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Encyclopedia of Toxicology
 
 

Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 3rd Edition

 
Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 3rd Edition,Philip Wexler,ISBN9780123864543
 
 
 

P Wexler   

Academic Press

9780123864543

9780123864550

5220

Multi-volume reference work with authoritative, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive coverage of all facets of toxicology

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Key Features

  • Provides easy access to content on chemicals and all core areas of toxicology
  • Thoroughly updated with the latest advances in toxicology, including epigenetics, nanotoxicology, computational toxicology, and translational toxicology
  • New topics include implications of global legal and regulatory issues, persistent organic pollutants, REACH, SAICM, e-waste, and many more

Description

The third edition of the Encyclopedia of Toxicology presents entries devoted to key concepts and specific chemicals, and is updated to reflect current advances in the field. It contains new information on nanotoxicology, epigenetics, persistent organic pollutants, computational toxicology and bioinformatics, controversial chemicals, and much more. Along with the traditional scientific entries, new articles focus on worldwide initiatives, the potential health and environmental effects of new technologies, and the societal implications of global legal and regulatory issues.

With thoroughly updated articles, references, and resources for recommended reading, the third edition has been expanded in length, breadth, and depth, and continues to provide an extensive overview of the many facets of toxicology.

Readership

Toxicologists, pharmacologists, professors and students of pharmacology and toxicology, drug companies, toxicology testing labs, libraries, poison control centers, physicians, pharmacists and other health care professionals, legal and regulatory professionals (EPA, government), and chemists.

Philip Wexler

Philip Wexler is a Technical Information Specialist at the National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program. A recipient of the NLM Regents Award for Scholarly or Technical Achievement and the Distinguished Technical Communication Award of the Washington chapter of the Society for Technical Communication, he is team leader for the development of the ToxLearn online multi-module tutorials, a joint activity with the SOT. Mr. Wexler is also project officer for the LactMed file on drugs and lactation, and the IRIS and ITER risk assessment databases. He is federal liaison to the Toxicology Education Foundation (TEF), past Chair of SOT’s World Wide Web Advisory Team, and past President of its Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Specialty Section. Mr. Wexler led the World Library of Toxicology project prior to its migration to the INND/Toxipedia group, and remains a federal liaison to the project. He was a member of the Education and Communications Work Group of the CDC/ATSDR’s National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposure. A co-developer of the Toxicology History Room, he is co-founder and federal liaison to the Toxicology History Association. Mr. Wexler has lectured and been published widely in the U.S. and abroad on toxicology and toxicoinformatics. He is the Editor-in-Chief of three editions of the Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition, 2014) and four editions of Information Resources in Toxicology (Fourth edition, 2009), as well as numerous other books and articles. In 2010, he was named the recipient of the US Society of Toxicology’s Public Communications Award. Mr. Wexler also serves as an associate editor for a toxicology journal.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program

View additional works by Philip Wexler

Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 3rd Edition

  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Editor-in-Chief
  • Associate Editors
  • How to Use the Encyclopedia
    • A Note about the format of Entries
    • 1 Contents
    • 2 Cross-references
    • 3 Index
    • 4 Contributors
    • 5 Glossary and Appendix
  • Acknowledgments
  • Dedication
  • Notes on the Glossary
  • Notes on the Subject Index
  • Article Titles
    • A
      • Absorption
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Passive Transport
        • Active Transport
        • Filtration
        • Endocytosis
        • Absorption by the GI Tract
        • Absorption through the Skin
        • Absorption by the Lung
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Academy of Toxicological Sciences
        • Abstract
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Relevant Website
      • Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)
        • Abstract
        • Limitations of RfD
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Accutane
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior Routes
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Environmental Fate
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity/Mutagenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Acenaphthene
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Environment Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acephate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acetaldehyde
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acetamide
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Acetaminophen
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Routes of Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Limits
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Acetamiprid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acetic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Acetone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guideline
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acetonitrile
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acetophenone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Subchronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Acetylaminofluorene
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic and Long-Term Toxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acetylcholine
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Acetylene
        • Abstract
        • Background and Significant History
        • Uses of Acetylene
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acetylsalicylic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Acids
        • Abstract
        • Use
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standard and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acifluorfen, Sodium Salt
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Acrolein
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Acrylamide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Treatment Overview
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acrylic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate, Behavior, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acrylonitrile
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Acute Health Exposure Guidelines
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Why Focus on Acute Effects?
        • Regulations vs Guidelines
        • Acute Health Exposure Guidelines
        • Other Values of Interest
        • International Acute Exposure Guidelines
        • Applying the Emergency Exposure Levels to Protect Public Health
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Adiponitrile
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Miscellaneous
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Advances in Physiologically Based Modeling Coupled with In Vitro–In Vivo Extrapolation of ADMET: Assessing the Impact of Genetic Variability in Hepatic Transporters
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Background
        • Systemic Exposure and Toxicity: ‘ADMET’
        • Organ Exposure and Transporters
        • Various Families of Transporters
        • Transporter Polymorphism and Impact on ‘ADMET’
        • In Vitro Assessment of Transporter Activity
        • ‘PBPK’ Modeling of Hepatic Transport
        • Simulating the Effect of OATP1B1 Polymorphism on the Exposure of Statins
        • Conclusion
        • Further Reading
      • Adverse Outcome Pathways: Development and Use in Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Development of an Adverse Outcome Pathway: Where to Begin?
        • Two Case Examples of AOPs in Development and Use
        • Using AOPs: How Certain Do You Need to Be?
        • The Future of AOP Development and Use
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Aerosols
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • A-esterase
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aflatoxin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Alachlor
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Alar
        • Abstract
        • Background and Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Albuterol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Environmental Persistency (Degradation/Speciation)
        • Long-Range Transport
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alchemy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alcoholic Beverages and Health Effects
        • Abstract
        • Health Effects of Alcohol Abuse
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aldicarb
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Aldrin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Algae
        • Abstract
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Chronic Toxicity and Mechanisms of Action: Algal Toxins
        • Acute and Chronic Toxicity and Mechanisms of Action: Cyanobacterial Toxins
        • Acute and Chronic Toxicity and Mechanisms of Action: Other Toxins
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Alkalies
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Alkyl Halides
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Allyl Alcohol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Allylamine
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Allyl Formate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alpha Blockers
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Aluminosilicate Fibers
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Aluminum
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Aluminum Phosphide
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Amdro
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • American Academy of Clinical Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • American Board of Applied Toxicology
        • Resources/Publications
        • Special Interest Groups
        • Annual Scientific Meetings
        • Research Awards
        • Contact AACT
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • American Association of Poison Control Centers
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Mission
        • Membership Criteria
        • Key Activities
        • Publications
        • Meetings
        • Awards and Grants
      • American Board of Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Relevant Website
      • American College of Medical Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Mission Statement
        • Governance
        • Membership
        • Resources/Publications
        • Committees/Sections
        • Scientific Meetings
        • The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry
        • Awards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • American College of Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Mission
        • Strategic Objectives
        • Leadership and Membership
        • Annual Meeting
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • ACGIH® (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists)
        • Abstract
        • History
        • ACGIH® Today
        • Mission
        • Membership Criteria
        • Key Activities, Publications, Databases, and Services
        • Related Organizations
        • See also
      • American Industrial Hygiene Association
        • Abstract
        • About American Industrial Hygiene Association
        • What We Do
        • Mission
        • Vision 2020
        • Core Values
        • Industrial Hygienists
        • Journal
        • Conference
        • Related Organizations
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Americium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Sources, Routes and Pathways
        • Human Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Monitoring of Human Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Funding
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ames Test
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Aminobiphenyl, 4-
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Aminoglycosides
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (To Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aminopyridine, 4- (4-AP)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Amiodarone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Amitraz
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Amitrole
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ammonia
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ammonium Nitrate
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Texas City Disaster
        • Uses
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Amphetamines
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Clinical Management and Suggested Diagnostic Tests
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Amyl Nitrite
        • Abstract
        • Background/Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Disposition in Body
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Exposure
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Anabolic Steroids
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Clinical Applications
        • Human Toxicity and Adverse Effects
        • Control of Anabolic Steroids
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Analytical Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Analysis of Common Toxic Substances
        • Gases
        • Volatile Substances
        • Corrosives
        • Metals
        • Toxic Anions and Nonmetals
        • Nonvolatile Organic Substances
        • Analytical Chemistry in Environmental Toxicology
        • Miscellaneous
        • Analytical Techniques
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ancient Warfare and Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Historical Use of Natural Toxins
        • Toxic Weapons in Mythology
        • Plant Poisons in Biological Warfare
        • Snake Venom in Biological Warfare
        • Poisoning Water and Food
        • Stinging Insects and Biting Snakes in Biological Warfare
        • Contagions as Biological Warfare Agents
        • Toxic Aerosols and Incendiaries as Chemical Weapons
        • Practical and Ethical Issues
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Androgens
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Poisoning
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Anesthetics
        • Abstract
        • General Anesthetics
        • Local Anesthetic Agents
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Aneuploidy
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aniline
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Animal Models
        • Abstract
        • Current Animal Studies
        • Origins of Predictive Animal Testing
        • The “Lash Lure” Case
        • The Elixir of Sulfanilamide Case
        • Thalidomide
        • Choosing an Animal Model
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Animals, Poisonous and Venomous
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Black Widow Spider: Lactrodectus mactans (see Figure 1)
        • Brown Recluse Spiders: Loxosceles reclusa (see Figure 2)
        • Hobo Spiders
        • Treatment
        • Funnel Web Spiders
        • Scorpions
        • Hymenoptera
        • Snakes
        • Venomous Lizards
        • Poison Dart Frogs
        • Platypus
        • Pitohuis
        • Slow Loris
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Animal Venoms in Medicine
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Venom Definition
        • Biology
        • History of Venoms in Medicine
        • Toxins as Drug Templates
        • Chemistry
        • Pharmacology
        • Current Medical Application of Animal Venom Toxins
        • Other Biomedical Applications
        • Toxin-Derived Drugs in Advanced Stages of Development
        • Medical Potential of Animal Venoms
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Anthracene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Anthrax
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology
        • Microbiology
        • Molecular Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Clinical Forms of Anthrax
        • Clinical Treatment
        • Potential for Use as a Biological Weapon
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Anticholinergics
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Antidotes
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • N-Acetylcysteine
        • Atropine Sulfate
        • Activated Charcoal
        • Calcium Gluconate or Chloride
        • Levocarnitine
        • Cyanide Antidote Kit
        • Deferoxamine
        • Digoxin-Specific Antibody Fragments
        • Dimercaprol (British Anti-Lewisite, BAL)
        • Edetate Calcium Disodium (Calcium Disodium EDTA, CaNa2 EDTA)
        • Ethanol
        • Flumazenil
        • Folinic Acid (Leucovorin)
        • Fomepizole
        • Glucagon
        • Hydroxocobalamin
        • Insulin
        • Intravenous Lipid Emulsion
        • D-Penicillamine
        • Methylene Blue
        • Naloxone
        • Octreotide
        • Oxygen
        • Physostigmine
        • Pralidoxime Chloride
        • Protamine Sulfate
        • Prussian Blue
        • Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
        • Sodium Bicarbonate
        • Succimer (Dimercaptosuccinic Acid, DMSA)
        • Thiamine
        • Vitamin K1 (Phytonadione)
        • Antivenom
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Antimony
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Antimony Trioxide
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Anxiolytics
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Mutagenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Apoptosis
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Introduction
        • What Is Cell Death?
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Aramite
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Aristolochic Acids
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevent Websites
      • Arsenical Vomiting Agents
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Arsenic
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Arsenic Compounds
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Arsine
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Arts, Crafts, Theater, and Entertainment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction/background
        • Toxicity of Art Materials
        • Legislation
        • Theatrical and Entertainment Materials
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Asbestos
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT)
        • Abstract
        • Historical Development of the Association
        • Past and Current Structure
        • APAMT Objectives
        • APAMT Activities and Achievements
        • Congresses
        • Cooperative Activities
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Aspartame
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Animal Toxicity
        • Human Toxicity: Acute
        • Human Toxicity: Chronic
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Astemizole
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Atrazine
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Atropine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Avermectin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Azamethiphos
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Human Toxicity (Acute)
        • Animal Toxicity (Acute)
        • Human Toxicity (Chronic)
        • Animal Toxicity (Chronic)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Azathioprine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Azinphos-Methyl
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • B
      • Bacillus cereus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Food Safety and Public Health Implications
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Bacillus thuringiensis
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Invertebrates
        • Vertebrates
        • Resistance
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • British Anti-Lewisite (BAL)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Barbiturates
        • Abstract
        • Long-Acting Agents
        • Short-Acting Agents
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Barium
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Batrachotoxin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Toxin Uses
        • Human Use of Frog and Bird Secretions Containing Batrachotoxins
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action and Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BCNU (Bischloroethyl Nitrosourea)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Behavioral Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Screening Batteries
        • Motor Function
        • Sensory Function
        • Cognitive Function
        • Memory
        • Schedule-Controlled Operant Behavior
        • Behavioral Teratology
        • Human Testing
        • Developmental Assessments
        • Adult Assessments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Belladonna Alkaloids
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Benchmark Dose
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition of BMD
        • Characteristics of the BMD Approach
        • Data Requirements and Parameter Selection
        • BMD Model Evaluation
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Benfluralin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Benomyl
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Benz[a]anthracene
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Benzene
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Benzidine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Environmental Persistency (Degradation/Speciation)
        • Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Benzo(a)pyrene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Benzyl Alcohol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Benzyl Benzoate
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Beryllium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Beta-Blockers
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Beta-Propiolactone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Potential for Humans and the Environment
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bhopal Accident: Release of MIC
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Estimated Total Release of MIC and Estimated Individual Exposure
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • The Reaction
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Long-Term Health Effects
        • Prevention and Management Measures
        • Litigations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bifenthrin
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Physical Properties, Environmental Fate, and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute/Subchronic Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Biguanides
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bioaccumulation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definitions of Bioaccumulation
        • Uptake
        • Elimination
        • Distribution
        • Metabolism
        • Storage
        • Excretion
        • Bioaccumulation – Mechanisms
        • Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Environment
        • Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Environment
        • Bioaccumulation Testing
        • Bioaccumulation Models
        • Biomonitoring
        • Practical Applications of Bioaccumulation
        • Bioaccumulation from Medical Devices
        • Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Chemicals
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Biocides
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Division of Biocides
        • Hazardous Substances in Common Biocidal Products
        • Natural Biocides
        • Biocides in Plant Extracts
        • Regulations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Biocompatibility
        • Abstract
        • Regulations
        • Color Additives
        • Combination Products
        • In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Products
        • Radiation-Emitting Products
        • Software
        • Phthalates
        • Latex Testing: Testing for Skin Sensitization to Chemicals
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Biofuels
        • Abstract
        • General Background and Major Types of Some Biofuels
        • Uses of Biofuels
        • Biobutanol
        • Biodiesel
        • Hydrotreated Renewable Fuels
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Biomarkers
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biomarkers versus Bioindicators
        • Current Uses and Trends
        • Application for Biological Monitoring
        • Criteria for Use
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Biomarkers, Human Health
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classes of Biomarkers
        • Usefulness vs. Limitations
        • Future Perspectives/New Fields of Application
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Biomonitoring
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bioremediation
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Bioremediation Approaches
        • In Situ Remediation
        • Engineered Bioremediation
        • Bioaugmentation
        • Bioventing
        • Nitrate-Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation
        • Cometabolic Process
        • Monitored Natural Attenuation
        • Ex Situ Remediation
        • Composting
        • Land Farming
        • Slurry-Phase Bioreactors
        • Fungal Remediation
        • Microalgal/Cyanobacterial Remediation
        • Limitations for Bioremediation of Soils Contaminated with Organics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Biotransformation/Metabolism
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Oxidation Reactions
        • Reduction Reactions
        • Hydrolysis Reactions
        • Conjugation Reactions
        • Regulation of Biotransformation
        • Variability in Biotransformation
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Bio Warfare and Terrorism: Toxins and Other Mid-Spectrum Agents
        • Abstract
        • Category A BWAs
        • Category B BWAs
        • Category C BWAs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bis (2-Methoxyethyl) Ether
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Bismuth
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bisphenol A
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bleach
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Blister Agents/Vesicants
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Effect
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Blood
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Bone Marrow Structure and Function
        • Hematopoiesis
        • Formed Elements – Erythrocytes, Myeloids, and Thrombocytes
        • Toxic Agents and Responses
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Boric Acid
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Boron
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Botulinum Toxin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fates and Behavior
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Environmental Persistence
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (and Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Brodifacoum
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Pathways
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Environmental Persistency
        • Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation Factors
        • Environmental Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Animal Toxicity
        • Environmental Fate
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bromacil and Its Lithium Salt
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Bromadiolone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior, Partition, Pathways, Degradation, and Bioaccumulation
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (To Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Terrestrial Organisms Toxicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Bromethalin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bromine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate, Behavior, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bromobenzene
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bromoform
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bromotrichloromethane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Busulfan
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Mechanism of Action
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Butadiene, 1,3-
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Butane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Butter Yellow
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Button Batteries
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Butyl Acrylate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Butylated Hydroxyanisole
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Butylated Hydroxytoluene
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Butyl Ether
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Butyl Nitrite
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Butylamines
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Butyraldehyde
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Environment Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Butyric Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Butyronitrile
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Butyrophenones
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Drug Interactions
        • Lithium
        • Beta-Blockers
        • Methyldopa
        • Indomethacin
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Pharmacokinetics and Toxicokinetics
        • Pharmacodynamics
        • Toxicity
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Mutagenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • BZ (3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate): Psychotomimetic Agent
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Environmental Persistency (Degradation/Speciation)
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Subchronic and Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Clinical Management
        • Medical Management
        • Other Hazards: Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • C
      • Cadmium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Caffeine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Partition Behavior in Water, Sediment, and Soil
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Environmental Persistency (Degradation/Speciation)
        • Bioaccumulation
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Calcium Channel Blockers
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Calomel
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Camphor
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and Historical Perspective
        • Modern Chemotherapy
        • Cell Kinetics and the Cell Cycle
        • General Classes of Anticancer Drugs
        • Combination Cancer Chemotherapy
        • Management of Organ System Toxicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cancer Potency Factor
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Dose–Response Assessment
        • Assessment of Experimentally Determined Data
        • Point of Departure
        • Extrapolation to Lower Doses and Calculation of CPF
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Candidate List of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC), REACH
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • The ‘Candidate’ and the ‘Authorization’ lists
        • REACH Criteria for the Identification of SVHC
        • The SVHC Identification Process
        • Obligations Resulting from Inclusion in the Candidate List
        • From the Candidate List to the Authorization List
        • The Authorization List and the Authorization Process
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cannabinoids
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Pulmonary Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Neurotoxicity
        • Cardiovascular Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Captafol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Captan
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposures and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Carbamate Pesticides
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Structure and Uses
        • Historical Background
        • Exposure Routes
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Intermediate Syndrome
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Interaction with Other Anticholinesterase Pesticides
        • Biomarkers and Biomonitoring
        • Human Risk
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Environmental Fate
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Carbamazepine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Carbaryl
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Chemical Profile
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Carbofuran
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposures and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Carbon Dioxide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Miscellaneous
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Carbon Disulfide
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Carbon Monoxide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Carbon Tetrabromide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Carbon Tetrachloride
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Carbonyl Sulfide
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Carboxylesterases
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Tissue Distribution
        • Regulated Expression
        • Activators and Inhibitors
        • Detoxification of Organophosphorus, Carbamate, and Pyrethroid Pesticides
        • Bioactivation through Hydrolytic, Transesterification, and Synthetic Activity
        • Comparison between Human and Animal CESs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Carcinogen Classification Schemes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • UN GHS Carcinogen Classifications
        • US EPA Carcinogen Classifications
        • IARC Carcinogen Classifications
        • NTP Carcinogen Classifications
        • OSHA Carcinogen Classifications
        • NIOSH Carcinogen Classifications
        • ACGIH Carcinogen Classifications
        • European Commission SCOEL Carcinogen Classifications
        • German MAK Carcinogen Classifications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Carcinogen–DNA Adduct Formation and DNA Repair
        • Abstract
        • Carcinogen–DNA Adducts
        • DNA Repair
        • Summary
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Carcinogenesis
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Nomenclature of Cancer (Neoplasia)
        • Tissue Changes Associated with Carcinogenesis
        • Staging and Grading of Cancers
        • Molecular Basis of Cancer
        • Heredity and Cancer: Family Cancer Syndromes
        • The Immune System and Cancer
        • Operational Phases and Theoretical Aspects of Carcinogenesis
        • Exogenous Factors Influencing Carcinogenesis
        • Identification of Carcinogenic Agents
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Cardiovascular System
        • Abstract
        • Cardiovascular Homeostasis
        • The Heart
        • Intrinsic Modulators of Cardiac Activity
        • The Blood Vessels
        • Blood Flow
        • Pathological Changes
        • Artery Wall Structure
        • Endothelial Damage
        • Metals
        • Primary Amines
        • Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis
        • Cigarette Smoke
        • Nicotine
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Catecholamines
        • Abstract
        • Description
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CCA-Treated Wood
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cell Cycle
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
        • Retinoblastoma
        • Checkpoints
        • Clinical Application
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cell Phones
        • Abstract
        • Radiation Effects
        • Immune System Effects
        • Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Effects
        • Effects of Prolonged Exposure
        • Cell Phones as E-Waste
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cell Proliferation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Division Cycle of Cells
        • Genetic Control of Cell Structure and Function during and after Embryonic Development
        • Terminal Differentiation and Cell Division
        • Role of Growth Factors and Cytokines in Cell Division
        • Cell Senescence and Reluctance to Divide
        • Cell Proliferation as a Compensatory Response to Toxic Tissue Injury
        • Stem Cells and Terminally Differentiated Cells
        • Cell Proliferation and Cancer
        • Importance of Understanding the Mechanisms in Control of Cell Proliferation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Centipedes
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity or Exposure
        • Clinical Management
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cephalosporins
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • CERCLA; Revised as the Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act (SARA)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Overview of CERCLA (Superfund)
        • Site Cleanups – Remediations and Removals
        • New Releases
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cerium
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cesium
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Charcoal
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Partition Behavior in Water, Sediment, and Soil
        • Environmental Persistency (Degradation/Speciation)
        • Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity and Clinical Use in Gastrointestinal Decontamination
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (to Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chemicals Alternatives Assessments
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Overview of CAA Frameworks
        • Overview of CHA Frameworks
        • CAA Tools
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chemical Hazard Communication and Safety Data Sheets
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The GHS of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals
        • Classification of Chemical Substances and Mixtures
        • Labeling of Hazardous Chemical Substances and Mixtures
        • Safety Data Sheets
        • The GHS Implementation
        • The EU Extended SDSs with Exposure Scenarios
        • Chemical Hazard Communication for Substances in Articles
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chemical Interactions
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Chemical Safety Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Background
        • The Assessment
        • Chesar
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chemical Safety Assessment and Reporting Tool (Chesar), REACH
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Chesar Workflows
        • Exposure Assessments in Chesar
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chemicals in Consumer Products
        • Abstract
        • Chemicals in Consumer Products – A Global Concern
        • Risk Reduction Strategies
        • Urgent Problems and Challenges
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chemicals of Environmental Concern
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mineral and Energy Exploration
        • Fossil Fuel Combustion
        • Agriculture and Forestry
        • Industrial Production
        • Consumerism
        • Consumerism and Chemicals of Emerging Environmental Concern
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factor (CSAF)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Framework for Development of CSAFs
        • Basic Questions
        • Chemical-Specific Toxicokinetic Adjustment Factors (AKAF, HKAF)
        • Chemical-Specific Toxicodynamic Adjustment Factors
        • Guidance for Development of CSAF
        • Example
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chemical Warfare
        • Abstract
        • Prohibition
        • Historical Use of Chemical Agents
        • Exposure and Toxic Effects
        • Personal Protective Equipment
        • Decontamination
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chemical Warfare Delivery Systems
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Agent Properties and Targeted Dispersion
        • Manual Delivery
        • Projectile Delivery
        • Air delivery
        • Improvised Weapons
        • Storage, Transport, and Safe Handling
        • Detection
        • Decommissioning, Neutralization, and Incineration
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chernobyl
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Social, Health, and Environmental Impacts: Dose Estimates
        • Environmental and Genetic Impacts: Empirical Evidence
        • Lessons from the Chernobyl Accident
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Children's Environmental Health
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Children's Physiological Susceptibility to Environmental Toxicants
        • Children's Behaviors and Environments That Increase Susceptibility to Environmental Toxicants
        • Selected Toxicants of Concern
        • Protecting Children from Environmental Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chloral Hydrate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chlorambucil
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chloramphenicol
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (to Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chlordane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Chemical Profile
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chlordecone
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chlordimeform
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Readings
        • Relevant Website
      • Chlorfenvinphos
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Chemical Profile
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chlorination Byproducts
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Formation of CBPs
        • Toxicology of CBPs
        • Trihalomethanes
        • Chloroform
        • Bromodichloromethane
        • Dibromochloromethane
        • Bromoform
        • Halo Acids
        • Dichloroacetic Acid
        • Trichloroacetic Acid
        • Other Chlorination Byproducts
        • Epidemiological Studies
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chlorine
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Probable Routes of Human Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
        • Populations at Special Risk
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In vitro Toxicity Data
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Reported Fatal Dose
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chlorine Dioxide
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chloroacetic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Subacute and Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chlorobenzene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chlorobenzilate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Chlorodibenzofurans (CDFs)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Food
        • Human Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Toxicity
        • Animal Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Human Toxicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chloroethane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chlorofluorocarbons
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Mode of Action
        • Major Uses
        • Environmental Hazards
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Acute (Short-Term) Health Effects
        • Chronic (Long-Term) Health Effects
        • Exposure Standards/Limits
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chloroform
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chloromethane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chloromethyl Ether, Bis-
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chlorophenols
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunogenicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chlorophenoxy Herbicides
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chloropicrin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Mutagenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chloroprene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chloropropionitrile, 2-
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Silicon Tetrachloride
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecological Effects
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Chlorothalonil
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Animal Toxicity
        • Human Toxicity
        • Reproductive Effects
        • Developmental Toxicity
        • Teratogenic Effects
        • Mutagenic Effects
        • Carcinogenic Effects
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chlorpheniramine
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Pharmacokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity or Exposure
        • Chronic Toxicity or Exposure
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Chlorpromazine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicology
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chlorpyrifos
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Developmental Neurotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chlorsulfuron
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • References
      • Chlorzoxazone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Choline
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cholinesterase Inhibition
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and History
        • Acetylcholinesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase, and Other Esterases
        • Functions of Cholinesterases
        • Toxicities
        • Organophosphorus Cholinesterase Inhibitors
        • Carbamate Cholinesterase Inhibitors
        • Chemical Warfare Anticholinesterase Agents
        • Assay Techniques
        • Biochemistry of Cholinesterase Inhibition
        • Structure/Activity
        • Spontaneous Reactivation of Organophosphates
        • Chemical Reactivation of Organophosphates
        • Aging
        • Treatment for Anticholinesterase Poisoning
        • Treatments with Anticholinesterase Agents
        • Wildlife and Domestic Animal Exposures
        • Exposures in the Workplace
        • Chemical Warfare and Terrorism
        • Significance of Blood Cholinesterase Levels
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chromium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chromosome Aberrations
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Chrysene
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ciguatoxin
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ciprofloxacin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic and Long-Term Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Circadian Clock Effects/Chronotoxicology
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cisplatin
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Clean Air Act (CAA), US
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Overview of CAA
        • Milestones in US Air Regulations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Clean Water Act (CWA), US
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Overview of CWA
        • Milestones in US Water Regulations at the EPA
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Clinical Chemistry
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Clofibrate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Clostridium perfringens
        • Abstract
        • Description
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CN Gas
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (To Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Coal Tar
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal and Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genetic Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cobalt
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Cocaine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Coke Oven Emissions
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Colchicine
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Combustion Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Fire Death Statistics
        • Generation of Toxic Gases in Fires: Adverse Effects of Particulates
        • Toxic Potency versus Fire Hazard versus Fire Risk
        • Toxicity Assessment: Animal Exposures
        • Toxicity Assessment: Predictive Models
        • Primary Toxic Combustion Gases
        • The N-Gas Models
        • The Six-Gas N-Gas Model
        • The Seven-Gas Model; Addition of NO2 to the N-Gas Model
        • Individual and Binary Mixtures
        • Tertiary Mixtures of NO2, CO2, and HCN
        • Mixtures of CO, CO2, NO2, O2, and HCN
        • The N-Gas Model Including NO2
        • Combustions Toxicity Test Methods
        • Toxicant Suppressants
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Comet Assay
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Versions
        • Applications
        • Emerging Applications
        • Validation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Common Mechanism of Toxicity in Pesticides
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Common Mechanism Groups
        • Examples of Pesticides That Act by a Common Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Examples of Pesticides That Do Not Act by a Common Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Coniine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute or Short-Term Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Consumer Product Safety Commission
        • Abstract
        • Consumer Product Safety Commission
        • Statutes Administered by CPSC
        • Regulatory Options
        • CPSC Programs
        • CPSC Staff
        • Contacting CPSC
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Contract Research Organizations
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Copper
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Corrosives
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Other Issues
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Corticosteroids
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Available Agents and Routes of Administration
        • Uses
        • Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure) Animal
        • Genotoxicity
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Agents That Affect Corticosteroids
        • Clinical Management
        • Population at Risk
        • Routes of Exposure
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cosmetics and Personal Care Products
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction and History
        • Hair-Care Products
        • Skin-Cleansing Products
        • Skin-Care Products
        • Deodorants and Antiperspirants
        • Oral Care Products
        • Fragrance
        • Decorative Cosmetics
        • Regulations, Standards, and Testing
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cotinine
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Carcinogenecity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Coumarins
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Creosote (Coal Tar Creosote and Wood Creosote)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Chemical Identity
        • Wood Creosote
        • Coal Tar Creosote
        • Uses
        • Environmental Transport and Distribution
        • Human Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Toxicity
        • Developmental Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Endocrine Disruption
        • Genotoxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Regulation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cresols
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute or Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Criminal Enforcement of Environmental Laws
        • Abstract
        • Environmental Criminal Liability in the European Union
        • Environmental Criminal Liability in the United States
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cromolyn
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Crotonaldehyde
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • CS
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (To Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cumene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Cumulative (Combined Exposures) Risk Assessment
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Curare (D-Tubocurarine)
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Cuyahoga River
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cyanamide
        • Abstract
        • Background Characteristics and Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics
        • Effects of Acute Exposure
        • Effects of Chronic Exposure
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Occupational Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cyanide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity, Immunotoxicity, Reproductive Toxicity, and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Cyanogen Chloride
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cyclodienes
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile and Bioaccumulation
        • Background and Uses
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Toxicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cycloheximide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute/Short-Term and Chronic Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cyclohexane
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cyclohexene
        • Abstract
        • Background and Significant History
        • Uses of Cyclohexene
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cyclophosphamide
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cyclosporine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cyfluthrin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cypermethrin
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity, Genotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cysteine, N-Acetyl-L
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cytochrome P450
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biochemistry of P450 Enzymes
        • Major CYP Families
        • Endogenous Functions of P450s
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • D
      • 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid)
        • Abstract
        • Background and Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dacarbazine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Short- and Long-Term Toxicities
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dalapon
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Danthron
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environment Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity, Immunotoxicity, Reproductive Toxicity, and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Decane
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • DEET (Diethyltoluamide)
        • Abstract
        • History/Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure and Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Miscellaneous
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • DEF (Butyl Phosphorotrithioate)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Mutagenicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology (All Values Are at 95% Confidence Limit/Interval)
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Deferoxamine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Delaney Clause
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Deltamethrin
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Department of Energy, US
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Mission
        • Organization
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Derived Minimal Effect Level (DMEL)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Derived No-Effect Level (DNEL)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Detergent
        • Abstract
        • Human Safety
        • Occupational Safety
        • Environmental Safety
        • Environmental Quality
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Developmental Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • The Problem of Birth Defects
        • Historical Lessons
        • Neural Tube Defects
        • The Cause of Birth Defects
        • Fear of Birth Defects
        • Principles of Teratology
        • Methods
        • Human Studies
        • Clinical Data
        • Epidemiology
        • Animal Bioassays
        • Lessons
        • Diethylstilbestrol
        • Thalidomide
        • Mycotoxins
        • Bendectin
        • Data Interpretation and Regulatory Policy
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dextromethorphan
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action/Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diacetyl
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal and Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genetic Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diaminotoluenes
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Toxicity in Animal and Human
        • Subacute and Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diazinon
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diazoaminobenzene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diazoxide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dibenz[a,h]anthracene
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazard
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dibenzofuran
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dibromochloropropane
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dicamba
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute/Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dicarboxylic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Teratogenicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Environmental Fate/Exposure
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dichlone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dichlorobenzene
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dichloroethane, 1,2-
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic or Long-Term Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • 1,1-Dichloroethane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Intermediate and Chronic Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Mutagenicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • 1,2-Dichloroethylene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic and Long-Term Exposure
        • Developmental/Reproductive Effects
        • Clinical Management
        • Genotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dichloromethane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dichloropropene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dichlorvos
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dieldrin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diesel Exhaust
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Diesel Fuel
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dietary Restriction
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Antiaging Effects of DR
        • Anticarcinogenic Effects of DR
        • Protection against Acute Toxicity by Dietary Restriction
        • DR and Pharmaceutical Drug Safety Testing
        • Calorie Restriction and Epigenetic Regulation via Sirt1
        • Calorie Restriction Mimetics
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dietary Sugar: Public Health Perspective
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hyperactivity in Children
        • Sugar and Dental Caries
        • Micronutrient Dilution
        • Obesity
        • Type 2 Diabetes
        • Cardiovascular Disease
        • Recommendations for Sugar Intake and Actual Intake
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Dietary Supplements
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diethylamine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Diethyl Ether
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diethylene Glycol
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Toxic Dose
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity (see above)
        • Carcinogenicity (see above)
        • Diagnostic Testing
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diethylstilbestrol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behaviors
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diflubenzuron
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Difluoroethylene, 1,1-
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Digitalis Glycosides
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dimethoate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dimethylaminoazobenzene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dimethyl Ether
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Dimethyl Sulfate
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Cancer Studies in Experimental Animals
        • Cancer Studies in Humans
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Health Hazard Information
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • In-Field Treatment of Dimethyl Sulfate Exposure Prior to Arrival at a Health Care Facility
        • Special Note to First Responders
        • Treatment of Exposures in a Health Care Facility
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dimethylmercury
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dinitroanilines
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • 1,3-Dinitrobenzene
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Environment Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dinitrophenols
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Dinitrotoluene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dinoseb
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute or Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunogenicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dioxane, 1,4-
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dioxins
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Major Incidents Resulting in Environmental and Human Exposures
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diphenhydramine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fates and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diphenylamine
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Environment Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Diphenylhydrazine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further reading
        • Relevant Web Pages
      • Diquat
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Distribution
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Factors Influencing Distribution of Chemicals
        • Regulation of the Distribution of Chemicals
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Disulfiram
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Disulfoton
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dithiocarbamates
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Diuron
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • DNA Phosphoramidites
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Disposal of Product
        • Further Reading
      • Dominant Lethal Assay
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Assay Method
        • Uses
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Donora: Air Pollution Episode
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Donora Air Pollution Incident
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dose–Response Relationship
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Foundations
        • Threshold vs Linearity at Low Dose
        • Dose–Response Validation
        • Hormesis
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Drinking-Water Criteria (Safety, Quality, and Perception)
        • Abstract
        • Acceptability of Drinking Water: A Matter of Quality in Terms of Safety and Purity
        • Guidance to Discriminate Chemicals in Drinking Water: Contaminants, Residuals, and Constituents
        • Criteria for Health-Based and Stricter Chemical Quality Standards
        • Guidance for Functional Surveillance of Drinking Water
        • Guidance to find Health-Related Precautionary, Scientific, and Remedial Standards for Drinking Water
        • Guidance for Regulatory Functional Drinking-Water Standards
        • Guidance for Practical Regulation of Drinking-Water Quality
        • Guidance to Parameters of the Highest Health Concern and Possibly Present in Drinking Water
        • Guidance to Assess Provisionally 'New Analytes' in Drinking Water with Patchy to Absent Database
        • Perception of Drinking Water as Part of an Esthetic Natural Water Cycle
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Drug and Poison Information Centers
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Poison Center Epidemiology
        • Impact
        • Staffing
        • Toxicology Information Resources
        • Funding
        • National Poisoning Prevention Week
        • Public Health Initiatives
        • Education for the Public and Health Professionals
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Drug Regulations, Europe
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • European Medicines Agency
        • Regulation and Guidance
        • Marketing Authorizations
        • Post-Authorization Aspects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Drugs of Abuse
        • Stimulants
        • Synthetics
        • CNS Depressants
        • Opioids
        • Hallucinogens
        • Dissociative Drugs
        • Synthetic Cannabinoids
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dyes and Colorants
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification of Dyes
        • Characteristics of Dyes
        • Industrial Application Categories
        • Side Effects of Dyes
        • Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis
        • Legislation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • E
      • ECHA (The European Chemicals Agency)
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • The European Chemicals Agency
        • History
        • Mission
        • Organization
        • Work of ECHA
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Echinacea
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Developmental Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Ecological Exposure Limits and Guidelines
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Emission Exposure Limits and Guidelines
        • Immission Exposure Limits and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ecological Quality Standards (EQS) Global
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Ecological Water Quality Standards
        • Ecological Soil Quality Standards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ecotoxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Field ‘Diagnostic’ Ecotoxicology (Including Forensic Ecotoxicology and Ecoepidemiology)
        • Experimental Ecotoxicology
        • ‘Predictive’ Ecotoxicology for Hazard Assessment
        • Ecotoxicology and Hazard Communication
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Ecotoxicology, Aquatic
        • Abstract
        • Definition and Scene Setting
        • Link with Risk Assessment and the Impact of the Protection Goals
        • Examples and History
        • Experimental Approaches
        • Reducing Uncertainties, Recent Developments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant websites
      • Ecotoxicology, Aquatic Invertebrates
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biodiversity of Ecotoxicological Responses in Invertebrates
        • Risk Assessment of Chemicals
        • In Situ Monitoring
        • Endocrine Disruption in Invertebrates
        • Linking Toxicological Effects and Ecological Scales
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ecotoxicology, Avian
        • Abstract
        • Birds as Sentinels of Environmental and Human Health
        • Persistent Organic Pollutants
        • Other Nonhalogenated Pesticides
        • Cadmium
        • Lead
        • Mercury
        • Selenium
        • Anticoagulant Rodenticides
        • Veterinary Pharmaceutical Residues
        • Avian Toxicity Tests
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ecotoxicology, Genetic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • DNA Damage: A Mechanistic Overview
        • Microevolutionary Consequences of Pollution: An Overview
        • Methodological Approaches
        • Genotoxicity in an Environmental Perspective
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ecotoxicology, Terrestrial
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Assessing Soil Microbial Functions in Ecotoxicology
        • Assessing Effects on Terrestrial Plants
        • Assessing Effects on Terrestrial Invertebrates
        • Assessing Effects on Terrestrial Vertebrates
        • Hazard and Risk Communication in Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ecotoxicology, Wildlife
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Examples of Field Effects and Investigations
        • Investigation Methods and Models in Wildlife Field Ecotoxicology
        • Predictive Risk-Based Assessments
        • Communicating Wildlife Hazards and Risks
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Effluent Biomonitoring
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pollutants in Effluents
        • Chemical Versus Biological Monitoring
        • Biomonitoring Techniques
        • Biomonitoring Tests
        • Suitable Bioindicator
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomonitoring
        • Applications of Biomonitoring
        • Regulations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Electromagnetic Fields
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Electromagnetic Fields
        • Health Effects/Toxicology
        • Strategies Designed to Reduce Risk
        • Exposure Limits and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevent Websites
      • Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA)
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Key Provisions of the EPCRA
        • See also
        • Relevant Website
      • Emergency Response and Preparedness
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Emergency Preparedness
        • ICS and Structure
        • Incident Analysis and Initial Response
        • Response Actions
        • Chemistry and Toxicology
        • Exposure Limits Used by Emergency Responders
        • Monitoring and Detecting Hazardous Substances
        • Industrial Hygiene Issues
        • Overview of Consequence Analyses for Emergency Planning and Response
        • Establishing and Managing Hazard Zones
        • Triage and Medical Case Management
        • Crisis Communication
        • Site Remediation
        • Post-Response Recovery
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Endocrine System
        • Abstract
        • Endocrine System Overview
        • Endocrine Disruptors
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Endosulfan
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Endocrine Disruption
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genetic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Other Hazards/Storage Instructions
        • International Trade and Regulatory Status
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Endrin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental & Health Laws, Europe
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • European Legislation
        • Basic Principles of the Environmental Law
        • Environmental Regulations Addressing Protection and Conservation of Various Environmental Media
        • Environmental Regulations Addressing Particular Activities or Products
        • Common Policies Connected with Public Health
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Advocacy (Non US)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Mad Hatters, Minamata, and Miners – The Story of Mercury
        • Lead and Asbestos: Century Long Campaigns
        • Lessons Learnt
        • Postwar Pesticides and Chemical Weapons
        • The Green Revolution
        • Agent Orange, Dioxin, and the Politicizing of the Environmental Health Movement
        • Industry Response – SLAPP Suits
        • Industrial Chemicals
        • Economic Growth and the Environmental Justice Movement
        • Toxic Waste Trade
        • Trade in Toxic Chemicals
        • The Montreal Protocol
        • Agenda 21, Precaution and Community Right to Know
        • Sustainable Development NGOs
        • Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety and POPs
        • Endocrine Disruption – Stealing Our Future
        • Community Right to Know and Industry Obligation to Report
        • The Formation of Toxic Specific Global Networks
        • Environmental Justice and Human Rights
        • REACH for Right to Know
        • Consumers, Toxics, and Toys
        • Climate and Chemicals
        • A Toxics-Free Future – Strategic Approach to International Chemical Management
        • Health Aspects of the Strategic Approach
        • Emerging Policy Issues
        • Rio + 20 – A Missed Opportunity
        • Current and Future Challenges
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Recommended Websites
      • Environmental Exposure Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Ecosystem Complexity and Exposure
        • Environmental Chemicals
        • Assessment of Concentrations in Environmental Media
        • Environmental Fate Models
        • Bioaccumulation Models
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Abstract
        • Theoretical Concepts
        • Testing Approaches for Environmental Fate
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior of Glyphosate
        • Environmental Fate of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Health
        • Abstract
        • Monitoring
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Hormone Disruptors
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • History
        • Relevance to Human Health
        • Relevance to Wildlife
        • Mixture Toxicity
        • Regulation
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Justice
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Environmental Health Perspective
        • Risk Assessment Issues
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Processes
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Alterations of Pollutants
        • Bioavailability
        • Fate and Transport
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Environmental Protection Agency, US
        • Abstract
        • EPA Mission
        • EPA Offices
        • EPA Activities
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Risk Assessment, Aquatic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Steps of Environmental Risk Assessment
        • Scope of Risk Assessment
        • Dose–Response Evaluation
        • Exposure Assessment
        • Iterative Risk Characterization
        • Chemicals with Specific Consideration for Risk Assessment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Risk Assessment, Cosmetic and Consumer Products
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Exposure Assessment
        • Effect Assessment and Risk Characterization
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Risk Assessment, Marine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Biotools in Marine Environment Risk Assessment
        • Toxicity Identification Evaluation
        • Biological Effects Monitoring
        • Weight-of-Evidence
        • Ecological Risk Assessment
        • Integrative Biomarker Indices
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Risk Assessment, Pesticides and Biocides
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Risk Assessment, Secondary Poisoning
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Exposure Assessment in Secondary Poisoning Assessment
        • Effect Assessment in Secondary Poisoning Assessment
        • Secondary Poisoning Risk Characterization
        • Risk Communication for Secondary Poisoning
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Risk Assessment, Terrestrial
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Terrestrial Risk Assessment for Pesticides and Other Agrochemicals
        • Risk Assessment for Polluted Soils and Site-Specific Risk Assessments
        • Terrestrial/Soil Risk Assessments as Part of Generic Approaches
        • Risk Communication for Terrestrial Effects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Environmental Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Acute and Chronic Toxicity
        • Sublethal Effects
        • Toxicokinetics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Eosinophilia–Myalgia Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Prevalence and Reasons for L-Tryptophan Usage
        • Eosinophilia–Myalgia Syndrome National Surveillance Data
        • Epidemiological Studies
        • Risk Factors
        • Diagnostic Features
        • Manufacture of L-Tryptophan
        • EMS is Not Apparently Associated with L-Tryptophan
        • Investigations of Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ephedra
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Epichlorohydrin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Epidemiology
        • Abstract
        • Measurement of Exposure
        • Study Designs
        • Cohort Studies
        • Other Study Designs
        • Veterinary Epidemiology
        • Meta-Analysis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Epigenetics
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Epigenetic Mechanisms
        • Normal Biological Processes Mediated by Epigenetics
        • Disorders Associated with Aberrant Epigenetics
        • Epigenetics and Nutrition
        • Twin Studies
        • Transgenerational Epigenetics
        • Chemically Modified Changes in DNA Methylation
        • The Future of Epigenetics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • List of Relevant Web Pages
      • Ergot
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Exposure Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Erionites
        • Abstract
        • Relationship to Other Species
        • Associated Minerals
        • Erionite Characterization Rules
        • Background Information
        • Erionite-Ca
        • Erionite-Na
        • Erionite-K
        • Localities
        • Uses of Erionite and Zeolite
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Exposure
        • Chronic Exposure
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Erythromycin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Research Tool
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Distribution
        • Metabolism and Excretion
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Gastrointestinal Toxicity
        • Cardiotoxicity
        • Ototoxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Escherichia coli
        • Abstract
        • Health Related Aspects of E. coli
        • Use of E. coli in Environmental Toxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Estrogens I: Estrogens and Their Conjugates
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Physiological Roles and Levels
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Estrogens II: Catechol Estrogens
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Physiological Roles and Levels
        • Binding Affinities
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Environmental Fate
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Estrogens III: Phytoestrogens and Mycoestrogens
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Estrogens IV: Estrogen-Like Pharmaceuticals
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute or Short-Term Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Estrogens V: Xenoestrogens
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ethane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ethanol
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Neurotoxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reprotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ethanolamine
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ethene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites (Industrial Use)
      • Ethics: Ethical Issues in Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Historical Perspective
        • Societal Considerations
        • Professional Considerations
        • Ethical Implications of Epigenetics
        • Summary
        • Codes of Ethics – Examples
        • Journals Devoted to Ethics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ethionine
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Other Related Topics
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • 2-Ethoxyethanol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Guidelines and Standards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Ethyl Acetate
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (to Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ethyl Acrylate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ethylamine
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Ethylbenzene
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ethyl Bromide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ethyl Methanesulfonate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ethylene Glycol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Occupational Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Ethylene Glycol Mono-n-Butyl Ether
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Ethyleneimine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ethylene Oxide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Eugenol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • EU Risk Assessment Committees
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • European Commission Scientific Committees
        • European Agencies Scientific Committees
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT), The
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Development and Widening of the Scope
        • Aims and Objectives
        • Members
        • The Scientific and Academic Profile
        • Special Projects and Relations
        • Events of Historical Importance
        • See also
      • European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Science Strategy
        • Membership Criteria
        • Illustration
        • Permissions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • List of Relevant web pages
      • European Classification and Labeling (C&L) Inventory, The
        • Abstract
        • The Legal Basis of the European C&L Inventory
        • Substances Included in the European C&L Inventory
        • Information Made Publicly Available in the Inventory
        • Searching the Inventory
        • Summary and Outlook
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Organization
        • Scientific Activities: EFSA Scientific Committee and Panels
        • EFSA Communication Activities
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • European Medicines Agency (EMA), The
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Relevant Website
      • European Union and Its European Commission
        • Abstract
        • EU-Wide Decision-Making Institutions
        • Addressing Environmental and Safety Needs and Issues Within the EU
        • The General Product Safety Directive
        • The European Commission’s Joint Research Center
        • The European Pollutant Emission Register
        • Support of Research
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • EUROTOX
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Statutes
        • Organization and Activities
        • The Registration Subcommittee
        • Educational Activities
        • Eurotox Initiatives
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Evidence-Based Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • EBM as the Role Model for EBT
        • The Key Applications of EBT
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Electronic Waste
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Products
        • Trends in Production of WEEE
        • Chemical Composition
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Policy
        • Legislation
        • Social
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Excretion
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Urinary Excretion
        • Fecal Excretion
        • Exhaled Air
        • Milk
        • Saliva
        • Hair/Nail
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Exposome, The
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characterizing the Exposome
        • Example of Exposome Characterization to Identify Disease Etiology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Eye Irritancy Testing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Background
        • Initial Considerations Prior to Testing in Animals
        • Current Testing Procedure
        • Observation Period and Grading of Ocular Lesions
        • Alternative Methods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • F
      • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, US
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Fenthion
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Fenvalerate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Clinical Assessment of FASD
        • Risk Factors for FASD
        • Models of FASD
        • How Much Alcohol Is Safe in Pregnancy?
        • Mechanisms of Induction of FASD
        • Interventions for Children with FASD
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Fexofenadine
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Fipronil
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Fish Consumption Advisory
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History of Advisories
        • Bioaccumulative Pollutants
        • Potential Health Effects of Eating Contaminated Fish
        • Sources of Contamination
        • Content and Dissemination of Consumption Advisories
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association
        • Abstract
        • Contact Details
        • Relevant Website
      • Fluometuron
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Fluoride
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Fluorine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate and Routes and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Folic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Folpet
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Food Additives
        • Abstract
        • Definitions
        • Principles
        • Regulations – USA
        • Regulations – Europe
        • Regulations – Codex Alimentarius
        • Safety – USA
        • Safety – Europe
        • Safety – Codex Alimentarius
        • Evaluation Steps
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
        • Abstract
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Food and Drug Administration, US
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Organization
        • Reporting to the FDA
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, US
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Overview of FDCA
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Food Quality Protection Act
        • Abstract
        • FIFRA Provisions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Food Safety and Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uncertainty
        • Dose–Response Models
        • Statistics and Public Health
        • Risk Characterization and Simulations
        • Identifying Data Gaps and Planning Research
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Foreign Body Response
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Forensic Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Collection of Forensic Specimens
        • Analysis of Forensic Specimens
        • Interpretation and Reporting of Results
        • The Forensic Toxicologist as Witness
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Formaldehyde
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (To Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Formamide
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Formic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Fracking
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Process
        • Toxicological Risks
        • Drilling Solution
        • Fracking Solution
        • Flowback Solution
        • Well Emissions
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Freons
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Fuel Oils
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Fuel Oxygenates
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Neurotoxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Furan
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Furfural
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant WebSites
    • G
      • Galactosamine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gallium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication
        • Abstract
        • Introduction: Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication (GJIC): Regulator of Cellular Homeostasis
        • The Structure of Gap Junctions
        • Epigenetic Toxicity as a Result of Inappropriate Modulation of Gap Junction Function
        • Measuring Gap Junctional Communication
        • Gap Junctions as Evolutionary Structures to Regulate Stem Cell Functions
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gasoline
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Gastrointestinal System
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Oral Cavity, Hypopharynx, and Esophagus
        • Stomach
        • Small Intestine
        • Large Intestine
        • Intestinal Flora
        • Exocrine Pancreas
        • Toxicant Effects on the GI System
        • Direct Mucosal or Cellular Injury
        • Interaction with GI Tract Receptors
        • Indirect Effects
        • Allergic Reactions
        • Carcinogenesis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Genetically Modified Food/Organism
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Technologies Used in Genetic Modification of GMF
        • Common GM Products
        • Safety Issues of GMOs
        • Risk Assessment of GMOs
        • Detection Approaches for GMO Testing
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant websites
      • Genetic Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Overview of Genetic Toxicology
        • DNA Damage
        • DNA Repair
        • Mutagenesis
        • Definition and Description of Mutations
        • Consequences of Specific Types of Mutations
        • General Types of Mutagens: The Concept of Metabolic Activation
        • Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
        • Bacterial Mutagenesis Detection Systems
        • Mammalian Cell Mutagenesis Assays
        • Chromosome Breakage and Micronucleus Formation
        • In Vivo Genetic Toxicology Assays
        • Induction of Morphological and Neoplastic Transformation in Mammalian Cells: Cell Culture Models for Chemically Induced Cancer Proceeding through Mutagenesis
        • Tier Concept of Screening and Detecting Chemical Mutagens and Mutagenic Chemical Carcinogens
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cyclosarin (GF)
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ginger Jake
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Exposure Pathways
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Animal Toxicity
        • Human Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Bibliography
        • Further Reading
      • Global Chemicals Policy
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • UN Conference on Environment and Development, 1992, Agenda 21
        • Multilateral Environmental Agreements
        • Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol
        • Basel Convention
        • Rotterdam Convention
        • Stockholm Convention
        • Ratification of Conventions
        • Globally Harmonised System for Classification and Labeling
        • International Code of Conduct on Distribution and Use of Pesticides
        • Mainstreaming
        • Johannesburg 2002
        • SAICM 2006
        • Rio Earth Summit 2012
        • International Organizations in Support of the Global Chemicals Policy
        • Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Global Climate Change and Environmental Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Implications of Future Changes for Formation and Use of Chemicals
        • Implications for Fate and Transport
        • Impacts of GCC on Toxicity of Chemicals to Aquatic and Terrestrial Organisms, Including Humans
        • What Will All This Mean in Terms of Chemical Risks?
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling of the GHS
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hazard Classes and Categories
        • Labeling Provisions
        • Safety Data Sheets
        • Sectors Considered by the GHS and Implementation in Different Sectors: Building Blocks
        • Legal Status of the GHS
        • Comprehensibility
        • Capacity Building in Support of GHS Implementation
        • Transition from Previous Systems to the GHS
        • Differences Between Classifications and Solving Problems
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Global Public Health and Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Scope of the Problem
        • Attempts at Solutions: I: International Agreements
        • Attempts at Solutions: II: The Role of Technical Societies
        • Attempts at Solutions: III: Procedural and Technical Solutions
        • Attempts at Solutions: IV: Standardization
        • Attempts at Solutions: V: Case Study: Food Toxicology and Food Protection
        • Toxicology and Global Public Health: Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Glutathione
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Glyceraldehyde
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Glycerol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Glycidol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
      • Glycol Ethers
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Clinical Management
        • Monitoring and Analysis Methods
        • Clinical Laboratory Methods
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Repeated Dose Toxicity
        • Exposure Limits
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Glyphosate
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Gold
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Good Clinical Practice (GCP)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Principles of GCP
        • Institutional Review Boards/Independent Ethics Committee
        • Investigator
        • Sponsor
        • Clinical Trial Protocol
        • Investigator Brochure
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Good Laboratory Practices
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Gossypol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Graphical Depictions of Toxicological Data
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Dose–Response Curves
        • Exposure–Response Arrays
        • Forest Plots
        • Levels of Significant Exposure Diagrams (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry)
        • Level of Effect Diagrams (Acute Exposure Guideline Level Program, US EPA)
        • GAP Diagrams
        • Toxic Activity Profile Diagrams
        • Reference Value Arrays
        • Toxicological Prioritization Index
        • Future Outlook
        • Summary
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Great Smog of London
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cause of the Smog
        • Health Effects
        • Legislation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Green Chemistry
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • G-Series Nerve Agents
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Guaifenesin
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Human Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
    • H
      • H1-Blockers
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior and Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hair
        • Abstract
        • Hair Types
        • Hair Structure
        • Hair Growth Cycle
        • Melanin
        • Hair Analysis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, The
        • Abstract
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hazard Identification
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • In Vivo Animal Toxicity Studies
        • Acute Toxicity Studies
        • Subacute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies
        • Chronic Toxicity Studies
        • Test Requirements
        • In Vitro Tests in Hazard Identification
        • Epidemiology in Hazard Identification
        • Structure–Activity Relationships
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Import/Export of Hazardous Chemicals
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • National and Regional Requirements
        • International Developments
        • The Rotterdam Convention
        • CRC
        • GHS
        • Current Situation
        • Integration of Conventions
        • Illegal Trade
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hazardous Waste
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hazardous Waste Classification in the European Union
        • Hazardous Properties
        • European and US Legislations: Similarities and Differences
        • Hazardous Waste Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Health Assessments
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Health Assessment Process
        • Categorizing Hazards
        • Health Assessments versus Risk Assessments
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Heat-Shock Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Cellular Control of HSP Expression
        • HSPs as Cellular Markers of Stress
        • HSPs in Toxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Helium
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Hemocompatibility
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definitions
        • Inflammatory Response
        • Testing of Hemocompatibility
        • New Directions in the Development of Hemocompatible Materials
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Heparin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Heptachlor
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Heptane
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Heptanone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • hERG (Human Ether-a-Go-Go Related Gene)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Expression of hERG Channels
        • Structure of hERG Channels
        • Function of hERG Channels
        • Role of hERG Ion Currents in the Cardiac Action Potential
        • Pharmacological Inhibition of hERG Currents
        • Assessment of hERG Risk
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Brief History
        • Structure, Classification, and Factors Influencing the Formation of HCAs
        • Metabolism of HCAs: In Vitro and In Vivo
        • Health Concerns of HCAs
        • Measures to Mitigate HCA Exposure
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hexabromocyclododecane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hexachlorobenzene
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant websites
      • Hexachlorobutadiene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Hexachlorocyclohexanes Including Lindane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenecity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute or Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hexachloroethane
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Metabolism
        • Subchronic Exposure
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Neurological
        • Dermatological and Eye Irritation
        • Genotoxicity
        • Nephrotoxicity
        • Hepatotoxicity
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Hexachloronaphthalene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hexachlorophene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hexamethylene Diisocyanate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hexane
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • 2-Hexanone
        • Abstract
        • Disclaimer
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • High Production Volume (HPV) Chemicals
        • Abstract
        • The OECD and the International Council of Chemical Associations
        • US Program
        • Voluntary Children’s Chemical Evaluation Program
        • HPV Chemicals and Enhancing the US EPA’s Chemical Management Program
        • Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • High Temperature Cooked Meats
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Carcinogenic Chemicals Found in Cooked Meats
        • Genotoxicity and Animal Carcinogenicity Studies
        • Epidemiology Studies
        • Variations in Exposure and Risk
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • High Throughput Screening
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • History
        • Biological Targets, Pathways, and Phenotypes Used in HTS Assays
        • Detection Methods Used in HTS
        • The Use of HTS Strategies in Toxicology
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • History of the US Environmental Movement (Revised 10 January 2012)
        • Abstract
        • Ancient Sources
        • The Conservation Movement
        • Hunters and Fishers
        • The Public Health Movement
        • The Main Stems Converging: 1950–70
        • The Modern Environmental Movement Becomes Visible
        • The ‘Antinuke’ Movement
        • The 1980s
        • The 1990s
        • The Twenty-First Century
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hormesis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Dose–Response Models
        • Evidence for Hormesis
        • Radiation Hormesis
        • Chemical Hormesis
        • Lifestyle Hormesis
        • Mechanisms of Hormesis
        • Societal Implications
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Host-Mediated Assay
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hydraulic Fluids
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hydrazine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hydrobromic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive and Development Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hydrochloric Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Environmental Persistency (Degradation and Speciation) and Bioaccumulation
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Routes and Pathways (Including Environmental Release)
        • Human Exposure
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Regulatory Information
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hydrofluoric Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hydrogen Peroxide
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (to Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hydrogen Sulfide
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Environmental Persistency (Degradation/Speciation)
        • Long Range Transport
        • Bioaccumulation and Biomagnifications
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (To Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hydroiodic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Hydroperoxide, tert-Butyl
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hydroquinone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Hydroxylamine
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hymenoptera
        • Abstract
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity or Exposure
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hypersensitivity, Delayed Type
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Contact Hypersensitivity (Allergic Contact Dermatitis)
        • Tuberculin-Type Hypersensitivity
        • Jones–Mote Hypersensitivity
        • Diseases/Conditions Associated with Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions
        • Methods to Assess DTH
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hypoglycemics, Oral
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Exposure Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • I
      • Ibuprofen
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition
        • Theories of Etiology of MCS
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Imidacloprid
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Developmental Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Mutagenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Neurotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Immune System
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Organization of the Immune System
        • Immune Responses
        • Immunotoxic Effects: The Clinical Consequences of Immunotoxicity
        • Approaches to Immunotoxicity Assessment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Implant Studies
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • In Silico Methods
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Background
        • Key Initiatives
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Indole
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Industrial Hygiene
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Industrial Hygienist
        • The Scope of Industrial Hygiene
        • Routes of Exposure
        • Professional Organization
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Information Resources in Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Approaching the Problem
        • Keeping Current
        • Guides to the Literature
        • Texts
        • Periodicals
        • Series
        • Newsletters
        • Computerized Information
        • See also
      • Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The EU IPPC Directive
        • The EU Industrial Emissions Directive
        • Best Available Techniques
        • Hazard and Risk Communication to the Public, the E-PRTR
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Interactive Toxicity
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Background
        • Basic Concepts of Interactive Toxicity
        • Mechanisms of Interaction
        • Challenges in Mixture Risk Assessment
        • Assessing Risk from Chemical Interaction
        • Future Directions
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • The International Context
        • IFCS Structure
        • IFCS Activities since 1994
        • Forum III, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and SAICM
        • Developments after Forum III
        • IFCS Discontinues Its Operation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • International Agency for Research on Cancer
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Governance of IARC
        • Research Strategy
        • Describing the Global Cancer Burden
        • Cancer Etiology
        • Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis
        • Cancer Prevention
        • Education and Training
        • IARC Monographs
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • International Conference on Harmonisation
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Mission
        • Membership Criteria
        • Key Activities
        • Key Accomplishments
        • Meetings
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • International Fragrance Association (IFRA)
        • Abstract
        • History and Organization
        • How IFRA Operates
        • Mission and Activities
        • Membership
        • Committees
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • International Labor Organization (ILO)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • ILO Instruments on OSH
        • Other Activities
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (ILSI-HESI)
        • Abstract
        • History and Purpose
        • Scientific Programs
        • Membership and Funding
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • International Organization of the Flavor Industry
        • Abstract
        • History and Organization
        • Introduction to Flavorings
        • Mission and Activities
        • Membership
        • Publications, Databases, Services
        • Related Organizations
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • International Society of Exposure Science
        • Abstract
        • Mission
        • History
        • Communication and Dissemination
        • Awards
        • Founding Members
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
        • Abstract
        • IUPAC and Nomenclature
        • IUPAC and Standards
        • IUPAC and the Environment
        • The IUPAC Congress and Other Meetings
        • IUPAC Division VII – Chemistry and Human Health
        • Subcommittee on Nomenclature, Properties, and Units in Laboratory Medicine
        • Subcommittee on Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Development
        • Training of Medicinal Chemists
        • Guidelines for Natural Product Collaborations
        • IUPAC Subcommittee on Toxicology and Risk Assessment
        • The Future of IUPAC
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • International Union of Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Inter-Organization Programme for Sound Management of Chemicals
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • IOMC Vision Statement
        • Participating Organizations
        • Operations
        • Technical Coordinating Groups
        • Subjects Covered by the IOMC
        • Current Activities
        • Outlook
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Investigative New Drug Application
        • Abstract
        • Synopsis of Law
        • Types of INDs
        • The Applicability of the IND
        • FDA Oversight: Clinical Holds
        • IND Withdrawal
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • In VitroIn Vivo Extrapolation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • An Overview of QIVIVE
        • Critical Considerations for QIVIVE
        • PBPK Model Implementation
        • Advantage of IVIVE-Based Evaluation of Chemical Toxicity
        • Summary and Future Directions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • In Vitro Tests
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • In Vivo Tests
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Iodine
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Iron
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Islip Garbage Barge
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Isocyanates
        • Abstract
        • Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Methyl Isocyanate
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Hexamethylene Diisocyanate
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • HDI Regulations
        • Toluene Diisocyanate
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Naphthalene Diisocyanate
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Isophorone Diisocyanate
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Methylene Bis-(4-Cyclohexylisocyanate)
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Isodrin
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Transport and Distribution
        • Human Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Toxicity
        • Regulation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Isoniazid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Isophorone
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Isoprene
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Isopropanol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Itai Itai Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Exposure Pathway
        • Symptoms
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Clinical Treatments
        • Resolution
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • IUCLID (International Uniform Chemical Information Database)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Background
        • IUCLID 5
        • IUCLID 5 and REACH
        • Future IUCLID Developments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • J
      • Jet Fuels
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meetings (JECFA and JMPR)
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Mission and Purpose
        • Procedures and Membership of the Scientific Committees
        • Evaluations
        • Reports and Publications
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
    • K
      • Kava
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Kerosene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Kidney
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Renal Anatomy and Physiology
        • Mechanisms of Nephrotoxicity
        • Methods for Evaluating Nephrotoxicity
        • Nephrotoxicants
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Killer Lakes
        • Abstract
        • Increase of Gas
        • Gas Discharge
        • Lake Nyos
        • Lake Monoun
        • Lake Kivu
        • Hazard Remediation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • L
      • Lanthanide Series of Metals
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Law and Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Toxicology and Regulation
        • Toxicology and Legislation
        • Toxicology and Litigation
        • Practical Considerations
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • LD50/LC50 (Lethal Dosage 50/Lethal Concentration 50)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Protocol Design Considerations
        • Classical (Traditional) Designs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Lead
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Levels of Effect in Toxicology Assessment
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Lewisite
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Lidocaine
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Life Cycle Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • LCA Framework and Methodological Implications
        • Goal and Scope Definition
        • Life Cycle Inventory
        • Life Cycle Impact Assessment
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Limonene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Linuron
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Lipid Metabolism Modifying (Statins, Cholesterol)
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Lipid Peroxidation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mechanism of Lipid Peroxidation
        • Reactive Oxygen Species That Initiate Lipid Peroxidation in Cells
        • Biological Effects of Lipid Peroxidation
        • Defenses against Lipid Peroxidation
        • Measurement of Lipid Peroxidation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lithium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Liver
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Review of Liver Structure and Function
        • Toxic Liver Injury
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lotronex
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Love Canal
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Love Canal
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Low-Dose Effects of Environmental Chemicals: Bisphenol A as a Case Study
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: The Early Years
        • A Modern Overview of EDCs
        • EDCs and Low-Dose Effects
        • Overview of BPA
        • Human Exposures to BPA
        • Sources of BPA Exposure
        • Molecular Aspects of BPA Action
        • BPA and Laboratory Animal Studies
        • BPA and Epidemiology
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Loxapine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Counterculture of the 1960s
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Lye
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • FIFRA Requirements
        • Clean Water Act Requirements
        • FDA Requirements
        • Allowable Tolerances
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Lyme Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Lyme Disease
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
    • M
      • Magnesium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • MAK Committee
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and Objectives
        • General Principles for the Derivation of MAK Values and Classifications
        • Establishment of MAK and BAT Values for Substances without Genotoxic or Carcinogenic Properties
        • Carcinogenic Substances
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Malathion
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant WebSites
      • Maleic Anhydride
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Malonitrile
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mancozeb
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Maneb
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Manganese
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Time Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • MARCAR
        • Abstract
        • Definition and Impact
        • Concept
        • Objectives
        • Achievements
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Margin of Exposure (MOE)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Definition
        • Example of MOE
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Marijuana
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Marine Venoms and Toxins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Bacterial Toxins
        • Dinoflagellate Toxins
        • Marine Plant Toxins
        • Animal Toxins
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Maximum Tolerated Dose
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Depletion of ATP
        • Interference with Calcium Homeostasis
        • Oxidative Stress
        • Lipid Peroxidation
        • Oxidative Modification of Proteins
        • Nuclear Damage and DNA Lesions
        • Mitochondrial Damage
        • Possible Role of MicroRNA in Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Role of Cell Cycle in Toxic Mechanisms
        • Cell Signaling in Toxicity
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mecoprop
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Medical Surveillance
        • Abstract
        • Prevention
        • Biological Monitoring
        • Sentinel Events
        • Public Health Surveillance
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Medical Textiles
        • Abstract
        • Medical and Healthcare Textiles Suitability for Use
        • Biocompatibility
        • Nontoxicity
        • Nonallergenicity
        • Noncarcinogenicity
        • Durability
        • Viability of Textile Materials
        • Chemical Composition
        • Molecular Formation
        • Physical Attributes
        • Flexibility
        • Medical and Healthcare Textile In-Use Properties
        • Sterilizability
        • Dying and Finishing
        • Fluid Control
        • Durability
        • Regulatory Agencies
        • Regulations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Melphalan
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mephedrone
        • Abstract
        • Physical Description
        • History and Epidemiology
        • Uses
        • Routes of Administration
        • Toxicokinetics
        • User Reports
        • Pharmacodynamics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Methods for Mephedrone Determination
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mercaptans
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity of Mercaptans
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mercaptoethanol, 2-
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Development Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Mercuric Chloride (HgCl2)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Environmental Bioconcentration
        • Atmospheric Concentrations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mercury
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Mercury Tragedies: Incidents and Effects
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sources of Mercury
        • Inorganic Mercury Exposure Incidents
        • Organic Mercury Incidents
        • Effects of Organic Mercury Exposure
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Merphos
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mescaline
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Mesocosms and Microcosms (Aquatic)
        • Abstract
        • Fate of Chemicals under Realistic Conditions
        • Acute and Chronic Responses
        • Structure and Diversity
        • Functional Responses
        • Defining the Concentration–Response
        • Categorizing Responses in Cosm Studies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Metaldehyde
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Metallothionein
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Metals
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Methamidophos
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methanol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methomyl
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methoprene
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity to Nontarget Species
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methoxyaniline, 2-; o-Anisidine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Stability
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methoxychlor
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methoxyethanol
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significant/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methoxypsoralen, 8-
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methyl Acrylate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methylamine
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methyl Bromide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Chemical Profile
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant WebSites
      • Methylcholanthrene, 3-
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methyl-CCNU (Semustine)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Other Hazards
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methyl Disulfide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methylenedianiline and Its Dihydrochloride
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity/Mutagenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant websites
      • Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), 4,4'-
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • MDMA and Drug Testing
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methyl Ethyl Ketone
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methylfentanyl-a
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Methylglyoxal
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methyl Isocyanate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methyl Isothiocyanate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic and Long-Term Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methyl Methacrylate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Neurotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methylmercury
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methylnitrosourea
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Storage
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproduction Toxicity
        • Teratogenicity
        • Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Cytotoxicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Emergency Procedures
        • Preventive Measures
        • Accidental Release
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Methyl Parathion
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Metribuzin
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Mode of Action
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Clinical Management and First Aid
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Metronidazole
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mevinphos
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Microarray Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Gene Expression Analysis
        • Studying Genetic, Epigenetic, and Gene Regulation with Microarrays
        • Implications of Microarray in Toxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Micronucleus Assay
        • Abstract
        • Body
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Minamata
        • Abstract
        • Definition of Minamata Disease
        • History
        • Commentary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevante Website
      • Mirex
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mithramycin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Human Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mitochondrial Toxicity
        • Abstract
        • Mitochondrial Biology
        • Drug-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction
        • Assays
        • Confounding Effects of Bioaccumulation and Transporters
        • Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Idiosyncratic Drug Toxicity
        • Implications for Drug Development
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mitomycin C
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mixtures, Toxicology, and Risk Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Basic Mixtures Concepts
        • Chemical Mixtures Toxicology
        • Mixtures Risk Assessment Methods
        • Toxicity and Assessment of Chemical Mixtures
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mode of Action
        • Abstract
        • Mode of Action vs Mechanism of Action
        • Framework for Evaluating MOA
        • Implications for Dose–Response
        • Human Relevance Framework
        • Example
        • The Key Events Dose–Response Framework
        • Further Developments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Modifying Factors of Toxicity
        • Abstract
        • Factors Which May Increase the Fraction of Available Chemical Moiety in the Systemic Circulation (and Therefore Potential Toxicity)
        • Modifying Factors (Also Called Susceptibility Factors)
        • Choice of Strain in Research and Screening
        • Social Factors
        • Temporal Factors (Chronological Toxicology)
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Molecular Toxicology: Recombinant DNA Technology
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • The Polymerase Chain Reaction
        • Advancing Understanding of XMEs and Other Proteins
        • Recombinant DNA Technology and Molecular Toxicology
        • Elucidation of Interspecies and Interindividual Differences
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Molinate
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Developmental/Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant WebSites
      • Molybdenum
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Subchronic Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Monte Carlo Analysis
        • Abstract
        • A Brief History and Introduction of Uncertainty Analysis in Risk Assessment
        • Analyzing Uncertainty: Elements and a Simple Example
        • Relevance to Toxicology and Risk Assessment
        • Direction of the Field and Related Topics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Mouse Lymphoma Assay
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Multispecies Environmental Testing Designs
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Tiered Risk Assessment
        • Multispecies Bioassays
        • Model Ecosystem Studies
        • Ecological Modeling
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Musculoskeletal System
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Bone
        • Skeletal Muscle
        • Tendons
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mushrooms, Coprine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Chemical Structure
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Mushrooms, Cyclopeptide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mushrooms, Ibotenic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Route
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mushrooms, Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) - Generating
        • Abstract
        • Gyromitrin
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mushrooms, Muscarine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Route
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mushroom, Psilocybin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Myclobutanil
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity/Mutagenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Other Toxicity (Irritation and Sensitization)
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mycotoxins
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Additional Information
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • N
      • Nails (of the Fingers and Toes)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Incorporation of Drugs into the Nails
        • Applications of Nail Analysis
        • Toxicity and Complications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Naled
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nanotoxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Toxicity from Nanomaterials
        • Current Issues
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Naphthalene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Naphthylamine, 2-
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute or Short-term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Naphthylisothiocyanate
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • a-Naphthylthiourea
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Mutagenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • National Center for Environmental Health-ATSDR
        • Abstract
        • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
        • ATSDR Activities
        • The National Center for Environmental Health
        • NCEH Activities
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • National Center for Toxicological Research, US
        • Abstract
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • National Environmental Policy Act, USA
        • Abstract
        • Synopsis of Law
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
        • Abstract
        • Toll-Free Information Service
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
        • Abstract
        • Division of Intramural Research
        • The Division of Extramural Research and Training
        • The National Toxicology Program
        • Clinical Trials Program
        • Global Environmental Health
        • Miscellaneous Resources
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • National Institutes of Health
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Organization
        • NIH Grants
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • National Library of Medicine and Its Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Specific Factual Databanks
        • Chemical Dictionary
        • Toxic Releases
        • Bibliographic Databases
        • Health and Biomedicine Directory
        • Additional Specialized Resources
        • More
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • National Toxicology Program
        • Abstract
        • Mission and Organization
        • Oversight
        • Research and Testing Program
        • Study Data
        • Alternative Toxicological Methods
        • NTP Health Assessment Activities
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Natural Products
        • Abstract
        • Plant Sources
        • Marine Sources
        • Microbial Sources
        • Development
        • Venoms and Poisons
        • Well-Known Naturally Developed Drugs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • n-Butyl Alcohol
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nematicides
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Neon
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards or Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Neonicotinoids
        • Abstract
        • History of Neonicotinoid Development
        • Uses
        • Mechanism of Neonicotinoid Action
        • Neonicotinoid Toxicity to Nontarget Species
        • Neonicotinoid Stability
        • Metabolism
        • Toxicokinetics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nerve Agents
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (to Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Neurotoxicity
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Occurrence
        • Neurotoxic Effects
        • Principles of Nervous System Vulnerability
        • Vulnerability of Neurons and Their Processes
        • Neuroglia and Myelin
        • System Vulnerability
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Next Generation Sequencing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and History
        • NGS Platforms and Technologies
        • Utilities of NGS Technologies
        • Challenges of NGS Technologies
        • Conclusions and Future Prospects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Niacin
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity or Exposure
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nickel and Nickel Compounds
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nickel Chloride
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nicotine
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity data
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nithiazine
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nitrapyrin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitrate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management of Methemoglobinemia
        • Other Health Effects
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Nitric Oxide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitrite Inhalants
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nitrites
        • Abstract
        • Usage
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Standards and Guidelines for Exposure
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitrobenzene
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Nitrocellulose
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Environmental Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Subchronic Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitroethane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitrofuran, 2-
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Mechanism of Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Mutagenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitrofuran Carboxaldehyde
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Mechanism of Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitrofurfuryl Alcohol
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Use
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Mechanism of Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitro-2-Furoic Acid, 5-
        • Abstract
        • Use
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Environmental Degradation
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Mechanism of Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Mutagenicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitrofuroyl Chloride, 5-
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Use
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitrogen Dioxide (Formerly Nitrogen Oxides)
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Metabolism and Excretion
        • Absorption and Distribution
        • Cell Signaling
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Exposure Hazards and Safe Limits
        • Human
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Nitrogen Mustards
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Environmental Persistency (Degradation/Speciation)
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitrogen Tetraoxide
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitroglycerin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitromethane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitrophenol, 4-
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Metabolism
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitropropane, 2-
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitropyrene, 1-
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetic
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nitrosamines
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Structure
        • Uses
        • Background
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nitrous Oxide
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • N-Methylpyrrolidone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • N,N-Dimethylacetamide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathway
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dimethylnitrosamine
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate, Behavior, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • N-Nitrosopyrrolidine
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background and Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Human Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (to Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nonlethal Weapons
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Riot Control Agents
        • Medical Care
        • Calmatives
        • Incapacitating Agents
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Nonmammalian Models in Toxicology Screening
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Caenorhabditis elegans (Roundworm)
        • Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
        • Danio rerio (Zebrafish)
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Nonylphenol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Norbormide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant WebSites
      • Norethisterone (Norethindrone)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Notorious Poisoners and Poisoning Cases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Socrates (Greece, 420 BC)
        • The Borgia Family (Italy, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century)
        • The Affair of the Poisons (France, 1679)
        • Toffana (Italy, 1690)
        • Thomas Wainewright (England, 1830)
        • William Palmer (England, 1855)
        • Markov (London, 1977)
        • Tylenol Poisonings (Chicago, 1982)
        • Harold Shipman (England, 1970–90s)
        • Swango (United States and Africa, 1980–90s)
        • Yushchenko (Ukraine, 2004)
        • Litvinenko (England, 2006)
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nutmeg
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • O
      • Obesogens
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Types of Obesogens
        • Societal Implications
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Occupational Exposure Limits
        • Abstract
        • Other Types of OELs
        • Key Organizations for Setting OELs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Occupational Safety and Health Act, US
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Occupational Safety and Health Administration
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Occupational Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Use of Toxicological Data
        • Exposure Characteristics Affect Toxicity
        • Biotransformation as a Determinant of Sensitivity to Toxicity
        • Biomarkers
        • Regulation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Octachlorostyrene
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (To Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Octane
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • eChemPortal – The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Using eChemPortal
        • Chemical Substance Search
        • Chemical Property Search
        • Interaction with Data Sources
        • Participating Data Sources
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Oil, Crude
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lubricating Oils
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Behavior in Air, Soil, and Water
        • Environmental Persistency and Biodegradation
        • Probable Routes of Human Exposure
        • Routes and Pathways of Human Exposure
        • Main Pathways of Human Exposure
        • Monitoring Data
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Irritation and Sensitization
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Preventive Measures
        • Antidote and Emergency Treatment
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Oil Spills
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Oil Spill from Exxon Valdez
        • Deepwater Horizon (Gulf of Mexico)
        • Dispersant Used in Oil Spills
        • Toxicological Impacts
        • Postspill Research
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Okadaic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Oleander
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Omics and Related Recent Technologies
        • Abstract
        • The Paradigm Shift in Toxicology
        • Toxicogenomics
        • Proteomics
        • Metabolomics
        • High Content Imaging Technologies
        • High Content Imaging Technologies in Toxicology
        • High Throughput Toxicity Testing
        • Future Challenges
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • The OPCW
        • Abstract
        • Past Chemical Disarmament Efforts
        • Chemical Weapons Convention Negotiations
        • The Scope of the Convention
        • The OPCW
        • The Verification Regime
        • International Cooperation and Assistance
        • Current Implementation Status
        • The Future
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Opium and the Constituent Opiates
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human; Including Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Oral/Dermal Reference Dose (RfD)/Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Applicability and Use
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
        • Abstract
        • The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
        • The OECD Environment, Health, and Safety Program
        • New Methods for Generation of Safety Data: (Quantitative) Structure–Activity Relationships and Toxicogenomics
        • Information Sharing: Harmonized Reporting Templates and the eChemPortal
        • Support for Harmonized Global Classification and Labeling – the GHS
        • Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers
        • OECD Publishing
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Organochlorine Insecticides
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Mode of Action
        • Major Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Acute (Short-Term) Health Effects
        • Chronic (Long-Term) Health Effects
        • Exposure Standards/Limits
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Organophosphorus Compounds
        • Abstract
        • Name
        • Synonyms
        • Molecular Formula
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute Cholinergic Neurotoxicity
        • Intermediate Syndrome
        • OPIDN (Delayed Neurotoxicity)
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Organotin Compounds
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Sources of OTCs in the Environment
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Degradation
        • Bioaccumulation of OTCs
        • Human Exposure to Organotins
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Symptoms and Clinical Management of Organotin Poisoning
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Otto Fuel II
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicology
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Oxalates
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Oxidative Stress
        • Abstract
        • Cellular Events Leading to Oxidative Stress
        • Cellular Defenses against Oxidative Stress
        • Oxidative (Redox) Status as a Signaling Event
        • Endogenous and Therapeutic Antioxidants
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Oxydemeton-methyl
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Oxygen
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Exposure
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Oxymetholone
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ozone
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • P
      • Palladium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Paraldehyde
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Paraquat
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Parathion
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • PBT (Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic) Chemicals
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Environmental Fate
        • PBT Reporting under the US Toxics Release Inventory and the European REACH Program
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pendimethalin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior, Partition, Pathways, Degradation, and Bioaccumulation
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (To Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Penicillins
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Occurrence and Classifications
        • Uses
        • Toxicokinetics (Pharmacokinetics)
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity or Exposure
        • Chronic Toxicity or Exposure
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity/Mutagenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pentachlorobenzene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pentachloroethane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pentachloronitrobenzene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pentane
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pentobarbital Sodium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Peptide Coupling Agents
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Peracetic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Perchlorate
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance and History)
        • Uses
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Analytical Methods
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Perchloric Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Perfluoroisobutylene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Perfluorooctanoic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity, Genotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant websites
      • Periodic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Permethrin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Animal Model to Investigate PPAR a – the PPAR a-Null Mouse
        • Toxicity
        • Hepatocarcinogenicity of PPAR a Agonists – Potential Mechanisms
        • PPAR a-Induced Agonist Induction – Human Risk of Hepatocarcinogenicity
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Peroxisome Proliferators
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Peroxisome Proliferators
        • Function of PPs
        • Mechanism of PPs
        • PPs and Carcinogenesis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Persistent Organic Pollutants
        • Abstract
        • What Are Persistent Organic Pollutants?
        • Toxicity of POPs
        • A Global Concern
        • Stockholm Convention
        • Provisions of the Convention
        • Identification of POPs
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pesticides
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Petroleum Distillates
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Bioaccumulation and Environmental Persistency
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Absorption
        • Distribution and Accumulation
        • Metabolization
        • Elimination
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Inhalation
        • Oral Exposure
        • Dermal Exposure
        • Irritation and Sensitization
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Petroleum Ether
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Distribution to Major Organs
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Petroleum Hydrocarbons
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Peyote
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Pharmaceuticals Effects in the Environment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sources of PhACs Environmental Contamination
        • Environmental Fate
        • Environmental Concentrations
        • Ecotoxicological Effects
        • Comparison of Environmental Concentrations and Ecotoxicological Effect Concentrations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pharmacokinetics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pharmacokinetic Parameters
        • Repeat Exposures
        • Dose-Dependent Kinetics
        • Compartmental Models
        • Physiologically Based Models
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pharmacokinetic and Toxicokinetic Modeling
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Saturable versus Nonsaturable Kinetics
        • Compartmental Models
        • Physiologically Based Models
        • Repetitive Exposures
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Phenacetin
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Phenanthrene
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phencyclidine
        • Abstract
        • Background/Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phenol
        • Abstract
        • Background and Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Bioaccumulation and Biomagnifications
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Human Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phenol, 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)
        • Abstract
        • Disclaimer
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Animal Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Mutagenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Phenolphthalein
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Toxicity in Animal and Human
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phenothiazines
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phenothrin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phenylmercuric Acetate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phenylphenol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phenylpropanolamine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Phenytoin
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pheromones
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • What Are Pheromones?
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Environmental Persistence
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Human Exposure
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Toxicology
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Subchronic Toxicity (Including Combined Screening Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity)
        • Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phorbol Esters
        • Abstract
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phosgene
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phosgene Oxime
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action/Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Phosphate Ester Flame Retardants
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phosphine
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant WebSites
      • Phosphoric Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phosphorus
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Long-Term Toxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Photoallergens
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Background
        • Phototoxicity versus Photoallergenicity
        • Photoallergy versus Contact Allergy
        • Photoactivation of Molecules
        • Clinical Findings
        • Histopathologic Findings
        • Assessment of Photosensitization
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Photochemical Oxidants
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Short-Term Exposures to Smog
        • Chronic Exposures to Smog
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phthalates
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Evaluations
        • Exposure Pathways in Children
        • Partition Behavior in Water, Sediment, and Soil
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Environmental Persistence
        • Long-Range Transport
        • Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
        • Metabolism and Toxicokinetics of Phthalates
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Toxicity in Animals and Human
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Phthalic Anhydride
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Physical Hazards
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Airway Obstruction
        • Strangulation
        • Suffocation
        • Battery Ingestion
        • Magnet Ingestion
        • Carbon Dioxide Rebreathing
        • Thermal Burn Injury
        • Light Toxicity
        • Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Picloram
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant WebSites
      • Picric Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Piperazine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Piperonyl Butoxide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Chronic Exposure
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenecity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plants, Poisonous (Animals)
        • Background
        • Seeds of Prunus
        • Other Cyanogenic Plants
        • Castor Bean (Ricinus communis)
        • Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium)
        • Other Anticholinergic Solanaceae Plants
        • Monkshood (Aconitum napellus)
        • Other Cardiotoxic Related Plants
        • Oleander (Nerium oleander)
        • Other Cardioactive Plants
        • Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum)
        • Water Hemlock (Cicuta maculatum)
        • Common Potato (Solanum tuberosum)
        • Rhododendron (Ericaceae Family)
        • Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)
        • Other Poisonous Plants
        • Poisonous Ornamental Plants
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plants, Poisonous (Humans)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cardiovascular Toxins
        • Gastrointestinal Toxins
        • Anticholinergic Toxins
        • Convulsive Toxins
        • Calcium Oxalate Crystals
        • Nicotine and Nicotine-Like Alkaloids
        • Sodium Channel Activators
        • Cellular Respiration Toxins
        • Cell Cycle Toxins
        • Protein Synthesis and Cell Membrane Toxins
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Platinum
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Plutonium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines (120 n-236)
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Poisoning Emergencies in Humans
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Resuscitation/Initial Management
        • Diagnostic Approach
        • Treatment Approach
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • What Is a PRTR?
        • PRTR History
        • North America
        • Europe
        • Other Countries
        • PRTRs Under Development
        • PRTR.net
        • See also
        • Relevant Website
      • Pollution, Air in Encyclopedia of Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Types and Sources of Air Pollutants
        • Regulation of Air Pollution
        • Health Effects of Air Pollution
        • Particulate Matter
        • Future Directions and Control Strategies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pollution, Indoor Air
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sources of Indoor Air Contaminants
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pollution Prevention Act, United States
        • Abstract
        • Synopsis of Law
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Pollution, Soil
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Main Soil Pollution Sources
        • Assessment of Soil Pollution Effects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pollution, Water
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Chemical Pollution
        • Water Pollution Prevention and Control
        • Water Pollution Monitoring
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Environmental Fate
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Polycyclic Aromatic Amines
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Polyethylene Glycol
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Polymers
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Classification
        • Polymer Classes
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Potassium
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Potassium Hydroxyoctaoxodizincatedichromate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Potassium Iodide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Solubility
        • Partition Behavior in Water, Sediment, and Soil
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Further Exposure Guidelines
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Reproductive, Genetic, Immunotoxicity, and Developmental Toxicity
        • Mutagenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC)
        • Abstract
        • The Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) Concept
        • PNEC Assessment: The Use of Nontesting Methods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Primidone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Hazard Ranking
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Procainamide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Use
        • Exposure Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action and Toxicology
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Progesterone and Progestin Mimics
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Prometryn
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Propachlor
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Propane
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Propane Sultone
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Propanil
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Propargite
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Propazine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Propene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites (Industrial Use)
      • Propiconazole
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Propionic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Proposition 65, California
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • What Types of Chemicals Are on the Proposition 65 List?
        • How Is a Chemical Added to the List?
        • What Requirements Does Proposition 65 Place on Companies Doing Business in California?
        • What Does a Warning Mean?
        • Safe Harbor Numbers
        • Enforcement of Proposition 65
        • How Is Proposition 65 Meeting Its Goal of Reducing Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in California?
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Propoxur
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Propylene Glycol
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Propylene Oxide
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenesis
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Prostaglandins
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pseudoephedrine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Relevant Physicochemical Properties
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Psychological Indices of Toxicity
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Behavior’s Role in Contemporary Issues
        • Metals
        • Pesticides
        • Food Additives
        • Cancer Chemotherapy: ‘Chemobrain’
        • Chemical Sensitivity Syndromes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene; Teflon®)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Publishing Trends in Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Eras of Toxicology and Toxicological Publications
        • Challenges of the Electronic Age
        • A Snapshot of Present State and Problems (ICT 2010)
        • Use and Abuse of Impact Factors
        • Open Access in Toxicology
        • The Electronic Publishing Age: Looking Beyond Toxicology
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Puromycin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Further Reading
      • PUVA
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pyrene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Occupational Exposure Standards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pyrethrins/Pyrethroids
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pyridine
        • Abstract
        • Occurrence
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pyridostigmine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pyridoxine
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pyriminil
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute, Subchronic, and Chronic Toxicity
        • Dose Level
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • Q
      • QSAR
        • Abstract
        • QSAR
        • Structure–Activity Relationships
        • Basic Assumptions
        • Molecular Parameters of Interest
        • SAR Modeling Methods
        • Applications in Toxicology
        • Reproductive
        • Eye Irritation
        • Lethality
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • DEREK versus Leadscope
        • QSAR of Metabolism
        • Meteor
        • DEREK pros and cons
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • The QT Interval of the Electrocardiogram
        • Abstract
        • The Electrocardiogram
        • Ionic Basis of the Cardiac Action Potential
        • Clinical Importance of the QT Interval
        • The Cause of Acquired QT Prolongation
        • Nonclinical Testing for QT Prolongation
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Quinidine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Quinine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Treatment of Malaria
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Quinoline
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant WebSites
      • Quinone
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • R
      • Radiation Toxicology, Ionizing and Nonionizing
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation
        • Physical Characteristics of Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation
        • Physical Characteristics of Ionizing Particulate Radiation
        • Energy Loss by Electromagnetic and Particulate Ionizing Radiations
        • Dosimetric Quantities and Units
        • Sources of Ionizing Radiation Exposure
        • Radiobiological Effects of Low and High Radiation Doses
        • Genetic Effects
        • Early and Continuing Deterministic Effects
        • Late Somatic Effects
        • Estimation of Cancer Risk
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Radium
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Radon
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • REACH
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Background
        • Main Principles
        • Timelines
        • Benefits
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • REACH-IT
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Background
        • The System
        • The Usage
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Recalls, Drugs and Consumer Products
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Recall Definitions
        • Recall Classification
        • Recall Strategy
        • FDA Authority
        • Food Drug and Cosmetics Act
        • Misbranding
        • Adulteration
        • Biologics Recall
        • Safe Medical Device Act and FDA-Ordered Medical Device Recalls
        • Questions Posed about the Adequacy of the FDA Recall Process
        • FDA Online Listings for Product Recalls, Market Withdrawal, and Safety Alerts
        • Current Examples of Recalled FDA-Regulated Products
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Recommended Exposure Limits
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Redbook (Redbook 2000 : Toxicological Principles for the Safety of Food Ingredients)
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Current Progress
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Red Squill
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (To Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Red Tide
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • References
      • Regulation, Toxicology and
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Role of Toxicology in Regulations to Protect Human Health
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Reproductive System, Female
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Reproductive Epidemiology
        • Problems Associated with Female Reproductive Toxicology
        • Female Reproductive Development and Physiology
        • Female Reproductive Failure
        • Reproductive Toxicants
        • Summary and Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Reproductive System, Male
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
        • The Testis and Spermatogenesis
        • The Excurrent Ducts and Sperm Maturation
        • Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis
        • Approaches to Male Reproductive Toxicity Testing
        • Human Studies
        • Animal Studies
        • Innovative Strategies
        • Specific Targets of Toxic Action
        • Absorption, Distribution, and Metabolism of Reproductive Toxicants
        • Germ Cell Targets
        • Spermatogonia
        • Spermatocytes
        • Spermatids
        • Spermatozoa
        • Testicular (Non–Germ Cell) Targets
        • The Leydig Cell
        • The Sertoli Cell
        • The Epididymis as a Target Organ
        • Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Targets
        • Examples of Male Reproductive Toxicants
        • Dibromochloropropane (DBCP)
        • Benomyl
        • Finasteride
        • Assessing the Risks Associated with Reproductive Toxicants
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Research Institute for Fragrance Materials
        • Abstract
        • History and Organization
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Reserpine
        • Abstract
        • Background and Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Resistance to Toxicants
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (USA)
        • Abstract
        • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (USA)
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Respiratory Tract Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and Historical Perspective
        • Classification of Airborne Chemicals
        • Respiratory Tract Structure
        • Factors Influencing the Toxicity of Inhaled Chemicals
        • Methodological Approaches to Assess Respiratory System Response
        • Biomarkers of Response to Inhaled Chemicals
        • Risk Assessment of Airborne Chemicals
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rhodium
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Riboflavin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Ricin and Other Toxalbumins
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management of Poisoning
        • Other Hazards – Risk as a Biological Weapon
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Rifampin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Pathway
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Riot Control Agents
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (to Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • Relevant Ocular and Cutaneous Effects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Risk Assessment, Ecological
        • Abstract
        • Problem Formulation
        • Exposure Analysis
        • Effects Assessment
        • Risk Characterization
        • Uncertainty
        • Risk Communication and Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Risk Assessment, Human Health
        • Abstract
        • Risk Assessment Paradigm
        • Hazard Identification
        • Hazard Characterization
        • Exposure Assessment
        • Risk Characterization
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Risk Assessment, Uncertainty
        • Abstract
        • Uncertainty in Hazard Identification
        • Uncertainty in Hazard Characterization
        • Uncertainty in Exposure Assessment
        • Uncertainty in Risk Characterization
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Risk Characterization
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Overview
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Risk Communication
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Factors Affecting the Success of Risk Communication
        • Ongoing Research
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Risk Management
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Risk Management Options
        • Individual Risk Management
        • Company/Business Risk Management
        • Regulatory Risk Management
        • International Activities on Chemicals Risk Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Risk Management Measures (RMM)
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Risk Perception
        • Abstract
        • Determinants of Risk Perception
        • The Physiology and Psychology of Risk Perception
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rotenone
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • S
      • S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)-L-Cysteine
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Saccharin
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Background Information
        • Exposure Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Animal Toxicity
        • Human Toxicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • References
      • Safe Drinking Water Act
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • 1986 SDWA Amendments
        • 1996 SDWA Amendments
        • See also
        • Relevant Website
      • Safety Pharmacology
        • Abstract
        • Definition of Safety Pharmacology
        • Background
        • Types of Pharmacological Studies
        • Objectives of Safety Pharmacology Studies
        • Test Systems
        • Dose Levels or Concentrations of Test Substances and Metabolites
        • Safety Pharmacology Core Battery of Tests
        • Central Nervous System
        • Cardiovascular System
        • Respiratory System
        • Recent Advances
        • Follow-Up and Supplemental Safety Pharmacology Studies
        • Conditions under Which Studies Are Not Necessary
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Safety Testing, Clinical Studies
        • Abstract
        • Phase I
        • Phase II
        • Phase III
        • Phase IV
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Safrole
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Salicylates
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Salmonella
        • Abstract
        • General Description and Nomenclature
        • Sources of Exposure, Exposure Routes, and Transmission
        • Dose, Disease, and Diagnosis
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Contribution to Toxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sarin (GB)
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Saxitoxin
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Scombroid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Environmental Behavior and Fate
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Scorpions
        • Abstract
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Centruroides Species
        • Antivenom – Anascorp® (Centruroides (Scorpion) Immune F(ab’)2 (Equine))
        • Exotic Scorpion Species
        • Additional Information
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sedatives
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Selamectin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Selenium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sensitivity Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Sensitivity Analysis: Definition and Properties
        • Two Methods of SA
        • SA Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Sensory Organs
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Vision
        • Hearing
        • Smell
        • Taste
        • Difficulties in Studies on the Effect of Occupational Exposure to Chemicals on Sensory Organs
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Seveso Disaster and the European Seveso Directives
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Analysis
        • The Seveso Directive
        • The Seveso II Directive
        • The New Seveso Directive
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Shale Oil Toxicity
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Shellfish Poisoning, Paralytic
        • Abstract
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Shigella
        • Abstract
        • General Description and Nomenclature
        • Sources of Exposure, Exposure Routes, and Transmission
        • Dose, Disease, and Diagnosis
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sick Building Syndrome
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • People and Health
        • Indoor Environmental Factors
        • Mitigation Measures
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Silane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Repeated Exposure Studies
        • Reproductive Toxicity, Mutagenicity, and Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecological Effects
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Silent Spring
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Silent Spring
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Silica, Crystalline
        • Abstract
        • Uses and Occurrence in Nature
        • Background Information
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Nanosilica Toxicity and Applications
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Silicones
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Silver
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sister Chromatid Exchanges
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Site-Specific Environmental Risk Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Effluent Control and Site-Specific Risk Estimation
        • Industrial Facilities and Soil Pollution
        • Site-Specific Risk Assessment in Protected Areas
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Skin
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Skin Structure and Function
        • Percutaneous Absorption
        • Etiology of Skin Toxicity
        • Mechanisms and Methods for Assessing Skin Toxicity
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Snakes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Venomous Snakes
        • Snake Venom
        • Clinical Management
        • Further Reading
      • Social Media and Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Selected Medical Toxicology Social Media Links
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Society for Chemical Hazard Communication (SCHC)
        • Abstract
        • History
        • The Society
        • See also
        • Relevant Website
      • Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
        • Abstract
        • SETAC Initiatives
        • See also
        • Relevant Website
      • Society for Risk Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Vision Statement of the SRA
        • History
        • Bylaw
        • Membership
        • Meetings, Specialty Groups, Sections, and Chapters
        • Awards
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Society of Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Goals, Objectives, and Mission of Society of Toxicology
        • History and Organization
        • Membership
        • Specialty Sections
        • Regional Chapters
        • Special Interest Groups
        • Publications
        • Meetings
        • Career Resources
        • Professional Training and Public Education
        • Society of Toxicology Awards
        • Public Outreach/Communications
        • Related Societies
        • Contact Details
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sodium
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Sodium Dimethyldithiocarbamate
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sodium Fluoroacetate
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sodium Nitrite
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetic
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sodium Pentachlorophenate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Sodium Sulfite
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Soil Pollution Remediation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Considerations in Remediation Processes
        • Containment Technologies
        • Immobilization Technologies
        • Treatment Technologies
        • Other Treatment Technologies
        • Sustainable Issues
        • Biological Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated and Remediated Soils
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Solvents
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behaviors
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposures Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Soman
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Use
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Species Sensitivity Distributions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Origin of SSDs
        • Using SSDs in ERA
        • SSD Basic Features
        • SSD Specific Features
        • Current SSD Use
        • Use, Societal Impacts, Improvements, and Confirmation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Spiders
        • Abstract
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Serotonin Syndrome
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Staphylococcus aureus
        • Abstract
        • Sources of Exposure
        • Pathogenesis
        • Food Poisoning
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Diagnosis of Human Infection/Illness
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Statistics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Functions of Statistics
        • Data
        • Descriptive Statistics
        • Applying Statistics to Toxicology
        • Bias and Chance
        • Hypothesis Testing and Probability (p) Values
        • Multiple Comparisons
        • Estimating the Size of the Effect
        • Statistical Principles in Experimental Toxicology
        • Choice of Species and Strain
        • Statistics and Experimental Protocols in Toxicology
        • Experimental Design Types in Toxicology
        • New Approaches to the Use of Statistics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Stem Cells
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • What are Stem Cells?
        • Strategies for Using Stem Cells in Toxicology
        • The Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Test and Its Modifications
        • Strategies for Using hESC in Toxicology
        • Using iPSC in Toxicology
        • The Future of Using ESC Models in Toxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • St. John’s Wort
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Ecological Effects
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Stoddard Solvent
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal and Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genetic Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM)
        • Abstract
        • Introducing SAICM
        • Key Characteristics of SAICM
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Streptozotocin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Strontium
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Strychnine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Styrene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sulfates
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity Including Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Sulfites
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sulfur Dioxide
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sulfuric Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standard and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sulfur Mustard
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Clinical Manifestations
        • Delayed Toxic Effects
        • Complications
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sulfuryl Fluoride (Vikane)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Occurrence
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity or Exposure
        • Chronic Toxicity or Exposure
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Surfactants, Anionic and Nonionic
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Other Hazards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Surfactants, Perfluorinated
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Carcinogenicity
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Environmental Fate
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sustainability
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition of Sustainability
        • Sustainable Development
        • Sustainability Assessment
        • Sustainability Assessment Methods
        • Systems Approach to Sustainability Assessment
        • Illustration: Sustainability Assessment of a Community Energy System
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Synthetic Vitreous Fibers
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Development Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines (Table 2)
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Systems Biology Application in Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Systems Biology in Toxicology
        • Components of Systems Biology
        • Systems Toxicology of Benzene: A Case Study
        • Conclusion
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • T
      • T, 2,4,5-
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tabun
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tacrine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Pharmacokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Talc
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tamoxifen
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tannic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • TCDD (2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin)
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tellurium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Terbutaline
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
      • Terrestrial Microcosms and Multispecies Soil Systems
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Intact Soil-Core Microcosms and Terrestrial Model Ecosystems
        • Sieved Soil Microcosms and Multispecies Soil Systems
        • Selection of Test Design
        • Test Systems Reproducing Agricultural Conditions
        • Use of Terrestrial Microcosms in Risk Assessment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tetrabromobisphenol A
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Tetrachloroethane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity ND
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Tetrachloroethylene
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tetrachlorvinphos
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tetrahydrofuran
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
      • Tetranitromethane
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity/Mutagenicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tetrodotoxin
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Texas City Disaster
        • Abstract
        • Incident Narrative
        • Ammonium Nitrate Characteristics
        • Toxicity and Combustion Products
        • Current Health and Safety Measures
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • TGN1412
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Development of TGN1412
        • Uses
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Thalidomide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Thallium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Theophylline
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thiabendazole
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity or Exposure
        • Chronic Toxicity or Exposure
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Thiamine
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thiazide Diuretics
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Thimerosal
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Thioacetamide
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Thiotepa
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (ChemIDplus)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Thioxanthenes
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Side Effects and Contraindications
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Thiram
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Thorium and Thorium Dioxide
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Three Mile Island
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Emergency Response
        • Human Exposure to Radiation
        • Public Response
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC)
        • Abstract
        • What Is the TTC Approach?
        • Development of Human Exposure Threshold Values: Endpoint of Cancer
        • Development of Human Exposure Threshold Values: Noncancer Endpoints
        • Exclusion of Certain Groups of Substances from the TTC Approach
        • Evaluation of Endpoints of Specific Concern
        • TTC Decision Tree
        • Where Is the TTC Approach Being Used?
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Thyroid Preparations
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Exposure Limits
        • Use in Pregnancy
        • Use while Breastfeeding
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Times Beach
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tissue Repair
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Features of Tissue Repair
        • Factors Affecting Tissue Repair Following Toxic Injury
        • Tissue Repair in Specific Organs
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Titanium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Titanium Tetrachloride
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tobacco
        • Abstract
        • The Tobacco Plant
        • Processed Tobacco: Smokeless Tobacco Products
        • Processed Tobacco: Combusted Tobacco Products
        • Nicotine Dependence
        • Public Health Aspects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Toluene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toluene Diisocyanate
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toluidines
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxaphene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • 'Toxic' and 'Nontoxic': Confirming Critical Terminology Concepts and Context for Clear Communication
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Some Example Toxicology Concepts and Context
        • A Framework and Process for Managing the Communication Challenge
        • Pursuing a Risk-Management Frame-of-Mind Determined to Make Robust Decisions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicity, Acute
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Alternative Toxicological Test Methods
        • Irritation Methods
        • Skin Methods
        • Eye Corrosion/Irritation Methods
        • Skin-Sensitization Methods
        • Hazard Classification and Labeling of Chemicals Based on Acute Toxicities
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Toxicity, Subchronic and Chronic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Toxicity-Testing Relationship with United States Legislation and Regulatory Agencies
        • Parameters for Evaluation
        • The Evolution of Chronic Toxicity Testing
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Toxicity Testing, Alternatives
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicity Testing, Aquatic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Purpose of Testing
        • Types of Aquatic Testing
        • Important Elements of Toxicity Testing Performed for Regulatory Purposes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicity Testing, Behavioral
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Screening Batteries (Motor Activity and Functional Observation Battery)
        • Motor Function Testing
        • Sensory Function Testing
        • Learning and Memory Testing
        • Testing Using Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement
        • Social Behavior Testing
        • Behavioral Teratology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicity Testing, Carcinogenesis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Bioassay Design
        • Bioassay Interpretation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicity Testing, Dermal
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • In Vivo Evaluation of Dermal Irritation and Corrosion
        • In Vitro Alternatives
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicity Testing, Developmental
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Factors Affecting the Vulnerability of the Conceptus
        • Categories of Teratogenic Agents
        • Government Regulation
        • Considerations for Segment II Studies
        • Standard Segment II Testing Protocol
        • Statistical Analyses of Maternal and Developmental Toxicity Data
        • Risk Assessment
        • Standard Segment III Testing Protocol
        • Developmental Neurotoxicity Test
        • Male-Mediated Developmental Toxicity
        • Developmental Toxicity Screening Protocols
        • Mechanisms
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Toxicity Testing, Inhalation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Inhalation Exposure Patterns
        • Test Atmosphere Generation
        • Test System Exposure Chambers
        • Cleanup Methods
        • Study Guidelines
        • Acute Studies
        • Procedures for Acute Tests
        • Subchronic Studies
        • Chronic Studies
        • Dose Quantitation and Effects
        • Additional Methods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Approaches to Implementation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • From Alternative Methods to a New Regulatory Toxicology
        • Implementing the Vision of Toxicology for the Twenty-First Century
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicity Testing, Mutagenicity
        • Abstract
        • Genetic Toxicology Testing Battery
        • Additional Genetic Toxicology Assays
        • Factors to Consider in the Conduct of Assays
        • Interpretation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicity Testing, ‘Read Across Analysis’
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicity Testing, Reproductive
        • Abstract
        • Male and Female Reproductive Systems
        • Fertilization and Offspring Development
        • Considerations for Reproductive Toxicity Evaluations
        • Categories of Reproductive Toxicants
        • Governmental Regulations
        • Statistical Analyses
        • Risk Assessment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Toxicity Testing, Sensitization
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Experimental Design
        • Alternatives to Guinea Pig Tests
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Toxicity Testing, Standards and Guidelines
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • The Types of Organizations Involved in Setting Toxicology Standards and Those Setting Guidelines
        • How a Standard Is Developed
        • How a Guideline Is Developed
        • Types of Testing Standards and Guidelines
        • The Future of Standard and Guideline Development
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicity Testing, Validation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Definition of Validation
        • Reliability
        • Relevance
        • Confirming Alternative Method Reliability in a Validation Study
        • Management Structure
        • Participating Laboratories
        • Establishment of Common Protocols and Standard Operating Procedures
        • Test Material Selection, Coding, and Distribution
        • Data Collection and Analysis
        • Good Laboratory Practice
        • Chemical Classes Included in the RSTS
        • Distribution of Toxicity in the RSTS
        • Number of Test Substances in the RSTS
        • Definitions (Figure 5)
        • Intraexperiment Variability (Figure 5)
        • Intralaboratory Variability (Figure 5)
        • Interlaboratory Variability (Figure 5)
        • Number of Participating Laboratories
        • Assessing Alternative Method Relevance
        • Assess the Performance of the In vivo Test that Will Be Replaced
        • Assessing Supplemental Data Available for Use in Conjunction with the Alternative Method during a Safety Assessment
        • Discussion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Definition and Scope
        • Evolution of Toxicology as a Science
        • Information Required to Evaluate Toxicity
        • Areas and Applications
        • Nanotoxicology (Emergent Branch in Toxicology)
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicology, Education and Careers
        • Abstract
        • Toxicology and Education
        • Why Consider a Career in Toxicology?
        • What Do Toxicologists Do?
        • Who Employs Toxicologists?
        • Preparing for a Career in Toxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Risk Assessments
        • Building Partnerships
        • Risk Assessment Databases
        • Research into Risk Assessment Methods
        • Engaging Experts in Risk Assessment Development and Review
        • Technical Assistance
        • Training
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicology Forum
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Relevant Website
      • Toxicology, The History of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Origin of Knowledge
        • The Discovery and Early Study of Venoms and Poisons
        • The Classical System
        • Tradition and Innovation
        • Toxicology in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
        • Food and Drug Regulation in the United States
        • The University of Chicago, the FDA, and Chemical Warfare Agents
        • A Brief History of Food and Drug Regulation in the United Kingdom
        • Environmental Contamination, Mass Chemical Poisonings, and the EPA
        • Criminal Poisoning
        • Toxicology: Past, Present, and Future
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • How Toxicology Impacts Other Sciences
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Impact of Toxicology on General Medicine
        • Dentistry
        • Impact of Toxicology on Forensic Sciences
        • Impact of Toxicology on Chemistry
        • Impact of Toxicology on Environmental Sciences
        • Impact of Toxicology on Chemical Technology
        • Impact of Toxicology on Agriculture
        • Impact of Toxicology on Biotechnology
        • Impact of Toxicology on Biogeochemistry and Biomonitoring
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicology in the Arts, Culture, and Imagination
        • Abstract
        • Literature, Poetry, Drama, and Legend
        • Visual Arts
        • Video and Cartoons
        • Music
        • More Cultural Miscellany
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicology in the US Department of Defense (DoD)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • DoD Recognition of the Importance of Research
        • Trends in Federal Funding for the Physical and Life Sciences
        • Additional Efforts in DoD Toxicology – Forensic Toxicology
        • Additional Efforts in DoD Toxicology – Toxicology Methods Development
        • The Richness of Toxicology Opportunities within the DoD
        • Final Summary
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Toxic Substances Control Act
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Overview of the TSCA
        • Existing Chemicals
        • Negative Certification
        • Positive Certification
        • No Certification
        • New Chemicals
        • Sustainable Futures as a TSCA-Related Voluntary Pilot Project
        • Safe Chemicals Act
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxic Torts
        • Abstract
        • Definitions and Scope
        • Legal Issues Arising in Toxic Torts
        • Factual Causation
        • Theories of Liability
        • The Use of Toxicology as Proof of Causation
        • Epidemiology in the Courts on Causation
        • Differential Diagnosis and Specific Causation
        • ‘Weight of the Evidence’
        • Defenses
        • Special Issues in Toxic Tort Litigation
        • Damages
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Toy Safety and Hazards
        • Abstract
        • Toy Safety and Hazards
        • Toy Safety Standards
        • Toxicological Hazards
        • Physical Hazards
        • Case Studies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Trade Associations
        • Abstract
        • American Botanical Council
        • American Chemistry Council
        • American Crop Protection Association (CropLife America)
        • Biotechnology Industry Organization
        • Chlorine Chemistry Council
        • Halogenated Solvents Industry Alliance, Inc.
        • International Copper Association, Ltd.
        • International Council of Chemical Associations
        • Nickel Institute
        • Nuclear Energy Institute
        • National Petrochemical & Refiners Association
        • Personal Care Products Council
        • Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America
        • Soap and Detergent Association
        • Society of the Plastics Industry
        • The Society of Chemical Manufacturers and Affiliates, Inc.
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • trans-Fatty Acids
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Kinetics of trans-Fatty Acids
        • Health Implications
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Carcinogenesis
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Transgenic Animals
        • Abstract
        • Creating a Knockout Animal
        • Applications in Toxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Translational Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Triadimefon
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Triazines
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute, Subchronic, and Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Neurotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Effects
        • Endocrine Effects
        • Genotoxic Effects
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Trichlorfon
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Trichlorobenzenes
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Trichloroethane
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Trichloroethylene
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • In Vitro Toxicity Data
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Trichloropropane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Environmental Persistency
        • Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Triclopyr Triethylamine Salt
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior, Partition, Pathways, Persistency, Degradation, and Bioaccumulation
        • Air
        • Water
        • Soil
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Environmental Exposure or Monitoring Data in the Air, Water, Sediment, Soil, and Biota
        • Biota
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human) (To Include Irritation and Corrosivity)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Tricyclic Antidepressants
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Trifluralin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Trihalomethanes
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Trimethylbenzenes
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute, Short-Term, and Subchronic Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Trinitrotoluene
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Tungsten
        • Abstract
        • Background Information
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicology
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Turpentine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Metabolism and Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • U
      • Uncertainty Analysis
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Uncertainty Factors
        • Abstract
        • Interhuman Variability
        • Animal to Human
        • Less-than-Chronic to Chronic Studies
        • Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level to No Observed Adverse Effect Level
        • Incomplete Data
        • Proposal of an UF Application for Deriving TDI
        • Data-Derived or Compound-Specific Adjustment Factors
        • Climate Change – An UF in Risk Analysis of Contaminated Land
        • An Assessment of the Impact of Physicochemical and Biochemical Characteristics on the Human Kinetic Adjustment Factor for Systemic Toxicants
        • Epidemiology-Based Risk Assessment
        • BMD Methodology
        • Use of UF in Human Risk Assessment
        • An Alternative to the NOAEL/LOAEL Approach
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • UNEP Chemicals
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Organization
        • The Role of Stakeholders
        • The Origins of UNEP Chemicals: The IRPTC
        • The IRPTC Databank
        • From Databank to UNEP Chemicals
        • Development of Multilateral Environmental Agreements
        • Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management
        • Environmental Governance
        • UNEP Chemicals Support to Regional and National Activities
        • The Role of the Millennium Development Goals
        • UNEP Chemicals and Other Players in Chemicals Management
        • Earth Summit 2012
        • Main Challenges to UNEP and UNEP Chemicals
        • Full Focus on the 2020 Goal
        • See also
        • Further reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)
        • Abstract
        • Standards
        • Dietary Supplement Verification Program
        • Health Care Information
        • Patient Safety
        • Collaborative Ventures
        • Contact Details
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Uranium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Urea
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant websites
      • Urethane
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • US Chemical Safety Board
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Relevant Website
      • Ultraviolet A
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sources of Exposure
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Effects
        • Benefits of UV Exposure
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ultraviolet B
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sources of Exposure
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Effects
        • Benefits of UV Exposure
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • V
      • Vaccines
        • Abstract
        • History of Vaccination
        • Acquired Immunity
        • Types of Vaccines
        • Vaccine Additives
        • Vaccination Scheduling
        • Aging and Vaccination
        • Vaccine Development
        • Vaccine Economy
        • Vaccination Goals
        • Vaccine Controversy
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Valley of the Drums
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Valproic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Acute Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Vanadium
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Vanillin
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Veterinary Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Species Differences
        • Common Toxicoses in Food-Producing Animals
        • Common Toxicoses of Poultry and Wild birds
        • Common Toxicoses in Dogs and Cats
        • Emerging Toxicants
        • Common Toxicoses in Horses
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Vinyl Acetate
        • Abstract
        • Background and Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic and Long-Term Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Vinyl Bromide
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Environmental Fate
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vinyl Chloride
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Profile
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental, Behavior, Fate, Routes, and Pathways
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Vinyl Fluoride
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Behavior, Fate, and Pathways
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Vinylidene Chloride (VDC)
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Environmental Transport and Distribution
        • Human Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Toxicity
        • Regulation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Virtual Models (vM)
        • Abstract
        • Virtual Models in Physiology and Pharmacology
        • Examples of Commercial Models in Biopharma
        • Software Tools
        • Virtual Models in Toxicology and Risk Assessment
        • Models Capable of Predicting Toxicokinetics
        • Models Capable of Predicting Toxicity
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Virtually Safe Dose
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamin A
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamin D
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Vitamin E
        • Abstract
        • Uses
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Acute Exposure)
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Volatile Organic Compounds
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Contamination and Exposure
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Toxicity
        • Solvent Abuse
        • Factors Affecting Toxicity of VOCs
        • Risk Assessment
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • V-Series Nerve Agents: Other than VX
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Use
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • VX
        • Abstract
        • Background (Significance/History)
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanisms of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • W
      • Wood Dusts
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Human Exposures
        • Exposure Measurements
        • Toxicity
        • Asthma
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity of Wood Dusts
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS)
        • Abstract
        • Collaborative Structure between WHO/IPCS and Other Organizations
        • Roles and Activity Areas of the WHO/IPCS
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • X
      • Xylene
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Chronic Toxicity (Animal/Human)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Xyrem
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity
        • Chronic Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
    • Y
      • Yohimbine
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure Routes and Pathways
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute or Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • Z
      • Zinc
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Uses
        • Environmental Fate and Behavior
        • Exposure and Exposure Monitoring
        • Toxicokinetics
        • Mechanism of Toxicity
        • Acute and Short-Term Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Chronic Toxicity (or Exposure)
        • Immunotoxicity
        • Reproductive Toxicity
        • Genotoxicity
        • Carcinogenicity
        • Clinical Management
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Other Hazards
        • Exposure Standards and Guidelines
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
  • Appendices
    • Appendix. Public Domain Online Chemical Compendia – A Brief Selection
    • Annex 1. Abbreviations and Acronyms Used in Toxicology Literature
    • Annex 2. Abbreviations and Acronyms of Names of International Bodies and Legislation
      • Further Reading
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • Author Index

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