatocyte Transplantation – Novel Uses, Challenges, and Future Directions

Conclusion

References

Chapter 72. Adult Liver Stem Cells

Organization and Functions of Adult Mammalian Liver

Liver Stem Cells

References

Chapter 73. Cell Lineages and Stem Cells in the Embryonic Kidney

The Anatomy of Kidney Development

Genes That Control Early Kidney Development

The Establishment of Additional Cell Lineages

What Constitutes a Renal Stem Cell?

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 74. Orthopaedic Applications of Stem Cells

Introduction

Bone

Cartilage

Meniscus

Ligaments and Tendons

Spine

Summary

References

Chapter 75. Somatic Cells – Growth and Expansion Potential of T Lymphocytes

Introduction

T Lymphocytes – Critical for Infection and Cancer Immunity

Studies of Human T Lymphocyte Growth in Cell Culture

Characteristics of Senescent T Lymphocytes

Telomeres and Telomerase

Senescent T Lymphocytes are Present in vivo

Senescent T Lymphocytes and Health

Approaches to Retard Replicative Senescence

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

Recent Advances

References

Chapter 76. Designing Tunable Artificial Matrices for Stem Cell Culture

Introduction

The Extracellular Matrix

Developing Artificial Matrices with Tunable Moduli for Stem Cell Culture

Characterization of Matrix Mechanics

Role of Matrix Mechanics in Stem Cell Behavior

Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter 77. Stem Cell Gene Therapy

Introduction

Gene Addition

Genome Editing

Requirements for Successful Stem Cell Gene Therapy

Genome Editing of Human Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells

Conclusion

References

Chapter 78. Histogenesis in Three-Dimensional Scaffolds

The Need for Replacement Tissues

Tissue Components

Regeneration of Diseased Tissues

Design Parameters for Histogenesis

Synthetic Materials for Histogenesis of New Organs

Future Directions in 3D Scaffolds: 3D Microfabrication

Conclusions

References

Chapter 79. Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

Introduction

The Reservoirs of Postnatal Stem Cells

Do not be Rigid about Plasticity

Current Approaches to Tissue Engineering

Challenges

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 80. Ethical Considerations

Is it Morally Permissible to Destroy a Human Embryo?

Should We Postpone hES Cell Research?

Can We Benefit from Others’ Destruction of Embryos?

Can We Create an Embryo to Destroy it?

Should We Clone Human Embryos?

What Ethical Guidelines Should Govern hES Cell and Therapeutic Cloning Research?

Summary

References

Further Reading

Chapter 81. Stem Cell Research – Religious Considerations

Mapping the Terrain

Particular Traditions – an Overview

Roman Catholic Contributions and the 14-Day Theory

References

Chapter 82. US Stem Cell Research Policy

Introduction

Sources of Stem Cells

Embryonic Stem Cell Research: US Law and Policy

International Comparisons

State and Private Funding in the USA

Policy as Embryonic Stem Cell Research Moves Forward

Guidelines from the National Academies

Compensating Egg Donors – the Arguments

Commercialization and Access

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 83. Overview of the FDA Regulatory Process

Introduction and Chapter Overview

Brief Legislative History of FDA

Laws, Regulations, and Guidance

FDA Organization and Jurisdictional Issues

Approval Mechanisms and Clinical Studies

Meetings with Industry, Professional Groups, and Sponsors

Regulations and Guidance of Special Interest for Regenerative Medicine

FDA’s Standards Development Program

Advisory Committee Meetings

FDA Research and Critical Path Science

Other Communication Efforts

Conclusion

References

Chapter 84. It’s Not About Curiosity, It’s About Cures: Stem Cell Research – People Help Drive Progress

Choosing Life

Size of the Promise

Personal Promises Fuel Progress

Hope Versus Hype

Giving Life

People Drive Progress

Better Health for All

Index

Quotes and reviews

"The Handbook of Stem Cells, edited by Robert Lanza and colleagues, is an ambitious new text that achieves extraordinary completeness and inclusiveness...the editors have succeeded in putting together a reference that is broad enough in scope, but sufficiently detailed and rigorous, to be of real interest to both new and seasoned investigators in the field. ...In providing this treatise, which covers the history, biology, methods and applications of stem cells, the editors and authors have succeeded in establishing a conceptual framework and a common language for the field. In so doing, they have ensured that this two-volume set will serve as a benchmark reference in stem cell biology for years to come." --Nature Cell Biology, April 2005

"I am firmly convinced this is a set every biologist and physician, whatsoever his specialty, must have on his desk. ...The reader can benefit from the contributions by the foremost authorities and premiere names (more than 300 contributors; addresses provided) in the field of stem cell research. The two-volume collection of articles (155 chapters) covers everything of the present state of stem cell science, from the care and feeding of mouse stem cells to the possible use of embryonic stem cells in spinal cord repair." --European Journal of Histochemistry

"These books make an invaluable contribution to the education of researchers and clinicians both of the present day and of the future. They should be available in libraries of all biology and medical schools as well as those of companies and research institutions." --Ian Wilmut, Times Higher Education Supplement

"...a two volume collection of scientific articles covering everything from the care and feeding of mouse stems cells to the possible use of embryonic stem cells in spinal cord repairs. With 155 chapters and more than 300 contributors, the handbook is the result of a two-year effort to present the state of stem-cell science...The first volume focuses on embryonic stem cells, those found in human and animal embryos. Volume two covers stem cells drawn from fetuses and the 'adult' stem cells available in the bodies of children and adults...Actors Mary Tyler Moore and Christopher Reeve, who have previously lobbied for stem-cell research, also contributed chapters." --Lisa Eckelbecker, Telegram and Gazette

"...a collection of definitive articles by the world's experts... the research outlined in this volume is equally certain to contribute to cures for cancer and for a large number of other less famous diseases - many of mysterious origin - that presently represent terrible afflictions for humanity." --Bruce Alberts, President of the National Academy of Sciences (from the Foreword to Volume 1)

"This two-volume book is a much-needed attempt to bring together the cumulative work of many investigators in widely diverse aspects of stem cell studies." --E. Donnal Thomas, Nobel Laureate Medicine/Physiology, 1990 (from the Foreword to Volume 2)

"...the Handbook of Stem Cells is highly recommended primarily as a reference for scientists in the field of animal development...Academic medical libraries and other academic or special libraries serving researchers in cell and developmental biology will particularly benefit from having this handbook available." --E-Streams, February 2005

"Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. ("ACT"; OTCBB: ACTC), a leader in the field of regenerative medicine, announced today that its chief scientific officer, Robert Lanza, M.D. and Anthony Atala, M.D., W.H. Boyce Professor and Director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, have released the second edition of Handbook of Stem Cells (Academic Press/Elsevier), the widely-recognized definitive resource in the field of stem cells. It includes a Forward by Professor Sir Martin Evans, Ph.D., FRS, co- winner of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2007. Sir Martin is credited with discovering embryonic stem cells and is considered one of the chief architects of the field of stem cell research. The two-volume set also includes contributions from dozens of stem cell pioneers, including James Thomson, Shinya Yamanaka, Doug Melton, Janet Rossant, and Robert Langer (a member of ACT’s board of directors), among others, as well as patient advocate Mary Tyler Moore." --PharmiWeb.com

"Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. ("ACT"; OTCBB: ACTC), a leader in the field of regenerative medicine, announced today that its chief scientific officer, Robert Lanza, M.D. and Anthony Atala, M.D., W.H. Boyce Professor and Director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, have released the second edition of Handbook of Stem Cells (Academic Press/Elsevier), the widely-recognized definitive resource in the field of stem cells. It includes a Forward by Professor Sir Martin Evans, Ph.D., FRS, co- winner of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2007. Sir Martin is credited with discovering embryonic stem cells and is considered one of the chief architects of the field of stem cell research. The two-volume set also includes contributions from dozens of stem cell pioneers, including James Thomson, Shinya Yamanaka, Doug Melton, Janet Rossant, and Robert Langer (a member of ACT’s board of directors), among others, as well as patient advocate Mary Tyler Moore." --BioPortfolio.com

 
 
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