Applied Welding Engineering

Applied Welding Engineering, 2nd Edition

Processes, Codes, and Standards

Applied Welding Engineering, 2nd Edition,Ramesh Singh,ISBN9780128041765
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Singh offers instruction to be utilized in every phase of pipeline construction, from planning and design to construction and inspection, making it of value to both the welding engineering and the pipeline engineer.

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Key Features

  • Rules for developing efficient welding designs and fabrication procedures
  • Expert advice for complying with international codes and standards from the American Welding Society, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and The Welding Institute(UK)
  • Practical in-depth instruction for the selection of the materials incorporated in the joint, joint inspection, and the quality control for the final product


A practical and in-depth guide to materials selection, welding techniques, and procedures, Applied Welding Engineering: Processes, Codes and Standards, provides expert advice for complying with international codes as well as working them into "day to day" design, construction and inspection activities.

New content in this edition covers the standards and codes of the Canadian Welding Society, and the DNV standards in addition to updates to existing coverage of the American Welding Society, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The Welding Institute (UK).

The book’s four part treatment starts with a clear and rigorous exposition of the science of metallurgy including but not limited to: Alloys, Physical Metallurgy, Structure of Materials, Non-Ferrous Materials, Mechanical Properties and Testing of Metals and Heal Treatment of Steels. This is followed by applications: Welding Metallurgy & Welding Processes, Nondestructive Testing, and Codes and Standards.

Case studies are included in the book to provide a bridge between theory and the real world of welding engineering. Other topics addressed include: Mechanical Properties and Testing of Metals, Heat Treatment of Steels, Effect of Heat on Material During Welding, Stresses, Shrinkage and Distortion in Welding, Welding, Corrosion Resistant Alloys-Stainless Steel, Welding Defects and Inspection, Codes, Specifications and Standards.


Pipeline Engineers, Pipeline Operators, Pipeline Construction Contractors, and Pipeline Designers

Ramesh Singh

Ramesh Singh, MS, IEng, MWeldI, is registered as Incorporated Engineer with British Engineering Council UK and a Member of The Welding Institute, UK. He is a Senior Principal Engineer (Materials, Welding and Corrosion) for Gulf Interstate Engineering, Houston, TX. Ramesh Singh is a graduate from Indian Air force Technical Academy, with diplomas in Structural Fabrication Engineering and Welding Technology. He has been member and officer of Canadian Standard Association and NACE and served on several technical committees. He has worked in industries spanning over aeronautical, alloy steel castings, fabrication, machining, welding engineering, petrochemical, and oil and gas. He has written several technical papers and published articles in leading industry magazines, addressing the practical aspects of welding, construction and corrosion issues relating to structures, equipments and pipeline.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Principal Engineer (Materials, Welding and Corrosion) for Gulf Interstate Engineering and Consultant, on management of welding, materials, and corrosion, Nadoi Management, Inc.

View additional works by Ramesh Singh

Applied Welding Engineering, 2nd Edition

  • Dedication
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Acknowledgement
  • Section 1. Introduction to Basic Metallurgy
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
      • Pure Metals and Alloys
      • Smelting
      • Iron
    • Chapter 2. Alloys
      • Effects of Alloying Elements
      • The Effect of Alloying Elements on Ferrite
      • Effects of Alloying Elements on Carbide
    • Chapter 3. Physical Metallurgy
      • Crystal Lattices
      • Crystal Structure Nomenclature
      • Solidification
      • Constitutional Supercooling
      • Elementary Theory of Nucleation
      • Allotropy
      • Crystal Imperfections
      • Grain Size
      • Low-Temperature Ductility and Notch Toughness of Steel
    • Chapter 4. Structure of Materials
      • Phase Diagrams
      • Different Types of Phase Diagrams
      • Iron–Iron Carbide Phase Diagram
      • Explanation of Iron–Carbon Phase Diagram
      • Rationale for Letter Designations in Iron–Iron Carbide Phase Diagram
    • Chapter 5. Production of Steel
      • Electric Arc Furnace Process
      • Deoxidation Equilibria
      • Practical Case Emphasizing the Importance of Deoxidation of Steel for Critical Welding Applications
      • Iron–Iron Carbide Phase Diagram
    • Chapter 6. Classification of Steels
      • Carbon Steels
      • Low-Carbon Steels
      • Medium-Carbon Steels
      • High-Carbon Steels
      • Ultrahigh-Carbon Steels
      • High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels
      • Classification of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels
      • Low-Alloy Steels
      • AISI Series
      • Material Classification Through the Processing Methods
      • Recrystallization Rolling
      • Dynamic Recrystallization Controlled Rolling
    • Chapter 7. Cast Iron
      • Types of Cast Iron
      • White Cast Iron
      • Malleable Cast Iron
      • Ferritic Malleable Iron
      • Pearlite Malleable Cast Iron
      • Martensitic Malleable Iron
      • Gray Cast Iron
      • Castability of Gray Cast Iron
      • Chilled Cast Iron
      • Nodular (Spheroidal Graphite) Cast Iron
      • Castability, Solidification, and Shrinkage
      • Alloy Cast Irons
      • Corrosion, Wear, Abrasion, and Heat Resistance of Alloy Cast Irons
      • Classification of Special High-Alloy Cast Irons
      • Steel Castings
      • ASTM A 781/A 781M: Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements for General Industrial Use
      • ASTM A 703/A 703M: Steel Castings, General Requirements for Pressure-Containing Parts
      • ASTM A 957: Investment Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements for General Industrial Use
      • ASTM A 985: Steel Investment Castings—General Requirements for Pressure-Containing Parts
    • Chapter 8. Stainless Steels
      • Stainless Steel Production
      • Fabrication of Stainless Steel
      • Welding and Joining
      • Types of Stainless Steels
      • Classification of Stainless Steel
      • Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steel
      • Ferritic Stainless Steels
      • Pitting Resistance Equivalent
      • Austenitic Stainless Steels
      • Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel
      • Duplex Stainless Steels
      • Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels
    • Chapter 9. Nonferrous Materials
      • Copper and Copper Alloys
      • Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
      • Physical Metallurgy of Aluminum
      • Effect of Alloying Elements on Aluminum
      • Age-Hardenable Alloys
      • Nickel and Nickel Alloys
      • Titanium and Titanium Alloys
    • Chapter 10. Working with Metals
      • Elastic Limit
      • Plastic Deformation
      • Fracture
      • Polycrystalline Material
      • Cold Working
      • Stored Energy
      • Restoring the Lattice Structure of Metal After Cold Work: Annealing
      • Grain Growth
      • Hot Working
    • Chapter 11. Mechanical Properties and Testing of Metals
      • Strength of Materials
      • Elastic and Plastic Behavior
      • Ductile versus Brittle Behavior
      • Failure
      • Fracture
      • Fracture Control
      • Crack Growth and Fracture
      • Testing of Metals
    • Chapter 12. Heat Treatment of Steels
      • Time Temperature Transformation and Continuous Cooling Curves
      • Cooling Curves
      • Cooling-Transformation Diagrams
      • Stress Relief Annealing
      • Normalizing
      • Annealing
      • Spheroidizing
      • Tempering
      • Austempring of Steels
      • Martempring
      • Hardening
      • Case Hardening and Carburizing
      • Process of Quenching
      • Heat Treatment of Nonferrous Material
      • Heat-Treating Furnaces
      • Liquid Heating Bath
  • Section 2. Welding Metallurgy and Welding Processes
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
      • Welding Procedures
    • Chapter 2. Physics of Welding
      • Heat
      • Heat in Arc Welding Processes
      • Heat in Plasma Arc Cutting and Welding
      • Heat in Resistance Welding
      • Heat in Electroslag Welding
      • Heat in Welding Process Using Chemical Sources
      • Heat Generated by Mechanical Processes
      • Heat by Focused Sources
      • Laser Beam Welding
      • Electron Beam Welding
      • Other Sources of Heat in Welding
      • Application of the Principles of Welding Physics
    • Chapter 3. Welding and Joining Processes
      • Shielded Metal Arc Welding
      • How the Process Works
      • Covered Electrodes Used in the Shielded Metal Arc Welding process
      • Joint Design and Preparation
      • Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
      • Electrodes
      • Gas Metal Arc Welding
      • Process Description
      • Electrode Selection
      • Joint Design
      • Gas Metal Arc Welding: Newer Variants
      • The Pulse Arc Systems
      • Flux Cored Arc Welding
      • Submerged Arc Welding
      • Materials
      • Other Common Joining and Welding Processes
      • Arc Welding Power Sources
      • Development of Square Wave Alternating Current Power Sources
    • Chapter 4. Physical Effect of Heat on Material During Welding
      • The Molten Metal
      • The Welded Plate
      • Influence of Cooling Rate
    • Chapter 5. Stresses, Shrinkage, and Distortion in Weldments
      • Stresses in Weldments
      • Development of Stresses
      • Distribution of Stress in a Simple Weld
      • Residual Stresses
      • Shrinkages
      • Distortion in Weldments
      • Corrective Measures
      • Thermal Straightening
      • Designing Weld Joints
      • Welding of Carbon Steel and Low Alloys
      • Developing a Welding Procedure or a Welding Strategy for Carbon Steel
      • Welding Challenges Associated with a Reducing Environment
      • Welding and Fabrication of Low-Alloy Steels
      • Fabrication and Weldability of HSLA steel
      • Fabrication and Weldability of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel
    • Chapter 6. Welding Corrosion-Resistant Alloys: Stainless Steel
      • Corrosion-Resistant Alloys
      • Stainless Steel
      • Welding Stainless Steel: General Welding Characteristics
      • Welding Processes
      • Protection Against Oxidation
      • Welding Hygiene: Importance of Cleaning Before and After Welding
      • Filler Metals
      • Austenitic Stainless Steels
      • Superaustenitic Stainless Steels
      • Martensitic Stainless Steels
      • Ferritic Stainless Steels
      • Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
      • Duplex Stainless Steels
      • Welding and Fabrication
    • Chapter 7. Welding Nonferrous Metals and Alloys
      • Aluminium and Alloys
      • Confusing Things About Aluminum
      • Weld Hygiene
      • Preheating
      • Welding Aluminum with Shield Metal Arc Welding Process
      • Welding Aluminum with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process
      • Welding Aluminum with Gas Metal Arc Welding Process
      • Welding Technique
      • Shielding Gas
      • Welding Wire
      • Friction Stir Welding
      • Nickel Alloys
      • Titanium Alloys
    • Chapter 8. Weld Defects and Inspection
      • Weld Quality
      • Classification of Weld Joint Discontinuities
      • Typical Weld Defects
      • Base Metal Discontinuities
      • Designing Weld Joints
      • Welding and Quality Assurance
  • Section 3. Nondestructive Testing
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • Chapter 2. Visual Inspection
      • Advantages of Visual Inspection
    • Chapter 3. Radiography
      • Source of Radiation
      • X-Ray
      • Film
      • Radiographic Exposure Techniques
    • Chapter 4. Magnetic Particle Testing
      • Principles of Magnetic Particle Testing
      • Calculating Magnetizing Current
      • Type of Magnetizing Current
      • Drying After Preparation
      • Application of the Current
      • Alternating Current
      • Direct Current
      • Continuous or Residual Application of Current
    • Chapter 5. Penetrant Testing
      • General Procedure
      • Techniques
      • Interpretation
      • Evaluation
    • Chapter 6. Ultrasonic Testing
      • An Introduction to the World of Sound
      • Theory of Sound Wave and Propagation
      • Theory of Sound
      • Piezoelectricity
      • Sound Beam Reflection
      • Sound Beam Frequencies
      • Sound Beam Velocities
      • Snell’s Law of Reflection and Refraction
      • Understanding the Variables Associated with Ultrasonic Testing
      • Selection of Test Equipment
      • Testing Procedure
      • Atomization of Ultrasonic Testing Systems
      • The Recording System
      • Mapping (Time of Flight Diffraction)
    • Chapter 7. Eddy Current Testing
      • Method
      • Advantages and Disadvantages of the Eddy Current Inspection System
    • Chapter 8. Acoustic Emission Testing
      • Ongoing Developments in the Acoustic Emission Testing Field
      • Future of Acoustic Emission Testing
    • Chapter 9. Ferrite Testing
      • Effect of Ferrite in Austenitic Welds
    • Chapter 10. Pressure Testing
      • Purpose
      • Method
      • Test Medium
      • Sensitivity of the Test
      • Proof Testing
      • Practical Application of Hydrostatic Testing
      • Critical Flaw Size
  • Section 4. Codes and Standards
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • Chapter 2. Codes, Specifications, and Standards
      • American Society of Mechanical Engineers
      • The National Board
      • American Petroleum Institute
      • American Society for Testing Materials
      • Det Norske Veritas
      • Canadian Standards Association
      • Welding-Related Specifications from European Norm and the International Standards Organization
  • Index
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